List of Archbishops of Canterbury

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Three plaques on a wall, inscribed with the lists of the archbishops. In front of the plaques is a table with two candlesticks flanking an upright cross.
List of the Archbishops of Canterbury up to Rowan Williams, in Canterbury Cathedral

The Archbishop of Canterbury is the "Primate of All England" (the "first bishop" of England),[1] effectively serving as the head of the established Church of England and, symbolically, of the worldwide Anglican Communion. From the 6th century until the 16th century, the Archbishops of Canterbury were in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, the Pope. During the English Reformation the church broke away from the authority of the Pope, at first temporarily and later more permanently. Since then the archbishops have been outside of the succession of the Roman Catholic Church's hierarchy and have led the independent national church.[2]

In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the nomination of the archbishop and other bishops. At various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the king of England, or the Pope.[3][4] Since the Reformation, the church is explicitly a state church and the choice is legally that of the British crown; today it is made in the name of the monarch by the Prime Minister, from a shortlist of two selected by an ad hoc committee called the Crown Nominations Commission.[5]

Today, the archbishop has four main roles:[6]

List of archbishops[edit]

Key to abbreviations in tables below
bet.between
c.circa
dep.deposed
depr.deprived
el.elected
enth.enthroned
nom.nominated
pos.postulated
tr.translated
res.resigned

Anglo-Saxon period[edit]

From[A]Until[B]IncumbentNotes
59726 May 604 or 605AugustineCanonised: St Augustine of Canterbury.[7]
c. 6042 Feb 619Laurence(Laurentius, Lawrence) Canonised: St Laurence of Canterbury.[8]
61924 Apr 624MellitusTranslated from London;[9] canonised: St Mellitus.[10]
62410 Nov
bet. 627 and 631
JustusTranslated from Rochester;[9] canonised: St Justus.[7]
62730 Sep 653HonoriusCanonised: St Honorius.[11]
Mar 65514 Jul 664DeusdeditCanonised: St Deusdedit.[12]
14 Jul 664c. 666See vacant
c. 666668(Wighard)(Wigheard) Died of plague before consecration.[13]
26 Mar 66819 Sep 690TheodoreCanonised: St Theodore of Tarsus.[14]
29 Jun 69313 Jan 731Berhtwald(Brihtwald, Beorhtweald, Bertwald, Berthwald, Beorhtwald, or Beretuald) Abbot of Reculver;[15] canonised: St Berhtwald.[15]
10 Jun 73130 Jul 734Tatwine(Tatwin, Tatuini, or Tadwinus) Canonised: St Tatwine.[16]
73517 Oct 739Nothhelm(Nothelm) Canonised: St Nothelm.[17]
c. 74026 Oct 760CuthbertPossibly translated from Hereford.
27 Sep 761764Bregowine(Bregwine or Bregwin) Canonised: St Bregwin.[18]
2 Feb 76511/12 Aug 792Jænberht(Jambert, Jaenbeorht, Jænbert, Jaenberht, Jaenbert, or Jaenberht) Abbot of St Augustine's, Canterbury.[19]
21 Jul 79312 May 805Æthelhard(Ethelhard, Æthilheard, or Aethelheard)
c. Oct 80521 Mar 832Wulfred
8 Jun 83230 Aug 832Feologild(Feologeld) Abbot of an unknown monastery before election.[20]
c. 27 Jul 8334 Feb 870Ceolnoth
87030 Jun 888Æthelred(Ethelred)
8902 Aug 923Plegmund(Plegemund) Clerk to King Alfred.[21]
bet. 923 and 9258 Jan 926Athelm(Æðelhelm) Translated from Wells.
c. 92612 Feb 941WulfhelmTranslated from Wells.
9412 Jun 958Oda(Odo, Oda the Severe) Translated from Ramsbury; canonised: St Oda.[22]
958959Ælfsige(Aelfsige)
959dep. 959Byrhthelm(Beorhthelm or Birthelm) Translated from Wells, deposed & returned to Wells.
95919 May 988DunstanTranslated from London; canonised: St Dunstan.[23]
988Feb 990ÆthelgarTranslated from Selsey.
99028 Oct 994Sigeric the SeriousTranslated from Ramsbury.
el. 21 Apr 99516 Nov 1005Ælfric of Abingdon(Ælfric of Wessex) Translated from Winchester; canonised: St Aelfric.[24]
100619 Apr 1012Ælfheah(Alphege, Elphege, Alfege, or Godwine) Translated from Winchester; canonised: St Alphege.[25]
101312 Jun 1020LyfingTranslated from Wells.
13 Nov 1020c. 29 Oct 1038Æthelnoth(Aethelnoth, Ethelnoth, Egelnodus, or Ednodus) Formerly Dean of Canterbury.[26]
103829 Oct 1050Eadsige(Eadsige, Eadsimus, or Eadsin)
Mar 1051dep. Sep 1052Robert of Jumièges(Robert Chambert or Robert Champart) Deposed.
1052depr. 11 Apr 1070StigandConcurrently Bishop of Winchester; deprived of both sees.[27]
Source(s): [28]

After the Norman conquest[edit]

From[A]Until[B]IncumbentNotes
29 Aug 107028 May 1089LanfrancAbbot of St. Étienne, Caen.
4 Dec 109321 Apr 1109AnselmAbbot of Bec; Canonised: St Anselm.[29]
21 Apr 110926 Apr 1114See vacant
el. 26 Apr 11142 Oct 1122Ralph d'EscuresTranslated from Rochester.[30]
18 Feb 112321 Nov 1136William de Corbeil(William of Corbeil) Prior of St Osyth.
21 Nov 11368 Jan 1139See vacant
8 Jan 113918 Apr 1161Theobald of Bec(Tedbald) Abbot of Bec.
18 Apr 11613 Jun 1162See vacant
3 Jun 116229 Dec 1170Thomas Becket(Thomas of London, Thomas à Becket) Previously Archdeacon of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor;[31] canonised: St Thomas of Canterbury.[32]
1173(Roger de Bailleul)Abbot of Le Bec-Hellouin; elected but declined the see.
7 Apr 117416 Feb 1184Richard(Richard of Dover) Prior of Dover.
tr. Dec 1184Nov 1190Baldwin of FordeTranslated from Worcester.
el. 27 Nov 119126 Dec 1191(Reginald Fitz Jocelin)(Reginald Italus, Richard the Lombard, or Reginald Lombardus) Translated from Wells; elected, however, appeals against it were sent to Pope Celestine III, but Reginald died before they were heard.
26 Dec 119129 May 1193See vacant
tr. 29 May 119313 Jul 1205Hubert WalterTranslated from Salisbury; Lord Chancellor;[31] Chief Justiciar.[33]
el. bet. Jul
and Oct 1205
bet. Oct
and Dec 1206
(Reginald)Sub-prior, elected but set aside by King John.
pos. 11 Dec 1205c. 30 Mar 1206(John de Gray)Bishop of Norwich; chosen by the monks but set aside by Pope Innocent III.
17 Jun 12079 Jul 1228Cardinal Stephen LangtonCreated a cardinal in 1206.[34]
el. 3 Aug 1228Jan 1229(Walter d'Eynsham)(Walter de Hempsham) Elected but set aside by King Henry III of England and Pope Gregory IX.
10 Jun 12293 Aug 1231Richard le Grant(Richard Grant or Richard Wethershed) Formerly Chancellor of the see of Lincoln.
pos. 22 Sep 123120 Dec 1231(Ralph Neville)(Ralf Nevill) Bishop of Chichester, election quashed by Pope Gregory IX.
el. 16 Mar 123212 Jun 1232(John of Sittingbourne)election quashed by Pope Gregory IX.
el. 26 Aug 12321 Jun 1233(John Blund)(Johannes Blund, Iohannes Blondus, Iohannes Blundus) election quashed by Pope Gregory IX.
2 Apr 123416 Nov 1240Edmund RichPrebendary of Salisbury; canonised: St Edmund of Abingdon.[35]
el. 1 Feb 1241 [C]14 Jul 1270Boniface of SavoyTranslated from Belley in France
el. 9 Sep 1270summer 1272(William Chillenden)(Adam of Chillenden) Prior of Christ Church, Canterbury; elected but set aside by Pope Gregory X.
26 Feb 1273res. 5 Jun 1278Cardinal Robert KilwardbyCreated a cardinal in 1278;[36] and resigned.
pos. Jun or Jul 1278Jan 1279(Robert Burnell)(Robert Burnel) Bishop of Bath & Wells; elected but set aside by Pope Nicholas III.
19 Feb 12798 Dec 1292John Peckham(John Pecham) English Provincial of the Franciscan Order.
12 Sep 129411 May 1313Robert Winchelsey(Robert Winchelsea) Formerly Archdeacon of Essex; Chancellor of Oxford
el. 28 May 13131 Oct 1313(Thomas Cobham)Election quashed.
tr. 1 Oct 131316 Nov 1327Walter ReynoldsTranslated from Worcester; Lord Chancellor;[37] Lord Treasurer.[38]
5 Jun 132812 Oct 1333Simon Mepeham(Simon Meopham) Prebendary of Chichester Cathedral;[39] excommunicated.[39]
pos. 3 Nov 133323 Aug 1348John de StratfordTranslated from Winchester; Lord Chancellor.[37]
nom. 24 Sep 134820 May 1349[40](John de Ufford)Dean of Lincoln;[40] Lord Chancellor;[37] died of plague before consecration.[40][41]
19 Jul 134926 Aug 1349Thomas BradwardineDied of plague
20 Dec 134926 Apr 1366Simon IslipPrebendary of St Paul's;[42] secretary to the king and keeper of the Privy Seal.[43]
1366(William Edington)(William Edendon) Bishop of Winchester;[44] elected but refused the see.[4]
tr. 24 Jul 1366res. 28 Nov 1368Cardinal Simon LanghamTranslated from Ely; created a cardinal in 1368;[45] and resigned the see. He was elected a second time in 1374, but Pope Gregory XI refused to confirm the election.[45][46]
tr. 11 Oct 1368Jun 1374William Whittlesey(William Wittlesey) Translated from Worcester.
tr. 4 May 137514 Jun 1381Simon Sudbury(Simon de Sudbury; Simon Tibold; Simon Theobold) Translated from London; Lord Chancellor;[37] beheaded during the Peasants' Revolt.[47]
tr. 31 Jul 138131 Jul 1396William CourtenayTranslated from London;[41] Lord Chancellor.
tr. 25 Sep 1396dep. 1397Thomas Arundel(Thomas Fitz-Alan) Translated from York; Lord Chancellor; charged with high treason under Richard II, fled but restored later.[48]
nom. 8 Nov 1397depr. 19 Oct 1399Roger WaldenDeprived.
restored
19 Oct 1399
19 Feb 1414Thomas Arundel (again)(Thomas Fitz-Alan) Restored by Henry IV.[48]
tr. 12 Mar 141412 Apr 1443Henry Chichele(Henry Chicheley; Henry Checheley) Translated from St David's.
tr. 13 May 144325 May 1452John StaffordTranslated from Bath & Wells; Lord Chancellor; Lord Treasurer.[49]
tr. 21 Jul 145222 Mar 1454Cardinal John KempCreated a cardinal in 1439;[50] Translated from York; Lord Chancellor
tr. 23 Apr 145430 Mar 1486Cardinal Thomas BourchierTranslated from Ely; Lord Chancellor; created a cardinal in 1467.[51]
tr. 6 Oct 148615 Sep 1500Cardinal John MortonTranslated from Ely; Lord Chancellor.[52] created a cardinal in 1493.[53]
22 Jan 150127 Jan 1501(Thomas Langton)Bishop of Winchester; died 5 days after being chosen.[4]
tr. 26 Apr 150115/17 Feb 1503Henry Deane(Henry Dean; Henry Dene) Translated from Salisbury.
tr. 29 Nov 150322 Aug 1532William WarhamTranslated from London; Lord Chancellor until 1515.[52]
30 Mar 1533depr. 13 Nov 1555Thomas CranmerArchdeacon of Taunton;[54] excommunicated by Rome and deprived for heresy 1553;[54] put to death by burning, 21 March 1556.[54]
22 Mar 155618/19 Nov 1558Cardinal Reginald PoleDean of Exeter;[55] created a cardinal in 1536.[56]
Source(s): [41][57][58][59]

After the Elizabethan settlement[edit]

From[A]Until[B]IncumbentNotes
17 Dec 155917 May 1575Matthew ParkerDean of Lincoln.[60]
tr. 29 Dec 15756 Jul 1583Edmund GrindalTranslated from York.
nom. 14 Aug 158329 Feb 1604John WhitgiftTranslated from Worcester.
nom. 9 Oct 16042 Nov 1610Richard BancroftTranslated from London.
nom. 4 Mar 16114 Aug 1633George AbbotTranslated from London.
nom. 6 Aug 163310 Jan 1645William LaudTranslated from London; executed in office;[3] commemorated in the Church of England,[61] and the Episcopal Church in the U.S.A.[62][63]
10 Jan 16452 Sep 1660See vacant
nom. 2 Sep 16604 Jun 1663William JuxonTranslated from London.
nom. 16 June 16639 Nov 1677Gilbert SheldonTranslated from London.
27 Jan 1678depr. 1 Feb 1690William SancroftDean of St Paul's;[3] deprived for not taking oaths to William and Mary.[3] died 24 Nov 1693.
31 May 169122 Nov 1694John TillotsonDean of St Paul's.[3]
nom. 6 Dec 169414 Dec 1715Thomas TenisonTranslated from Lincoln.
nom. 17 Dec 171524 Jan 1737William WakeTranslated from Lincoln.
nom. 9 Feb 173710 Oct 1747John PotterTranslated from Oxford.
nom. 21 Oct 174713 Mar 1757Thomas HerringTranslated from York.
nom. 29 Mar 175719 Mar 1758Matthew HuttonTranslated from York.
nom. 8 Mar 17583 Aug 1768Thomas SeckerTranslated from Oxford.
nom. 12 Aug 176819 Mar 1783Frederick CornwallisTranslated from Lichfield & Coventry.
nom. 31 Mar 178318 Jan 1805John MooreTranslated from Bangor.
nom. 1 Feb 180521 Jul 1828Charles Manners-SuttonTranslated from Norwich.
nom. 6 Aug 182811 Feb 1848William HowleyTranslated from London.
nom. 17 Feb 18486 Sep 1862John SumnerTranslated from Chester.
nom. 20 Oct 186228 Oct 1868Charles LongleyTranslated from York.
nom. 28 Nov 18681 Dec 1882Archibald TaitTranslated from London.
nom. 13 Jan 188311 Oct 1896Edward BensonTranslated from Truro.
nom. 9 Nov 189622 Dec 1902Frederick TempleTranslated from London.
nom. 14 Jan 1903res. 12 Nov 1928Randall DavidsonTranslated from Winchester; retired; died 25 May 1930.
nom. 13 Nov 1928res. 31 Mar 1942Cosmo Gordon LangTranslated from York; retired; died 5 December 1945.
nom. 1 Apr 194226 Oct 1944William TempleTranslated from York. Died in office.
nom. 12 Jan 1945res. 31 May 1961Geoffrey FisherTranslated from London; retired; died 1972.[64]
nom. 1 Jun 1961res. 15 Nov 1974Michael RamseyTranslated from York; retired; died 23 April 1988.[65]
nom. 18 Nov 1974res. 25 Jan 1980Donald CogganTranslated from York; retired; died 17 May 2000.[66]
nom. 1 Feb 1980res. 31 Jan 1991Robert RuncieTranslated from St Albans; retired; died 11 Jul 2000.[67]
enth. 19 Apr 1991res. 31 Oct 2002George CareyTranslated from Bath & Wells; retired.[68]
el. conf. 2 Dec 2002res. 31 Dec 2012Rowan WilliamsTranslated from Monmouth. He was also Archbishop of Wales.[69] His resignation was announced on 16 March 2012 and took effect at the end of 2012.[70]
el. conf. 4 Feb 2013Justin WelbyTranslated from Durham. His appointment began in February 2013.[71]
Source(s):[59][72]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

General[edit]

Specific[edit]

  1. ^ "Roles and priorities", the Archbishop of Canterbury's official website
  2. ^ The Archbishops' Council of the Church of England (2004). "History of the Church of England". Church of England. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Horn Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541–1857: volume 3: Canterbury, Rochester and Winchester dioceses: Archbishops of Canterbury
  4. ^ a b c Jones Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1300–1541: volume 4: Monastic cathedrals (southern province): Archbishops of Canterbury
  5. ^ "Organization of the Church of England". Church of England. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  6. ^ Archbishop's Roles and Responsibilities, Archbishop of Canterbury Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  7. ^ a b Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 73
  8. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 357
  9. ^ a b Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 213
  10. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 420
  11. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 268
  12. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 154
  13. ^ Bateson, Mary; revised by Marios Costambeys (2004). "Wigheard (d. 664x7)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  14. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 581
  15. ^ a b Delaney Dictionary of Saints p. 90
  16. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 571
  17. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 453
  18. ^ Williams, Ann (2004). "Bregowine (d. 764)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  19. ^ Costambeys, Mario (2004). "Jænberht (d. 792)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  20. ^ Hunt, William; revised by Marios Costambeys (2004). "Feologeld (d. 832)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  21. ^ Brooks, N. (2004). "Plegemund (d. 914)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  22. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints pp. 454–455
  23. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 164
  24. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 12
  25. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 28
  26. ^ Mason, Emma (2004). "Æthelnoth (d. 1038)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  27. ^ Cowdrey, H. E. J. (2004). "Stigand (d. 1072)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 November 2008.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  28. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 214
  29. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints pp. 48–49
  30. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 232
  31. ^ a b Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 84
  32. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 595
  33. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 71
  34. ^ Holdsworth, Christopher (2004). "Langton, Stephen (c.1150–1228)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  35. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 169
  36. ^ Tugwell, Simon (2004). "Kilwardby, Robert (c.1215–1279)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  37. ^ a b c d Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 86
  38. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 104
  39. ^ a b Haines, Roy Martin (January 2008). "Mepham, Simon (c.1275–1333)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  40. ^ a b c Haines, Roy Martin (2004). "Offord, John (c.1290–1349)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  41. ^ a b c d Fryde Handbook of British Chronology p. 233
  42. ^ Swanson, R. N. (2004). "Islep , Simon (c.1300–1366)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  43. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 94
  44. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 277
  45. ^ a b Simon Langham. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  46. ^ Simon Langham. Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 23 November 2008.
  47. ^ Walker, Simon (January 2008). "Sudbury, Simon (c.1316–1381)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  48. ^ a b Hughes, Jonathan (May 2007). "Arundel, Thomas (1353–1414)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  49. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 106
  50. ^ Davies, R. G. (2004). "Kemp , John (1380/81–1454)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (revised May 2011 ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  51. ^ Clark, Linda (2004). "Bourchier, Thomas (c.1411–1486)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  52. ^ a b Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 88
  53. ^ Harper-Bill, Christopher (2004). "Morton, John (d. 1500)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  54. ^ a b c MacCulloch, Diarmaid (January 2008). "Cranmer, Thomas (1489–1556)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  55. ^ Mayer, T. F. (January 2008). "Pole, Reginald (1500–1558)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  56. ^ Mayer, T. F. (2004). "Pole, Reginald (1500–1558)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (revised January 2008 ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  57. ^ Greenway Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae: Archbishops of Canterbury
  58. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 87
  59. ^ a b Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 234
  60. ^ Crankshaw, David J. and Alexandra Gillespie (January 2008). "Parker, Matthew (1504–1575)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  61. ^ Holy Days Common Worship Calendar of the Church of England. Retrieved on 5 November 2008.
  62. ^ Calendar of the Church Year. The Episcopal Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  63. ^ William Laud, Arcbishop and Martyr. The Episcopal Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  64. ^ Webster, Alan (2004). "Fisher, Geoffrey Francis, Baron Fisher of Lambeth (1887–1972)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  65. ^ "Michael Ramsey, 100th Archbishop of Canterbury". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  66. ^ "Donald Coggan, 101st Archbishop of Canterbury". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  67. ^ "Robert Alexander Kennedy Runcie, 102nd Archbishop of Canterbury". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  68. ^ "George Carey – 103rd Archbishop of Canterbury". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  69. ^ "Rowan Williams – Biography". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  70. ^ "Archbishop to be Master of Magdalene", Archbishop of Canterbury website
  71. ^ BBC News – Welby takes over as Archbishop
  72. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 235

External links[edit]