List of Alamo defenders

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The March 24, 1836 edition of the Telegraph contained the first list of defenders killed at the Battle of the Alamo.  This is a partial scan of that list.

People who are believed to have participated in the Battle of the Alamo, February 23 – March 6, 1836, on the Texan side, are listed here. The first report of the names of the Texian victims of the battle came in the March 24, 1836 issue of the Telegraph and Texas Register. The 115 names on that list were supplied by couriers John Smith and Gerald Navan.[1]


Defenders[edit]

NameRankCompanyBirthdateBirthplaceStatusNotes
Juan AbamilloSergeantSeguin's cavalry companyunknownTexaskilled in battleAlso served in the siege of Bexar[2]
James L. AllenPrivateunknownJanuary 2, 1815KentuckysurvivedLast courier to leave the Alamo (March 5); died April 25, 1901.[2]
Robert AllenPrivateForsyth's companyunknownVirginiakilled in battle[3]
Horace Arlington AlsburyPrivateGarrison translator, courier1805KentuckysurvivedFirst courier sent out by Travis[4] Juana Navarro Alsbury's husband, member of the Texian army, fought at Siege of Bexar, left for Gonzales immediately after Juana moved into the Alamo to warn the colonists that the Mexican Army was just outside of Béxar[5]
George Andrewspossibly aka George Anderson, QuartermasterNew Orleans Greyskilled in battleAndrews is not listed on most lists of Alamo defenders. In fall 1836 Captain Thomas Breece compiled a list of the men who had originally been under his command, and marked Andrews as killed at the Alamo.[6]
Miles DeForest AndrossPrivateBlazeby's infantry company1809Bradford, Vermontkilled in battle[7]fought at Bexar, remained with Neill
Micajah AutryPrivateHarrison's company (Volunteer Auxiliary Corps)1794Sampson County, North Carolinakilled in battle[8]
Juan A. BadilloSergeantSeguin's cavalry CompanyunknownTexaskilled in battleServed at siege of Bexar[9]
Peter James Bailey IIIPrivateHarrison's company (VAC)1812Springfield, Kentuckykilled in battle[9]Bailey County, Texas, is named for him
Isaac G. BakerPrivateGonzales Ranging Company of Mounted VolunteersSeptember 15, 1814Arkansaskilled in battle[10]rode in as a member of the Gonzales Mounted Rangers ("Immortal 32")
William Charles M. BakerCaptainunknownMissourikilled in battle[11]
John J. BallentinePrivateCarey's artillery companyPennsylvaniakilled in battle[12]
Richard W. BallentinePrivateunknown1814Scotlandkilled in battle[13]
John J. BaughCaptain, Greys commander at Alamo until becoming garrison adjutant (staff officer)unknown1803Virginiakilled in battle[14]
Joseph BaylissPrivateHarrison's company (VAC)1808Tennesseekilled in battle[14]James Lemonn
John Walker Baylor, Jr.PrivateDimitt's companyDecember 1813Stone Creek, Kentuckysurvivedleft Alamo as a courier, probably February 25. Joined Fannin at Goliad and escaped with Horton's guard, then joined Houston. Died September 3, 1836, from complications of wounds suffered at the Battle of San Jacinto[15]
John BlairPrivateunknown1803Tennesseekilled in battle[16]
Samuel BlairCaptain, assistant to ordnance chiefOrdnance Department1807Tennesseekilled in battle[17]
William BlazebyCaptainCommanding officer of Greys infantry company after Baugh1795Englandkilled in battle[17]
James BonhamSecond Lieutenantrode in with BowieFebruary 20, 1807Edgefield County, South Carolinakilled in battle[18]February 16 courier to Goliad & Gonzales, returned to San Antonio March 3
Daniel BournePrivateCarey's artillery company1810Englandkilled in battle[19]
James BowieColonelCommander of volunteers, co-commander of the garrisonc. 1796

Logan County, Kentucky

killed in battlefought at Bexar, knife design named for him, fell ill while commanding[20][21]
Jesse B. BowmanPrivateunknown1785TennesseeAccording to most lists, Bowman was killed at the Alamo.[22]Historian Thomas Ricks Lindley states that Bowman's name did appear on the first monument to Alamo defenders (which was destroyed in 1881), but no other records have been located to verify his service in San Antonio. A land contract dated February 13, 1836 appears to place Bowman in Copper County, TX, instead of at the Alamo; his family believes the contract was forged.[23]
George BrownPrivateunknown1801Englandkilled in battleGonzales resident[24]
James BrownPrivateunknown1800Pennsylvaniakilled in battleDeLeon Colony, Tx. resident, fought at Bexar[24]
Robert BrownPrivateunknownc. 1818survivedLeft as a courier after February 25, sallied to burn the jacales[25]
James BuchananPrivateunknown,marksman1813killed in battleresident of Austin's Colony[26]
Samuel E. BurnsPrivateCarey's artillery company1810Irelandkilled in battle[26]
George D. ButlerPrivateunknown1813Missourikilled in battle[26]
John CainPrivateCarey's artillery company1802Pennsylvaniakilled in battle[27]rode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers
Robert CampbellLieutenantHarrison's company (VAC)1810Tennesseekilled in battle[27]
William R. CareyCaptainCommanding officer of his own artillery company "The Invincibles"1806Virginiakilled in battlefought at Bexar, remained at Alamo, had commanded the Alamo while James C. Neill commanded Bexar,[27]
Charles Henry ClarkPrivateNew Orleans Greys, under Breecekilled in battle[28]
M.B. ClarkPrivateprobably Baker's companykilled in battle[29]
Daniel W. CloudPrivateHarrison's companyFebruary 20, 1812Lexington, Kentuckykilled in battle[29]
Robert E. CochranPrivateCarey's company1810Merrimack County, Pembroke, New Hampshirekilled in battle[29]Cochran County, Texas is named for him.[30]
George Washington "Wash" CottleGonzales Ranging Company1811Hurricane Township, Lincoln County, Missourikilled in battlerode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers, his brother-in-law, Thomas J. Jackson, also died at the Alamo.[30]
Henry CourtmanPrivateNew Orleans Greys under Breece1808Germanykilled in battle[30]
Lemuel CrawfordPrivateCarey's company1814South Carolinakilled in battle[31]
David CrockettColonelHarrison's company, fought near chapel & palisadeAugust 17, 1786Greene County, Tennesseekilled in battle[31]Alamo co-commander Travis praised Crockett for his actions during the siege, writing, "The Hon. David Crockett was seen at all points, animating the men to do their duty."[32] sallied out late on March 3 to find Fannin, while carrying Alamo's March 3 letters, returned without finding Fannin[33]
Robert CrossmanPrivateBlazeby1810Pennsylvaniakilled in battle[34]
Antonio Cruz y ArochaPrivateSeguin's cavalryunknownMexicosurvivedLeft Alamo with Juan Seguin as a courier on February 25.[34] He later served at the Battle of San Jacinto.[35]
David P. CumminsPrivateGonzales Mounted Rangers1809Lewiston, Pennsylvaniakilled in battlerode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers, his cousin-in-law, John Purdy Reynolds, also died at the Alamo.[35]
Robert CunninghamPrivateCarey's companyOctober 18, 1804Ontario County, New Yorkkilled in battle[35][36]
Jacob C. DarstLieutenantGonzales Mounted RangersDecember 22, 1793Woodford County, Kentuckykilled in battleIn September 1835 Darst was one of the "Old Eighteen" who refused to relinquish a cannon, leading to the Battle of Gonzales, rode in as original member of the Gonzales Mounted Rangers ("Immortal 32")[37]
John DavisPrivateGonzales Mounted Rangers1811Kentuckykilled in battle[37]rode in as original member of the Gonzales Mounted Rangers ("Immortal 32")
Freeman H.K. DayPrivateWhite's infantry company1806killed in battlefought in the Siege of Bexar[37]
Jerry C. DayPrivate[38]unknown1816[37]Missourikilled in battle[38]
Squire DaymonPrivateCarey1808Tennesseekilled in battlefought in the Siege of Bexar and was then garrisoned at the Alamo until sometime in February 1836. He rejoined the Alamo garrison on March 1, 1836, rode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers[38]
William DearduffPrivaterode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangersc. 1811Tennesseekilled in battleEntered the Alamo on March 1, 1836. Brother-in-law of defender James George.[38]
Alexandro de la GarzaPrivateSeguins companyTexassurvivedFought at siege of Bexar. Left Alamo as a courier.[38]
Stephen DennisonPrivateBlazeby1812England or Irelandkilled in battleWas originally a member of Breece's New Orleans Grays[39]
Francis L. DesauqueCaptainDimmittPhiladelphia, PennsylvaniasurvivedLeft to get supplies for the garrison about February 22, 1836. On learning of the siege, he joined Fannin at Goliad, was captured at the Battle of Coleto and executed in the Goliad Massacre.[39][40]
Charles DespallierPrivateRode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers1812Louisianakilled in battle(1815-1836) was one of the 91 who signed the Goliad Declaration of Independence of Dec. 20, 1835[41] Was cited by Travis for bravery.[40] Left the Alamo as a courier during the siege but returned on March 1. [42] His older brother Blaz Philipe Despallier took part in the siege of Bexar [41]
Lewis DewallPrivateWhite1812Manhattan, New Yorkkilled in battle[42]
Almaron DickinsonCaptainArtillery officer1810Tennesseekilled in battle[42]He was one of the Old Eighteen who refused to relinquish a cannon, leading to the Battle of Gonzales. He operated the cannon during the battle.[43]
James DicksonNew Orleans Greyskilled in battleDickson is not listed on most lists of Alamo defenders. In fall 1836 Captain Thomas Breece compiled a list of the men who had originally been under his command, and marked Dickson as killed at the Alamo.[6]
John Henry DillardPrivateunknown1805Smith County, Tennesseekilled in battle[44]
Philip DimmittCaptainDimmitt1801KentuckysurvivedDimmitt was previously the commander of Texian forces at Presidio La Bahia in Goliad. He left the Alamo on February 23 to gather reinforcements. He was captured by a Mexican raiding party in 1841 and committed suicide on July 8 of that year after being threatened with execution.[45][46]
James R. DimpkinsSergeantBlazebyEnglandkilled in battleOriginally a member of Breece's New Orleans Grays.[47]
Andrew DuvaltPrivateWhite1804Irelandkilled in battleFought in the Siege of Bexar and then was part of the Texian garrison at the Alamo. Left the Alamo sometime in February, and returned after February 23.[48]
Carlos EspalierPrivateunknown, but possible Bowie1819San Antonio de Bexar, Texaskilled in battlepossibly the same person as Charles Despallier. They were at least second cousins.[48][41]
José Gregorio EsparzaPrivateSeguins companyFebruary 25, 1802San Antonio de Béxar, Texaskilled in battle[49]His was the only body of a Texian to be buried, after his brother Francisco received special permission from Santa Anna. The other bodies were burned.[50]
Robert EvansMajor; Master of Ordnanceunknown1800Ireland[51]killed in battleKilled in the Alamo Chapel before he could blow up the powder magazine[52]
Samuel B. EvansPrivateunknownJanuary 16, 1812Jefferson County, New Yorkkilled in battle[53]
James L. EwingPrivateCarey1812Tennesseekilled in battlesecretary to James C. Neill and possibly to Travis when he became commander.[53]
William Keener FaunterloyPrivateHarrison[54]1814Logan County, Kentucky[53]killed in battle[54]
William FishbaughPrivateGonzales Ranging CompanyunknownAlabama?killed in battleEntered the Alamo on March 1,rode in as original member of the Gonzales Mounted Rangers ("Immortal 32")[54]
John FlandersPrivateGonzales Ranging Company1800New Hampshirekilled in battleEntered Alamo on March 1, rode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers[54]
Salvador FloresCaptainArtillery officer (under Neill)1806Floresville, TexassurvivedFlores is not listed on most lists of Alamo defenders. In fall 1835 he recruited men and joined under Juan Seguin.[55] Fought at Bexar,[56] Stayed at the Alamo with Neill, left after February 25,[57] Lead rear guard protecting Texian families, later in 1842 Captain against Woll's army
Dolphin Ward FloydPrivateGonzales Ranging CompanyMarch 6, 1804Nash County, North Carolinakilled in battleEntered the Alamo on March 1, rode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers, Floyd County, Texas is named for him.[58]
John Hubbard ForsythCaptainForsythAugust 10, 1797Avon, New Yorkkilled in battleHe went to Texas with a volunteer cavalry company from Kentucky and eventually arrived at the Alamo along with William Travis' group.[58]
Antonio FuentesPrivateSeguins company1813San Antonio de Bexar, Texaskilled in battleFuentes was jailed in February for theft. When Bowie was elected commander of the Alamo shortly after, Bowie became very drunk and freed Fuentes. Although Fuentes was ordered back to jail afterwards, the action angered many and was partially responsible for the decision for Bowie and Travis to share command.[59]
Galba FuquaPrivateGonzales Ranging CompanyMarch 9, 1819Alabamakilled in battleEntered the Alamo on March 1. Original member of Gonzales Ranging Company. According to Susana Dickinson, Fuqua tried to give her a message during the battle, but his jaw had been broken and she could not understand him.[59]
William GarnettPrivateunknown1812Virginiakilled in battle[60]
James W. GarrandPrivateBlazeby1813Louisianakilled in battleTook part in the Siege of Bexar.[60]
James Girard GarrettPrivateBlazeby1806Tennesseekilled in battle[60]Originally a member of Breece's New Orleans Grays. Participated in the Siege of Bexar.[61]
John E. GarvinPrivateCarey1809killed in battleEntered the Alamo on March 1, rode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers[61]
John E. GastonPrivateGonzales Ranging Company1819killed in battleEntered the Alamo on March 1,rode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers[61]
James GeorgePrivateGonzales Ranging Company1802killed in battlebrother-in-law of Alamo defender William Deardruff.[61] Entered the Alamo on March 1, rode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers[62]
John C. GoodrichCornetBlazeby or Forsyth1809Virginiakilled in battle[62]his brother signed the Texas Declaration of Independence on March 2.[63]
Albert Calvin GrimesPrivateForsyth (possibly)December 20, 1817Georgiakilled in battleHis father, Jesse Grimes, signed the Texas Declaration of Independence on March 2.[63]
Brigido GuerreroPrivateBowies companyunknownTallenango, MexicosurvivedGuerrero was a soldier in the Mexican Army and deserted to join the Texians when war broke out.[63] He fought in both the Battle of Concepcion and the Siege of Bexar. Near the end of the battle of the Alamo, he joined the women in the chapel. He convinced Mexican soldiers that he was a prisoner-of-war and was spared.[64]
James C. GwinPrivate
aka Gwynne
Carey1804Englandkilled in battleParticipated in the Siege of Bexar.[64] Possibly Joseph C. Gwin, from WV (formerly Ky).[9]
James HannumPrivateunknown[65]August 8, 1815Pennsylvania[64]killed in battle[65]
John HarrisPrivateGonzales Ranging Company1813Kentuckykilled in battleParticipated in Siege of Bexar. Original member of Gonzales Ranging Company, entered the Alamo on March 1.[65]
Andrew Jackson HarrisonPrivateunknown1809Tennesseekilled in battle[65]
I.L.K. HarrisonunknownHarrison's company (VAC)unknownkilled in battleHarrison is not included on most lists of Alamo defenders. Lindley believes he should be included however. Neill signed an affidavit in 1838 swearing that when he left the Alamo on February 14 Harrison was a member of the garrison, and to his knowledge Harrison remained with the garrison and was killed in the battle.[66]
William B. HarrisonCaptainHarrison1811Ohiokilled in battleHe formed a company, known as the Tennessee Mounted Volunteers, in Nacogdoches, Texas on January 14, 1836. The company reached the Alamo on February 23. During the siege, his company defended the wooden palisade stretching between the Alamo chapel and the Low Barracks.[67]
Joseph M. HawkinsPrivateBaker (possibly)1799Irelandkilled in battle[67]
John M. HaysPrivateBaker (possibly)1814Nashville, Tennesseekilled in battleHe was nominated as a delegate to represent the Alamo garrison at the Convention of 1836 but was not elected.[68]
Charles M. HeiskellPrivateunknown1813Tennessee (possibly)killed in battleentered the Alamo with James Bowie[68]
Patrick Henry HerndonPrivateBaker (possibly)March 1802Virginiakilled in battle[68]May have accompanied Bowie to the Alamo.[69]
William Daniel HerseeSergeantCarey1805Englandkilled in battleWounded at the Siege of Bexar.[69]
Benjamin Franklin HighsmithPrivateunknownSeptember 11, 1817St. Charles District, Missouri Territorysurvived[69]Participated in the battles of Velasco, Gonzales, Concepcion, and Bexar and the Grass Fight.[70] Left as a courier on February 18, when he was sent with a plea for aid to Col. James W. Fannin, Jr., at Goliad.[71] Although he attempted to return to the garrison on March 5, he was chased away by Mexican soldiers.[45][69] After the battle, he carried the message from Sam Houston to James Fannin ordering Fannin to abandon Goliad. Highsmith fought in the Battle of San Jacinto, which ended the Texas Revolution, and then served in the Mexican-American War, where he was wounded. He died November 20, 1905.[70]
Tapley HollandPrivateCarey1810Ohiokilled in battle[70]His family were among the Old Three Hundred, the original colonists in Texas. Participated in the siege of Bexar.[72]
James HollowayNew Orleans Greyskilled in battleHolloway is not listed on most lists of Alamo defenders. In fall 1836 Captain Thomas Breece compiled a list of the men who had originally been under his command, and marked Holloway as killed at the Alamo.[6]
Samuel HollowayPrivateBlazeby1808Pennsylvaniakilled in battleParticipated in the siege of Bexar and remained as part of the garrison[72]
William D. HowellSurgeon (possibly)Blazeby1791Massachusettskilled in battleOriginally a member of Breece's New Orleans Grays. Participated in the siege of Bexar and remained as part of the garrison.[72]
Thomas P. HutchinsonNew Orleans Greyskilled in battleHutchinson is not listed on most lists of Alamo defenders. In fall 1836 Captain Thomas Breece compiled a list of the men who had originally been under his command, and marked Hutchinson as killed at the Alamo.[6]
Thomas JacksonPrivateGonzales Ranging CompanyIrelandkilled in battleOne of the Old Eighteen who refused to relinquish a cannon, leading to the Battle of Gonzales. Brother-in-law of Alamo defender George Cottle. Entered the Alamo on March 1, rode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers.[73]
William Daniel JacksonPrivateCarey1807Kentuckykilled in battleParticipated in siege of Bexar.[73]
Green B. JamesonMajorStaff officer1807Kentuckykilled in battle[73]His grandfather, John Jameson was a lieutenant governor of Virginia. Green Jameson participated in the siege of Bexar. When the Mexican troops surrendered the Alamo, Jameson became the chief engineer and was in charge of revamping the fortifications. On the first day of the siege, Bowie sent Jameson as a messenger to speak with representatives of the Mexican army.[74]
Gordon C. JenningsCorporalCarey1780Pennsylvaniakilled in battleParticipated in the siege of Bexar. His brother, Charles Jennings, was executed during the Goliad Massacre.[74]
Damacio JiménezArtillerySeguins companyTexaskilled in battleFriend of Travis. Brought in the 18 pounder cannon.[75]
JoeSlave of Travisrode in with Travis1813 or 1815United Statessurvived[74]When the battle commenced, Joe fought alongside Travis. After Travis's death, Joe took cover in a room. He was wounded when Mexican soldiers entered, but they assumed him to be a noncombatant and took him prisoner. He, along with Susana Dickinson, spread the news of the Alamo's fall to the colonies in Texas.[45][76][77]
John JohnsonPrivate, courierunknown1800MissourisurvivedAs the Mexican cavalry approached on February 23, Travis dispatched courier John Johnson to ask Colonel James Fannin, 100 miles (160 km) southeast, to send reinforcements immediately.[78][79] Went to Gonzales March 5-6 and joined under P.R.Splane and fought at San Jacinto [80] Johnson's name also appears on the Alamo voting list.[81]
Lewis JohnsonPrivateCarey (possibly)Illinois Territory (possibly)killed in battle[82]Participated in the siege of Bexar.[83]
William JohnsonPrivateCarey (possibly)Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniakilled in battle[83]
William P. JohnsonSergeant (possibly)unknownsurvivedLikely a courier who left with a message to Fannin on February 23. Died in the Goliad Massacre.[83]
John JonesFirst LieutenantBlazeby1810New Yorkkilled in battleOriginally a member of Breece's New Orleans Greys. Participated in the siege of Bexar.[83]
John Benjamin KelloggRode with Gonzales Mounted Rangers1817Kentuckykilled in battleGonzales resident. Arrived at the Alamo on March 1, rode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers[84]
James Kenney1814Virginiakilled in battleEnlisted on September 28, 1835. Served in Capt. Robert M. Coleman's company, then reinlisted.[85]
Andrew KentGonzales Mounted Rangers1798Virginiakilled in battleArrived at the Alamo on March 1 as original member of the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers ("Immortal 32"). Kent County, Texas is named in his honor.[86]
Joseph KerrPrivatemarksman, unknown1814Louisianakilled in battlerode in with Louisiana Volunteers for Tx. Independence under Capt.S.L.Chamblis, Son of Ohio General and Senator Joseph Kerr.[87]
George C. KimbleLieutenantGonzales Ranging Company1803Pennsylvaniakilled in battleArrived at the Alamo on March 1 as commander of the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers, (the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers). Kimble County, Texas is named in his honor.[88]
William Philip KingPrivaterode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted RangersOctober 8, 1820Monroe County, Mississippiyoungest defender killed in the battleKing County was named in his honor. Traded places at the Alamo with his father(told his father to go back home).[89]
William Irvine LewisPrivate, marksmanwent with Bowie1806Virginiakilled in battleleft from NC, his mother was given a small stone memento from the Alamo[90]
William J. Lightfoot3rd Corpl.Carey's artillery company1805Kentuckykilled in battlefought at Bexar, remained at Alamo.[90] Actual name is John William Lightfoot.
Jonathan L. LindleyPrivate, artilliarymanCarey's artillery company1814Illinoiskilled in battlefought at Bexar, lived in Gonzales, rode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers on March 1[90]
William LinnPrivate, marksmanCapt. Blazeby's infantry companyMassachusettskilled in battlefought at Bexar as member of Breece's Greys, captured and released by Mexican soldiers[91]
Byrd LockhartCommissioner, empowered to muster Gonzales Ranging CompanyGonzales Ranging Company1782VirginiasurvivedOn February 23, Lockhart and Andrew Sowell were scouting for provisions when the Mexican army arrived. Unable to re-enter the Alamo, they went to Gonzales.[92] He may have reentered on March 1 with the Gonzales relief forces and left again with Smith.[93]
Toribio LosoyamarksmanSeguín's company1808Texaskilled in battleFormer Mexican soldier, lived in house near the southwest corner of the Alamo compound, His family took refuge in the Alamo chapel.[94]
George Washington MainLieutenantWhite's infantry co.1807Virginiakilled in battleFought at Bexar, wounded[95]
William T. MalonePrivate, artilleryCarey's artillery co.1817Athens, Alabamakilled in battlefought at Bexar remained at Alamo with Carey[96]
William MarshallPrivate, marksmanBlazeby's infantry co.1808Tennesseekilled in battlefought at Bexar remained at Alamo with Blazeby[96]
Albert MartinCaptain, courierrode back in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers1808Rhode Islandkilled in battlefought at Bexar, Gonzales resident, member "Old Eighteen", Travis' emissary to Almonte, carried Travis' 2/24 message to Gonzales, returned with Gonzales relief[97]
Samuel MaverickPrivate, delegateunknown1803Pendleton, South Carolinasurvivedfought at Bexar, San Antonio resident, stayed in Bexar, elected a delegate from the Alamo garrison on February 1 to the independence convention in March, left the Alamo garrison on March 2.[98]
Edward McCaffertyLieutenantBowies companyunknownunknown, Refugio residentkilled in battlePossible officer to Jim Bowie's men[97]
Jesse McCoyPrivate, marksmanGonzales Mounted Rangers1804Tennesseekilled in battleoriginal settler of Dewitt's Colony, rode in as original member of the Gonzales Mounted Rangers ("Immortal 32" )[99]
William McDowellPrivate, marksmanHarrison's company1794Pennsylvaniakilled in battlejoined Vol.Aux.Corps in Nacogdoches[99]
James McGeePrivate, marksmanBlazeby's infantry co.unknownIrelandkilled in battlefought at Bexar remained with Blazeby[99]
John McGregorSergeantCarey's company1808Scotlandkilled in battlefought at Bexar, remained at Alamo with Carey, played bagpipes accompanied by Crockett's fiddle[100]
Robert McKinneyPrivaterode in with Bowie1809Irelandkilled in battleImmigrated in 1835 from Ireland to America.[101] Formerly resident of New Orleans[100]
Eliel MeltonQuartermaster with the rank of LieutenantMember of Lt. Col. James C. Neill's staff1798Georgiakilled in battlefought at Bexar, remained at Alamo as Quartermaster, reportedly killed by Mexican Cavalry outside the Alamo[102]
Thomas R. MillerPrivate, marksmanGonzales Mounted Rangers1795Tennesseekilled in battleGonzales resident & merchant, member of Consultation, one of the "Old Eighteen", held title to the western half of Seguin, Texas,[103] rode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers[104]
William MillsPrivate, marksmanrode in with Bowie1815Tennesseekilled in battleAustin's Colony resident, formerly Mississippi[104]
Isaac MillsapsPrivate, marksmanGonzales Mounted Rangersc. 1795Mississippikilled in battleGonzales resident, wife Mary was blind, rode in as original member of the Gonzales Mounted Rangers ("Immortal 32")[105]
Edward F. MitchussonAlamo surgeonAlamo hospital1806Virginiakilled in battleWashington County, Tx. resident, fought at Bexar, badly wounded, joined Chenoweth's company[105]
Edwin T. MitchellPrivate, marksmanWhite's infantry co.1806unknownkilled in battlefought at Bexar, remained at Alamo with Bexar Guards,( A Mitchell was killed defending Juana Alsbury)[106]
Napoleon B. MitchellPrivate, artilleryCarey's artillery co.1804unknownkilled in battlefought at Bexar, remained at Alamo with Carey,( A Mitchell was killed defending Juana Alsbury)[106]
Robert B. MoorePrivate, marksmanBlazeby's company1781Virginiakilled in battlefought at Bexar, remained at Alamo with Blazeby[107]
Willis A. MoorePrivate, marksmanmay have rode in with Bowie1808unknown, Mississippi residentkilled in battlefought at Bexar, former Chenoweth's N.O. Grey company[107]
John MormanNew Orleans Greyskilled in battleMorman is not listed on most lists of Alamo defenders. In fall 1836 Captain Thomas Breece compiled a list of the men who had originally been under his command, and marked Morman as killed at the Alamo.[6]
Robert MusselmanSergeantCapt. William Blazeby' infantry company1805Ohiokilled in battleFormerly served in US Army during Seminole Indian War; one of the few Alamo defenders-besides Travis; Crockett, Autry, and Bonham-who had prior military experience.
Andrés NavaPrivate, marksmanSeguín's company1810Texaskilled in battleServed at siege of Bexar[108]
Gerald NavanPrivate, couriersurvivedAlamo courier with John Smith as listed above, who last left on March 3. They were the first reporters of the fall of the Alamo, in Gonzales. Helped compile the first list of slain Alamo defenders for the Telegraph and Texas Register issue of March 24, Fought at Bexar in Parrott's Artillery Company, Navan is on the J.C.Neill list of Carey's company, when Neill left the Alamo in mid February[1]
George NegganPrivate, marksmanrode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers1808South Carolinakilled in battleresident of Gonzales[109]
Andrew M. NelsonPrivate, marksmanunknown, volunteer1809Tennesseekilled in battlesingle, son of John & Elizabeth Mansfield Nelson[110]
Edward NelsonPrivate, marksmanBaker's company1816South Carolinakilled in battlerode in with Bowie, fought at Bexar in Peacock's artillery, joined Chenoweth's company in Jan.[110]
George NelsonPrivate, marksmanBlazeby's infantry1805South Carolinakilled in battlerode in with Breece's N.O.Greys, fought at Bexar, wounded, remained at Alamo with Blazeby[111]
Benjamin F. NoblesLieutenant, spyrode with Dimmit's companyunknownunknownsurvivedNobles left the Alamo with Dimitt on February 23.[111][112]
James NorthcrossPrivate, artilleryCarey's artillery1804Virginiakilled in battlefought at Bexar, remained at Alamo with Carey[113]
James NowlanPrivate, marksmanrode with Cooke's N.O.Grey's1809Englandkilled in battlefought at Bexar, badly wounded[114]
William Sanders OuryPrivate, marksman, courierfollowed Travis into the AlamoAugust 13, 1817Abingdon, Virginiasurvivedsent out as a courier February 29, later survived Mier Expedition[115]
George PaganPrivateunknown, artillery1810unknown, formerly Natchez Mississippikilled in battlefought at Bexar under Neill[116]
Christopher Adams ParkerPrivate, marksmanrode in with Dimmitt1814unknown, Mississippi residentkilled in battlehis father fought at New Orleans 1814, grandfather fought at Valley forge[117]
William ParksPrivate, marksmanWhite's infantry company1805Rowan County, North Carolinakilled in battlefought at Bexar, remained at Alamo as Bexar Guard[117]
William Hester PattonAssistant QuartermasterIn-charge of Alamo companies1808Kentuckysurvivedprobable courier of March 3 letters, Crockett's nephew,[33] commanded a company at Bexar, officer of the Alamo garrison[118]
Richardson PerryPrivateCarey's artillery1817Mississippikilled in battleServed at siege of Bexar[119]
Amos PollardAlamo SurgeonAlamo hospital, chief surgeon (under Neill)October 29, 1803Ashburnham, Massachusettskilled in battlejoined as regimental surgeon under S.F.Austin, remained at Alamo[120]
John Purdy ReynoldsPrivate, marksman, surgeonHarrison's company1806Pennsylvaniakilled in battlejoined Vol.Aux.Corps in Nacogdoches, rode in with Capt.Harrison's company[120]
Thomas H. RobertsPrivate, marksmanBaker's companyunknownunknownkilled in battleentered with Bowie[121]
James Waters RobertsonPrivate, marksmanunknown, volunteer1812Tennesseekilled in battleFought at Bexar[121]
Isaac Robinson4th SergeantCarey's artillery1808Scotlandkilled in battleFought at Bexar, remained in Alamo in Carey's company[121]
James M. RosePrivate, marksmanCrockett's company1805Ohiokilled in battleNephew of President James Madison. Followed the Company of David Crockett.[122]
Louis Moses RosePrivate, marksmanBaker's company1785Ardennes, FrancesurvivedPreviously served in the French Army in the Napoleonic Wars from 1806-1815 and received the Legion of Honour. Followed Bowie to Texas. Told of Travis' line in the sand. Escaped through a window.[123] details of the escape of Rose as told by Zuber appear conflicting[33]
Jacob RothMajorHarrison's company (VAC)unknownkilled in battleRoth is not included on most lists of Alamo defenders. Lindley believes that Roth should be included. Roth appeared on a February 1, 1836 muster roll at the Alamo garrison, and a petition to the Nacogdoches probate court on January 31, 1838 to settle Roth's affairs listed his death as on or about March 6.[66]
Jackson J. RuskPrivate, marksmanBaker's companyunknownIrelandkilled in battleNacogdoches resident, rode in with Bowie[124]
Joseph RutherfordPrivate, marksmanCarey's company1798Kentuckykilled in battleFought at Bexar, remained in Alamo in Carey's company[124]
Isaac RyanPrivate, marksmanWhites infantry1805Louisianakilled in battleFought at Bexar, remained in Alamo as Bexar Guard[124]
Mial ScurlockPrivate, marksmanunknown, volunteerMay 25, 1809Chatham County, North Carolinakilled in battleFought at Bexar[125]
Juan SeguínCaptainCommander of his own cavalry companyOctober 27, 1806San Antonio, TexassurvivedSeguin left on February 25 to recruit reinforcements. After encountering a Mexican patrol he pretended to be an officer in the Mexican army. When he neared the soldiers he spurred his horse and used his knowledge of the terrain to escape.[126][127]
Marcus L. SewellPrivateGonzales Ranging Company1805Englandkilled in battleFollowed in with Capt. Byrd Lockhart on March 1, rode in as original member of the Gonzales Mounted Rangers ("Immortal 32" )[128]
Manson ShiedPrivateCapt. William R. Carey's artillery Co.1811Georgiakilled in battleServed at siege of Bexar[129]
Cleveland Kinloch SimmonsLieutenantForsyth's companyJune 8, 1815Charleston, South Carolinakilled in battlesigned on in San Felipe as officer in Texas Regular Army[130]
Andrew H. SmithPrivate, marksmanForsyth's cavalry1815Tennesseekilled in battleservice is questionable[130]
Charles S. SmithPrivateCarey's artillery1806Marylandkilled in battlefought at Bexar, remained at Alamo with Carey[131]
Joshua G. SmithSergeantForsyth's company1808North Carolinakilled in battleBastrop resident[132]
John William Smithscout, guide, courierGonzales Ranging CompanyMarch 4, 1792VirginiasurvivedSmith first left the Alamo on February 23 with one of Travis's first pleas for help.[133] On March 1, he returned guiding the 32 reinforcements from Gonzales into the Alamo,[134] and left again on March 3 with another message from Travis, he was returning with 25 reinforcements when the Alamo fell, later became San Antonio mayor[135][136]
William H. SmithPrivateWilliam R. Carey's artillery1811unknown, Nacogdoches residentkilled in battleserved at the siege of Bexar[137]
Launcelot SmitherPrivaterode in with Travis1800unknown, San Felipe resident, formerly Alabamasurvivedcourier, left on February 23, killed by Woll's men 1842[131]
Andrew Jackson SowellPrivate, foragerunknown, Gonzales resident, (Sowell, Smith, and Lockhart possibly guided the Gonzales Mounted Rangers back in on March 1)June 17, 1815TennesseesurvivedIn September 1835, A.J, Sowell joined with John N. Sowell (one of the "Old Eighteen") who refused to relinquish the Gonzales cannon, then went on the serve at Bexar, on February 23, 1836 Lockhart and Sowell were scouting for provisions when the Mexican army arrived. Unable to re-enter the Alamo, he went to Gonzales and assisted in the Runaway Scrape, later became a Texas Ranger[92][138]
John SprattNew Orleans Greyskilled in battleSpratt is not listed on most lists of Alamo defenders. In fall 1836 Captain Thomas Breece compiled a list of the men who had originally been under his command, and marked Spratt as killed at the Alamo.[6]
Richard StarrPrivate, marksmanBlazeby's infantry1811Englandkilled in battlerode in with Breece's N.O.Greys, fought at Bexar, remained at Alamo[139]
James E. StewartPrivate, marksmanunknown1808Englandkilled in battlelimited information[139]
Richard L. StocktonPrivate, marksmanHarrison' company1817New Jerseykilled in battlejoined Vol. Aux.Corps in Nacogdoches, rode in with Capt.Harrison's company[139]
A. Spain SummerlinPrivate, marksmanWhite's infantry1817Tennesseekilled in battleresident of Nacogdoches, fought at Bexar, stayed at Alamo in the Bexar Guards[140]
William E. SummersPrivate, marksmanGonzales Ranging Company1812Tennesseekilled in battleresident of Gonzales, rode in as original member of the Gonzales Mounted Rangers ("Immortal 32" )[140]
John Sutherland Jr.Private, physicianPatton's Company, Alamo HospitalMay 11, 1792Danville, Pittsylvania County, VirginiasurvivedInjured in a fall from his horse and could not fight, so Col. William B. Travis sent him Out February 23 to recruit help from Gonzales. Later wrote The Fall of the Alamo, pub. in 1936[141]
William DePriest SutherlandPrivate, marksman, physicians assistantPatton's Company, Alamo HospitalAugust 10, 1818Tennessee, Navidad, Tx. resident, formerly Alabamakilled in battleFollowed his uncle, John Sutherland Jr., into the Alamo[142]
Edward TaylorPrivatemarksman, unknown1812Tennesseekilled in battleTaylor County, Texas is named for him and his brothers, George and James, who also died in the Alamo.[143]
George TaylorPrivatemarksman, unknown1816Tennesseekilled in battleTaylor County, Texas is named for him and his brothers, Edward and James, who also died in the Alamo.[144]
James TaylorPrivatemarksman, unknown1814Tennesseekilled in battleTaylor County, Texas is named for him and his brothers, George and Edward, who also died in the Alamo.[144]
William TaylorPrivatemarksman, unknown1799Tennesseekilled in battleno lands given for his service[145]
B. Archer M. ThomasPrivatemarksman, Capt.Harrison's company1818Kentuckykilled in battlejoined Vol. Aux.Corps in Nacogdoches, rode in with Capt.Harrison's company[145]
Henry ThomasPrivatemarksman, Capt. William Blazeby's infantry1811Germanykilled in battlerode in with Breeces New Orleans Greys[145]
Jesse G. ThompsonPrivatemarksman, unknown1798Arkansaskilled in battlejoined Capt. Seals ranger company[146]
John W. ThomsonPrivate, surgeon, marksmanAlamo hospital1807North Carolinakilled in battlejoined Vol. Aux.Corps in Nacogdoches, member of Capt.Gilmer's company[146]
John, M. ThurstonSecond LieutenantForsyth's cavalry company1812Pennsylvaniakilled in battledelivered rifle powder to Dimmit[147]
Burke TrammelPrivateCarey's company1810Irelandkilled in battleFought at Bexar, remained at the Alamo[147]
William B. TravisLt. ColonelCommander of his own cavalry company, fully commanded Alamo on 2/24/1836August 1, 1809Edgefield District, South Carolinakilled in battleCommanded the "Regulars"; first of the defenders to be killed in the final battle[148]
2nd cousin of defender James Butler Bonham
George W. TumlinsonPrivateCarey's artillery1814Missourikilled in battlefought at Bexar, Gonzales resident, (rode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers)[149]
James TyleePrivatemarksman, unknown1795New Yorkkilled in battlemarried, in 1834, he applied for land in Texas[149]
Asa WalkerPrivate, marksmanCapt. Robert White's infantry company (Bexar Guards)1813Tennesseekilled in battleFought at Siege of Bexar. On Neill's list as hospital patient.[150]
Jacob WalkerPrivateCapt. William R. Carey artillery company1799Tennesseekilled in battleOne of the last of the Alamo garrison to be killed-in the Alamo chapel[151]
William B. WardSergeantunknown, fought near artillery at main gate1806Irelandkilled in battleHad a reputation for drunkenness in earlier postings.[152]

William B. Ward (b. 1806 - d. March 6, 1836). William B. Ward served as sergeant of volunteers in the garrison at the Alamo during the Texas Revolution. Born in Ireland and immigrating to the United States and later to Texas through New Orleans. While in San Antonio de Bexar, Ward developed a reputation of a drunk and with a penchant for profanity. However, on the morning of March 6, 1836, an eye witness (San Antonio merchant Nathaniel "Nat" Lewis) claims to have observed Ward to be sober and calm standing guard at the main gate battery of the Alamo. Ward perished with the other defenders at the Alamo when the Mexican Army, under General Antonio López de Santa Anna made the main assault on March 6, 1836.ref>Porter, Reuben (January 1878). ""The Fall of the Alamo,"". Magazine of American History.</ref>

Henry WarnellPrivateCapt. William R. Carey artillery company1812Resident of ArkansassurvivedHistorians disagree on whether Warnell was at the Alamo. The historians who place Warnell in the Alamo believe Warnell either escaped by playing dead after the battle on March 6 or that he left as a courier. Warnell died in Port Lavaca, Texas, of wounds incurred either during the final battle or during his escape as a courier.[153]
Joseph George WashingtonPrivatemarksman, Harrison's companyc. 1808Tennesseekilled in battleFrom Robertson County, Tennessee, twin sister Amanda Melvina Washington, parents Andrew Washington and Margaret Bridger.
Thomas WatersPrivateCapt. William R. Carey's artillery company1812Englandkilled in battleFought at siege of Bexar. Rode with Capt. Thomas Breece's company of New Orleans Greys.[154]
William Wellsmarksman, unknownCapt. William H. Patton's company1798Hall County, Georgiakilled in battlemarried, had son & daughter[155]
Isaac WhiteSergeantunknownunknownunknownkilled in battlewas married, one daughter[156]
Robert WhiteCaptainCommander of his own infantry company, the Bexar Guards1806unknown, Gonzales residentkilled in battlefought at Bexar, rode in as original member of the Gonzales Mounted Rangers ("Immortal 32")[157]
Hiram James WilliamsonSergeant-Major of the garrisonIn-charge of the Alamo companies1810Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniakilled in battleFought at siege of Bexar. Highest ranking enlisted man in the Alamo[158]
William Willsunknownunknownunknownunknownkilled in battlefarmer in Brazoria County, Texas[159]
David L. Wilsonunknownfollowed Dimmitt to Bexar1807Scotlandkilled in battleremained in Alamo, resident of Nacogdoches[160]
John Wilsonunknownunknown1804Pennsylvaniakilled in battlehis parents were John and Jane (Nevin) Wilson[161]
Anthony WolfunknownCapt. William R. Carey artillery companyFebruary 17, 1782Spainkilled in battleHe and his sons were some of the last of garrison to be killed in Alamo Chapel[162]
Claiborne Wrightunknownrode in as part of the "Immortal 32" Gonzales Mounted Rangers1810North Carolinakilled in battlefought at Siege of Bexar, resident of Gonzales[163]
Charles Zancolieutenantordnance (under Neill)1808Randers, Denmarkkilled in battlefought at Siege of Bexar, remained in Alamo[164]
JohnunknownHopewell believes he entered the Alamo with Bowie[165]unknownunknownkilled in battleGroneman thinks he was left in the Alamo when Francis L. Desauque was sent out for supplies.[166] John was one of several black participants in the Battle of the Alamo.[167]

Unless otherwise noted, these names are fetched from the [10] Alamo website's list[168]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Chariton (1990), p. 180.
  2. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 1
  3. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 2.
  4. ^ Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "," [1] (accessed July 25, 2010).
  5. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 87.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Lindley (2003), p. 54.
  7. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 6–7.
  8. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 7.
  9. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 8.
  10. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 9.
  11. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 9–10.
  12. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 10.
  13. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 10–11.
  14. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 11.
  15. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 12.
  16. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 13–14.
  17. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 14.
  18. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 15-16.
  19. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 16.
  20. ^ Hopewell (1994), pp. 2–3.
  21. ^ Hopewell (1994), p. 116.
  22. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 19.
  23. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 62.
  24. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 20.
  25. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 20–21.
  26. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 21.
  27. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 22.
  28. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 23.
  29. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 24.
  30. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 25.
  31. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 26.
  32. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 27.
  33. ^ a b c Lindley (2003), p. 202.
  34. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 29.
  35. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 30.
  36. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 31.
  37. ^ a b c d Groneman (1990), p. 32.
  38. ^ a b c d e Groneman (1990), p. 33.
  39. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 34.
  40. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 35.
  41. ^ a b c Dahlqvist, pp. 265-303.
  42. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 36.
  43. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 37.
  44. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 39.
  45. ^ a b c Todish (1998), p. 89.
  46. ^ Groneman (1990), pp.40–41.
  47. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 41–42.
  48. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 42.
  49. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 45.
  50. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 46.
  51. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 47.
  52. ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 371.
  53. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 48.
  54. ^ a b c d Groneman (1990), p. 49.
  55. ^ de la Teja (1991), p. 18.
  56. ^ de la Teja (1991), p. 135, 182.
  57. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 94, 112.
  58. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 50.
  59. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 51.
  60. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 52.
  61. ^ a b c d Groneman (1990), p. 53.
  62. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 54.
  63. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 55.
  64. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 56.
  65. ^ a b c d Groneman (1990), p. 57.
  66. ^ a b Lindley (2003), p. 53.
  67. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 58.
  68. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 59.
  69. ^ a b c d Groneman (1990), p. 60.
  70. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 61.
  71. ^ Groneman
  72. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 62.
  73. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 63.
  74. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 64.
  75. ^ Handbook of Texas
  76. ^ Groneman (1990) p. 65.
  77. ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 369.
  78. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 88.
  79. ^ Lord (1961), p. 96.
  80. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 109.
  81. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 321.
  82. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 66.
  83. ^ a b c d Groneman (1990), p. 67.
  84. ^ Handbook of Texas
  85. ^ Handbook of Texas
  86. ^ Andrew Kent at Find a Grave
  87. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 69
  88. ^ The Immortal 32 Gonzales Rangers by Wallace L McKeehan accessed from The DeWitt Colony Alamo Defenders on 26 March 2010.
  89. ^ Handbook of Texas
  90. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 71.
  91. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 72.
  92. ^ a b Lindley (2003), p. 90.
  93. ^ Groneman, Alamo Defenders, pp. 72–73.
  94. ^ Handbook of Texas
  95. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 74.
  96. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 75.
  97. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 76.
  98. ^ Paula Mitchell Marks, "MAVERICK, SAMUEL AUGUSTUS," Handbook of Texas Online [2], accessed March 07, 2012. Published by the TSHA.
  99. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 77.
  100. ^ a b Todish (1998), p. 83.
  101. ^ Lord (1961), p. 217.
  102. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 78-79.
  103. ^ TAMU
  104. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p.79.
  105. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p.80.
  106. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p.81.
  107. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p.81-82.
  108. ^ Handbook of Texas
  109. ^ Handbook of Texas
  110. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p.84.
  111. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 85.
  112. ^ See section B.F.Nobles courier with Dimmit
  113. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 86.
  114. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 87.
  115. ^ Handbook of Texas
  116. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 88.
  117. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 88-89.
  118. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 89-90.
  119. ^ Handbook of Texas
  120. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 91-92
  121. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 93.
  122. ^ Handbook of Texas
  123. ^ Handbook of Texas
  124. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 95-96.
  125. ^ Handbook of Texas
  126. ^ Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 97.
  127. ^ Nofi, The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence, pp. 85–86.
  128. ^ Handbook of Texas
  129. ^ Handbook of Texas
  130. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 100.
  131. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 101.
  132. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 103.
  133. ^ Nofi, The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence, p. 78.
  134. ^ Myers, The Alamo, p. 202.
  135. ^ Groneman, pp. 101–102.
  136. ^ Todish et al., p. 90.
  137. ^ Handbook of Texas
  138. ^ Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 105.
  139. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 106
  140. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 107
  141. ^ Handbook of Texas
  142. ^ Handbook of Texas
  143. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 109
  144. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 110
  145. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 111
  146. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 112
  147. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 113
  148. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 115
  149. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 116
  150. ^ Handbook of Texas
  151. ^ Handbook of Texas
  152. ^ "Ward, William B". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
  153. ^ Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 119.
  154. ^ Handbook of Texas
  155. ^ Handbook of Texas
  156. ^ Handbook of Texas
  157. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 120
  158. ^ Handbook of Texas
  159. ^ Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "," [3] (accessed July 28, 2010).
  160. ^ Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "," [4] (accessed July 28, 2010).
  161. ^ Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "," [5] (accessed July 28, 2010).
  162. ^ Handbook of Texas
  163. ^ Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "," [6] (accessed July 28, 2010)
  164. ^ Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "," [7] (accessed July 28, 2010).
  165. ^ Hopewell125 (1994), p. 125.
  166. ^ Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "," [8] (accessed September 4, 2010).
  167. ^ Handbook of Texas
  168. ^ "List of Alamo defenders". 

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Military Rolls of the Republic of Texas 1835 - 1845, Compiled by H. David Maxey [11]

Alamo Noncombatants, Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "," [12] (accessed September 4, 2010).

In the Alamo's Shadow, By Ron Jackson [13]