List of Australian prisons

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For more details on prisons in other countries, see list of prisons.

The list of Australian prisons is a list of operational and former Australian prisons for adult males and females and juveniles. Prisons listed as "museum" are former prisons that are now open for public inspection and tours.

Throughout the European history of Australia, particularly since its formation as a penal colony, Australia has had many establishments for rehabilitation and incarceration. Altogether, there have been more than 180+ rehabilitation centres, youth correctional centres and prisons in Australia.

Australian Capital Territory[edit]

Belconnen Remand Centre

A new prison was opened in 11 September 2008 at Symonston, called the Alexander Maconochie Centre, named after Alexander Maconochie. The centre is designed as a multi role facility to replace the Belconnen Remand Centre and provide detention facilities so that prisoners who are currently held in New South Wales facilities may be held locally.

Prisons in the Australian Capital Territory
PrisonStatusClassificationManagedOpenedClosedCapacityLocation
Alexander Maconochie Centre[1]OperationalMinimum to maximumACT Corrective Services11 September 2008No300Hume
Belconnen Remand CentreClosedMaximumACT Corrective Services198630 April 2009?Belconnen
Bimberi Youth Justice CentreOperationalACT Department of Disability, Housing and Community Services3 September 2008No40Mitchell
Periodic Detention Centre[2]OperationalMinimumACT Corrective Services1962No49Symonston
Symonston Temporary Remand CentreOperationalACT Corrective Services ?Closed?Symonston
Total capacity389(current)

New South Wales[edit]

Main entrance of Goulburn Correctional Centre, with buildings designed by the Colonial Architect, James Barnet in 1884
Riverina Juvenile Justice Centre in Wagga Wagga.

The following list of operational and closed correctional facilities has been sourced from the Corrective Services NSW and from the State Records archives.[3][4]

Prisons in New South Wales
PrisonStatusClassificationManagedOpenedClosedCapacityLocation
Acmena Juvenile Justice CentreOperational ?Juvenile Justice NSW1998 ? ?Grafton
Albury GaolClosed ?n/a14 August 18744 June 1943 ?Albury
Armidale GaolClosed ?n/a14 August 187425 June 1920 ?Armidale
Balranald GaolClosed ?n/a25 August 18871 August 1932 ?Balranald
Bathurst Correctional CentreOperationalMinimum to maximumCorrective Services NSW14 August 1874n/a222Bathurst
Bega GaolClosed ?n/a14 August 18741 May 1940 ?Bega
Berrima GaolClosedMinimum to mediumn/a18391909 ?Berrima
Berrima Correctional CentreClosedMinimum to mediumn/a1949199175Berrima
Biloela GaolClosed ?n/acirca 1 January 188812 September 1909 ?Biloela
Bombala GaolClosed ?n/a26 January 189230 November 1939 ?Bombala
Braidwood GaolClosed ?n/a14 August 187416 August 1909 ?Braidwood
Brewarrina (Yetta Dhinnakkal) CentreOperationalMinimumCorrective Services NSW2000n/a70Brewarrina
Broken Hill Correctional Centre
(initially as Silverton Gaol)
OperationalMedium12 May 1891n/a ?Broken Hill
Broken Hill Juvenile Justice CentreOperational ?Juvenile Justice NSW ? ? ?Broken Hill
Burrowa Gaol (or maybe Boorowa Gaol)Closed ?n/a1 January 18895 December 1904 ?Boorowa
Cessnock Correctional Centre[5]OperationalMinimum to maximumCorrectional Services NSW1972[6] ?750Cessnock
Cobham Juvenile Justice CentreOperational ?Juvenile Justice NSW ? ? ?St Marys
Condobolin GaolClosed ?n/a13 January 19021 December 1905 ?Condobolin
Cooma Correctional Centre[7]OperationalMinimum to medium
(males and females)
Corrective Services NSW1 November 1873 an/a a160Cooma
Coonabarabran GaolClosed ?n/a2 October 18781 January 1903 ?Coonabarabran
Cootamundra GaolClosed ?n/a25 November 188631 August 1935 ?Cootamundra
Darlinghurst GaolClosed ? ?18221914 ?Darlinghurst
Defence Force Correctional EstablishmentOperational ?Australian Defence Force ? ? ?Holsworthy Barracks
Deniliquin GaolClosed ?n/a14 August 187415 November 1935 ?Deniliquin
Dillwynia Women's Correctional Centre[8]OperationalMediumCorrective Services NSW204n/a200Windsor
Dubbo GaolMuseum[9] ?Commonwealth of Australia184726 August 1966 ?Dubbo
Emu Plains Correctional Centre[6]OperationalMinimumCorrective Services NSWDecember 1914 ? ?Emu Plains
Fort DenisonMuseumMaximumNational Parks and Wildlife Service1788 ? ?Sydney Harbour
Frank Baxter Juvenile Justice CentreOperational ?Juvenile Justice NSW ? ? ?Kariong
Glen Innes Correctional Centre[6]OperationalMinimumCorrective Services NSW15 August 1928n/a95Glen Innes
Goulburn Correctional CentreOperationalMinimum to maximum; supermax14 August 1874n/a?Goulburn
Grafton Correctional Centre[10]OperationalMedium14 August 1974n/a ?Grafton
Grenfell GaolClosed ?1 January 18771 January 1905 ?Grenfell
Hay GaolClosed ?14 August 187431 October 1947 ?Hay
Ivanhoe (Warakirri) Correctional Centre[8]OperationalMinimum ? ?55Ivanhoe
John Morony Correctional CentreOperationalMinimum to maximum ? ?200Windsor
Junee Correctional Centre[8]OperationalMediumGEO Group Australia1994n/a790Junee
Juniperina Juvenile Justice CentreOperational ?Juvenile Justice NSW ? ? ?Lidcombe
Kariong Youth Correctional CentreOperational ?Corrective Services NSW ? ? ?Kariong
Keelong Juvenile Justice CentreClosedMinimumJuvenile Justice NSW19782009 ?Unanderra
Kempsey Gaol
(opened as West Kempsey Gaol)
Closed ?n/a1 January 188431 December 1941West Kempsey
Kirkconnell Correctional CentreClosedMinimumn/a28 November 19582011250Sunny Corner
Leslie Nott Afforestation Camp, Laurel HillClosed[11]Minimumn/a18 March 195723 June 1995 ?Laurel Hill
Lithgow Correctional CentreOperationalMaximumCorrective Services NSW ? ?n/aLithgow
Long Bay Correctional CentreOperationalMaximum1909n/a1,100Sydney
Maitland Gaol bMuseumMaximum184828 January 1998400Maitland
Mannus Correctional CentreOperationalMinimum ?n/a164Tumbarumba
Metropolitan Remand and Reception Centre (MRRC)[8]OperationalMaximum1997n/a900Silverwater
Mid North Coast Correctional Centre[8]OperationalMinimum to medium ? ?500Aldavilla
Mudgee GaolClosed ?14 August 187411 August 1909Mudgee
Narrabri GaolClosed ?14 August 18742 November 1982Narrabri
Oberon Correctional Centre[8]OperationalMinimum1930[12] ?100Oberon
Orana Juvenile Justice CentreOperational ?Juvenile Justice NSW2000 ?45Dubbo
Parklea Correctional Centre[8]OperationalMediumGEO Group Australia1983n/a893Parklea
Parramatta Correctional CentreClosedMedium ?18423 September 1997580Parramatta
Port Macquarie GaolClosed ?n/acirca 1 January 195231 October 1978Port Macquarie
Reiby Juvenile Justice CentreOperational ?Juvenile Justice NSW ? ? ?Airds
Riverina Juvenile Justice Centre[13][14]Operational ?1984 ?33Wagga Wagga
Silverwater Correctional CentreOperationalMinimumCorrective Services NSW?n/a ?Silverwater
Silverwater Women's Correctional CentreOperationalMinimum1970n/a200Silverwater
St Heliers Correctional Centre[8]OperationalMinimum ? ?256Muswellbrook
Tamworth Correctional CentreOperationalMedium14 August 1874n/a~100Tamworth
Taree GaolClosed ?15 December 188431 October 1940Taree
Trial Bay GaolMuseum ?18861918Arakoon
Tuncurry Afforestation CampClosed ?26 October 19131 April 1938Tuncurry
Wagga Wagga GaolClosed ?14 August 187411 August 1909Wagga Wagga
Wellington Correctional CentreOperationalMaximumCorrective Services NSW2007n/a650Wellington
Wentworth GaolClosed ?n/a14 August 187427 February 1928Wentworth
Windsor GaolClosed ?n/a14 August 187417 January 1899Windsor
Wollongong GaolClosed ?n/a14 August 187431 October 1915Wollongong
Wyalong GaolClosed ?n/a1 February 189916 August 1909Wyalong
Yarrangobilly GaolClosed ?n/a2 November 196621 July 1993Yarrangobilly
Yass GaolClosed ?n/a1 September 188316 August 1909Yass
Young GaolClosed ?n/a14 August 18741 August 1923Young
Total capacity4,927(known)
^a Cooma commenced operations on 1 November 1873 with 31 cells. In 1876 it was reduced to a Police Gaol and then a temporary Lunatic Asylum in 1877. The Centre closed temporarily in the early 1900s. The Gaol reopened on 8 March 1957 and was again closed 10 July 1998. Cooma Correctional Centre reopened for the second time in November 2001.
^b Maitland, now closed, had capacity for 400 inmates at its peak.

Northern Territory[edit]

Prisons in the Northern Territory
PrisonStatusClassificationManagedOpenedClosedCapacityLocation
Alice Springs Correctional CentreOperationalMaximumNorthern Territory Correctional Services1996470Alice Springs
Alice Springs Juvenile Holding CentreOperationalMaximumSeptember 199810Alice Springs
Berrimah PrisonOperationalMaximum1 September 1979750Darwin
Don Dale Juvenile Detention CentreOperationalMaximum198938Berrimah
Doug Owston Correctional CentreUnder constructionMinimum to maximumunder construction estimate 2014800Holtze
Fannie Bay GaolClosedMaximumDepartment of Community Development, Sport & Cultural Affairs20 September 18831 September 1979 ?Darwin
Wildman River Wilderness Work CampOperationalMinimumNorthern Territory Correctional Services1980s20Wildman River
Total capacity845(current)

Queensland[edit]

An aerial view of Boggo Road Gaol, Brisbane, circa 1954.
Prisons in Queensland
PrisonStatusClassificationManagedOpenedClosedCapacityLocation
Arthur Gorrie Correctional CentreOperationalMaximumGEO Group Australia1992890Wacol
Boggo Road GaolClosedMaximumNow operating as a museumJuly 188315 June 1992 ?Brisbane
Borallon Correctional CentreClosedMaximumSerco17 November 198925 January 2012494Borallon
Brisbane Correctional Centre
(formerly known as Sir David Longland Correctional Centre)
OperationalMaximumQueensland Corrective Services2008 ?600Wacol
Brisbane Women's Correctional CentreOperationalMaximumQueensland Corrective ServicesJune 1999270Wacol
Brisbane Youth Detention CentreOperationalMaximumDepartment of Communities2001105Wacol
Cairns GaolClosedDemolishedPrison Department8 September 18977 April 1926-Cairns
Capricornia Correctional CentreOperationalMediumQueensland Corrective Services12 September 2001500Rockhampton
Cleveland Youth Detention CentreOperationalMaximumDepartment of Communities198030Townsville
Darling Downs Correctional CentreOperationalLow/OpenQueensland Corrective Services10 December 199430 September 2012170Westbrook
Ingham GaolClosedDemolishedPrisons Department18856 August 1924-Ingham
John Oxley Youth Detention CentreClosedMaximumDepartment of Communities19872001Wacol
Lotus Glen Correctional CentreOperationalMaximumQueensland Corrective Services29 May 1989500Mareeba
Maryborough Correctional CentreOperationalMaximumQueensland Corrective Services14 October 2002500Maryborough
Numinbah Correctional CentreOperationalLow/OpenQueensland Corrective Services28 October 1940129Numinbah
Palen Creek Correctional CentreOperationalLow/Open/ProtectionQueensland Corrective Services6 December 1934170Rathdowney
Rockhampton Correctional Centre
(formerly known as Etna Creek Prison)
ClosedHighQueensland Corrective Services1969September 2001Rockhampton
Roma GaolClosedDemolishedPrison Department7 December 18723 October 1903-Roma
Sir Leslie Wilson Youth Detention CentreClosedMaximumDepartment of Communities19612001Windsor
Southern Queensland Correctional CentreOperationalMinimum to maximumSerco3 March 2012300Gatton
St. Helena Penal EstablishmentClosedDemolishedN/A14 May 1867December 1932Brisbane
Stone River Prison FarmClosedDemolishedPrison DepartmentDecember 19458 March 1962-Ingham
Toowoomba PrisonClosedDemolishedN/A18641900Toowoomba
Townsville Correctional Centre
(formerly known as H.M.P.E. Stewart's Creek)
OperationalMaximumQueensland Corrective Services6 April 1893494Townsville
Whitenbah Prison FarmClosedDemolishedPrison Department21 October 19423 May 1949-Numinbah
Wolston Correctional CentreOperationalMaximumQueensland Corrective ServicesJune 1999600Wacol
Woodford Correctional CentreOperationalMaximumQueensland Corrective Services28 September 19731008Woodford
Total capacity-

South Australia[edit]

Main Entrance to the former Adelaide Gaol, now a museum.
Rear of Yatala Labour Prison, showing walls and watchtower, in 2008.

Prisons in South Australia are managed by the South Australian, Department for Correctional Services apart from the Mount Gambier Prison which is managed by GSL Group.

Prisons in South Australia
PrisonStatusClassificationManagedOpenedClosedCapacityLocation
Adelaide GaolMuseumMaximumDepartment for Correctional Services18411988[440]Adelaide
Adelaide Pre-Release CentreOperationalMinimumDepartment for Correctional Services ?-70Adelaide
Adelaide Remand CentreOperationalMaximumDepartment for Correctional Services1986-267Adelaide
Adelaide Women's PrisonOperationalMinimum to maximumDepartment for Correctional Services1969-128Adelaide
Cadell Training CentreOperationalMinimumDepartment for Correctional Services1960-167Morgan
Mobilong PrisonOperationalMinimum to mediumDepartment for Correctional Services1987-327Murray Bridge
Mount Gambier PrisonOperationalMinimum to maximumG4S1995-139Mount Gambier
Port Augusta PrisonOperationalMinimum to maximumDepartment for Correctional Services1869-490Port Augusta
Port Lincoln PrisonOperationalMinimum to mediumDepartment for Correctional Services ?-90Port Lincoln
Yatala Labour PrisonOperationalMinimum to maximum; SupermaxDepartment for Correctional Services1854-468Adelaide
Total capacity2,146(current)

Tasmania[edit]

Construction of expanded facilities at HM Prison Risdon, pictured in 2006
Prisons in Tasmania
PrisonStatusClassificationManagedOpenedClosedCapacityLocation
Ashley Youth Detention Centre[15]OperationalJuvenile males and femalesDepartment of Health and Human Services192251Deloraine
Campbell Street GaolClosedMuseumAs a museum by the National Trust of Australia18211963[150]Hobart
Cascades Female FactoryClosedMuseum, World Heritage SitePort Arthur Historic Site Management Authority18281856?South Hobart
George Town Female FactoryClosed ? ? ? ?? ?
HM Hayes Prison Farm[16]OperationalMinimum (open farm)Tasmanian Prison Service193770Hayes
Hobart Town Female FactoryClosed ? ?1821?Hobart
Hobart Reception Centre[16]OperationalMaximum (males and females)Tasmanian Prison Service199950Hobart
Launceston Female FactoryClosed ? ? ? ??Launceston
Launceston Reception Centre[16]OperationalMaximum (males and females)Tasmanian Prison Servicecirca 183933Launceston
Macquarie Harbour Penal StationClosedTasmanian Wilderness World Heritage AreaParks & Wildlife Service (Tasmania)18221833?Sarah Island
Maria IslandClosedPenal colony?Maria Island
Mary Hutchinson Women's Prison[16]OperationalMinimum to maximumTasmanian Prison Service
Department of Health and Human Services (Wilfred Lopes Centre)
196345Risdon Vale
Risdon Prison Complex[16]
(incorporating the Ron Barwick Minimum Security Prison
and the Wilfred Lopes Centre for Forensic Mental Health)
Medium to maximum/SupermaxNovember 1960 and
August 2006
280
Ross Female FactoryClosed ?Parks & Wildlife Service (Tasmania)18201856?Ross
Saltwater RiverClosedPenal colony?Saltwater River
Total capacity-(current)

Victoria[edit]

HM Prison Dhurringile, a minimum security centre.
The former HM Prison Geelong, closed in 1991.
Façade of the former HM Prison Pentridge, located in Coburg.

Adult Prisons and correctional facilities in Victoria are managed by Corrections Victoria. Two prisons are privatised and managed G4S Australia Pty. Limited and GEO Group Australia Pty. Limited. Youth detention centres are managed by Dept of Human Services

Victorian Prisons are mostly located in Regional Victoria. The Prison system is relatively modern with the closure of the last of the "old" gaols in 2005. Bendigo and Won Wron were the last to be closed. Beechworth Prison was closed in 2004 but replaced with Beechworth Correctional Centre in 2005. New prisons are being built or planned at Ararat and Ravenhall. Many prisons have had recent expansions in terms of bed numbers. There are about 5000 adult prisoners in Victoria (2013).

Prisons in Victoria
PrisonStatusClassificationManagedOpenedClosedCapacityLocation
Acheron Boys HomeOperationalMinimum (juveniles)Youth Justice Custodial Servicescirca 196610Buxton
Ashendene Boys HomeClosedJuvenilesFamily Welfare Division of the Social Welfare Department1966November 1988?Olinda
Ballarat GaolClosedMaximum (males and females)Corrections Victoria18621965[74]Ballarat
Beechworth Correctional CentreOperationalMinimumCorrections Victoria2005120Beechworth
Beechworth GaolClosedMediumCorrections Victoria18642004[132]Beechworth
Castlemaine GaolMuseumMaximumState of Victoria18571990?Castlemaine
Dame Phyllis Frost CentreOperationalMinimum to maximum (female)Corrections Victoria15 August 1996260Deer Park
Fulham Correctional Centre (including NALU)OperationalMinimum to maximumGEO Group Australia1997777;
60 (NALU)
Sale
HM Prison Barwon (including Barwon Supermax)OperationalMaximum; supermaxCorrections VictoriaJanuary 1990425Lara
HM Prison BendigoClosedMediumCorrections Victoria18632006[85]Bendigo
HM Prison DhurringileOperationalMinimumCorrections Victoria1965174Murchison
HM Prison GeelongMuseumMaximumCorrections Victoria18641991?Geelong
HM Prison Langi Kal KalOperationalMinimumCorrections Victoria ?110Beaufort
HM Prison LoddonOperationalMediumCorrections Victoria1990399Castlemaine
HM Prison Morwell RiverClosedMinimumCorrections Victoria19641997?Morwell
HM Prison PentridgeClosedMaximumHousing Estate built on site18511997?Coburg
HM Prison SaleClosedMediumCorrections Victoria ? ??Sale
HM Prison Won WronClosedMinimumCorrections Victoria19642004[127]Won Wron
HM Prison FairleaClosedMaximum ? ?1995?Fairfield
HM Prison TarrengowerOperationalMinimum (female)Corrections Victoria ? ?54Maldon
Hopkins Correctional Centre (Ararat)OperationalMinimum to mediumCorrections Victoria1967397Ararat
J WardMuseumMaximumCorrections Victoria18591991?Ararat
Malmsbury Youth Justice CentreOperationalMinimum to maximumDepartment of Human Services196574Malmsbury
Marngoneet Correctional CentreOperationalMediumCorrections Victoria2006300Lara
Old Melbourne GaolMuseumMaximumState of Victoria18451924?Melbourne
Melbourne Youth Justice CentreOperationalMedium to maximumDepartment of Human Services1993110Parkville
Metropolitan Remand CentreOperationalMaximum remandCorrections Victoria2006600Ravenhall
Parkville Youth Residential CentreOperationalMedium to maximumDepartment of Human Services199830Parkville
Port Phillip PrisonOperationalMedium to maximumG4S Australia Pty. Limited1997744Deer Park
Turana Youth Training CentreClosedMedium to maximumDepartment of Human Services1950's2001[86]Parkville
Total capacity-(current)

Western Australia[edit]

Prisons and correctional facilities in Western Australia are managed by the Department of Corrective Services and private operators.

The main cell block of Fremantle Prison.
The gatehouse of Fremantle Prison by moonlight.
A typical cell in Fremantle Prison.
Prisons in Western Australia
PrisonStatusClassificationManagedOpenedClosedCapacityLocation
Acacia PrisonOperationalMediumSerco GroupMay 20011,007Wooroloo
Albany PrisonOperationalMaximumDepartment of Corrective Services16 September 1966310Albany
Bandyup PrisonOperationalMixed (female)January 1970259West Swan
Banksia Hill Juvenile Detention CentreOperationalMedium to maximumSeptember 1997?Canning Vale
Boronia Pre-release Centre for WomenOperationalMinimum (female)May 200482Bentley
Broome Regional PrisonOperationalMinimum to maximum (male/female)February 1945138Broome
Bunbury Regional PrisonOperationalMaximum (remand only); Minimum to mediumFebruary 1971340Bunbury
Casuarina PrisonOperationalMinimum to maximumJune 1991680Casuarina
Eastern Goldfields PrisonOperationalMinimum to maximum (male/female)December 1980136Boulder
Fremantle PrisonClosedMuseum, World Heritage SiteGovernment of Western Australia18558 November 1991[800]Fremantle
Greenough PrisonOperationalMaximum (remand only); Minimum to mediumDepartment of Corrective ServicesOctober 1984323Geraldton
Hakea PrisonOperationalMinimum to maximumJune 1982897Canning Vale
Karnet Prison FarmOperationalMinimumMarch 1963326Serpentine
Nyandi Women’s PrisonClosedMinimum19702004Bentley
Pardelup PrisonOperationalMinimumDepartment of Corrective Services192796Mount Barker
Perth GaolClosedMinimum18541888Northbridge
Rangeview Juvenile Remand CentreOperationalRemand CentreDepartment of Justice199492Murdoch
Roebourne Regional PrisonOperationalMinimum to maximum (male/female)Department of Corrective ServicesMarch 1984161Roebourne
Round HouseClosedMuseumFremantle City Council18301886Fremantle
West Kimberley Regional PrisonOperationalMinimum to mediumDepartment of Corrective Services1 November 2012150Derby
Wooroloo Prison FarmOperationalMinimumDepartment of Corrective Services1972360Wooroloo
Total capacity?(current)

Other[edit]

For a list of immigration detention centres of the Australian government, see the list of Australian immigration detention facilities.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Alexander Maconochie Centre". ACT Corrective Services. Australian Capital Territory: Justice and Community Safety Directorate. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012. 
  2. ^ Australian Capital Territory correctional facilities. 30 June 2009. Australian Institute of Criminology. Retrieved on 13 December 2011.
  3. ^ "Correctional Centres". Corrective Services NSW. Government of New South Wales. March 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012. 
  4. ^ "Department of Prisons (1874-1970) Department of Corrective Services (1970-2009) - Subordinate Agencies". State Records NSW. Government of New South Wales. 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2012. 
  5. ^ "Sex offenders unit at Cessnock gaol". ABC News (Australia). 7 March 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c "Key moments in Penal Culture in NSW 1970 - present". The Australian Prisons Project. The University of New South Wales. 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2012. 
  7. ^ "Cooma Correctional Centre". Corrective Services NSW. Retrieved 1 May 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h "New South Wales correctional facilities". Australian Government. Australian Institute of Criminology. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  9. ^ Old Dubbo Gaol. Retrieved on 13 December 2011.
  10. ^ "Grafton Gaol". State Records Archives Investigator. Government of New South Wales. 8 May 1992. Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  11. ^ Laurel Hill Forest Lodge. Retrieved on 13 December 2011.
  12. ^ Thematic History of Oberon Shire. Philippa Gemmell-Smith. 16 March 2004. Oberon Council.
  13. ^ "Juvenile justice centre overcrowding fears remain". ABC News (Australia). 20 January 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2009. 
  14. ^ "New concept remand centre soon to open". The Daily Advertiser. 12 October 1984. 
  15. ^ "History of Ashley". Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 26 April 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c d e "Key moments in Penal Culture in Tasmania 1970 - present: Prisons". Australian Prisons Project. University of New South Wales. 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2012.