List of Acacia species known to contain psychoactive alkaloids

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This is a list of Acacia species (sensu lato) that are known to contain psychoactive alkaloids, or are suspected of containing such alkaloids due to being psychoactive. The presence and constitution of alkaloids in nature can be highly variable, due to environmental and genetic factors.

Acacias Known to Contain Psychoactive Alkaloids
Acacia acinacea
0.04-0.82% alkaloids in leaves and stems, 0.08% in ripe pods, mostly phenethylamine[1]
Acacia acuminata ssp. acuminata
DMT in bark (up to 1.6%) and in leaves (0.6-1.0%), young leaves mainly containing tryptamine;[2] 0.72% alkaloids from leaves and stems, mostly tryptamine[3]
Acacia acuminata ssp. burkittii (syn. A. burkittii)
DMT in bark (0.2-1.2%), 0.1% alkaloids from leaves (mostly NMT);[2] 1.5% alkaloids from leaves and stems, mostly tryptamine[3]
Acacia adunca
β-methyl-phenethylamine (N-methyl-phenethylamine), 2.4% in leaves;[4] 3.2% alkaloids in aerial parts (stems, leaves, flowers) - about 70% was β-methyl-phenethylamine, with smaller amounts of phenethylamine[3]
Acacia albida
Published reports of DMT in the leaf[5] derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species.[6] Besides this, there are independent claims of DMT in leaves and bark based on human bioassay,[2] and traces of 5-MeO-DMT, DMT and NMT were tentatively identified by TLC in twigs.[7] Root bark contains alkaloids that were not identified[8]
Alpina mueller.jpg
Acacia alpina
Dimethyltryptamine active levels in leaf[9]
Acacia aneura blossom.jpg
Acacia aneura
Ash used in Pituri.[10] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[11] Not known if psychoactive per se.
Acacia angustissima usgs.png
Acacia angustissima
0.028% β-methyl-phenethylamine in leaves,[12] DMT (0.00012-0.00102%) and N-methyltyramine (0.00011-0.005%) in leaves;[13] DMT and 5-MeO-DMT tentatively identified by TLC from roots in one test, not detected in follow up; 5-MeO-DMT tentatively identified by TLC in seeds[7]
Acacia-aroma.jpg
Acacia aroma
Has been claimed to contain tryptamine alkaloids[14] and significant amount of tryptamine in the seeds,[15] but this needs confirmation and supporting information
Starr 031013-8001 Acacia auriculiformis.jpg
Acacia auriculiformis
5-MeO-DMT tentatively identified in stem bark[7]
Acacia baileyana.jpg
Acacia baileyana
0.02% alkaloids in spring (80% tetrahydroharman, 20% tryptamine), 0.028% autumn (tryptamine) and none in summer, with leaves of Californian plants;[16] traces of DMT and unidentified indoles tentatively detected in seeds[7]
Acacia beauverdiana
Claimed to be psychoactive,[17] but supporting information is needed. Ash used in pituri[10]
Acacia-berlandieri-flowers4.jpg
Acacia berlandieri
Hordenine, tyramine and N-methyltyramine in leaves;[18] 0.28-0.66% N-methylphenethylamine in leaves. Causes stock intoxications in Texas.[12][19] Claims of amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and many other alkaloids[20] are suspect[21]
Acacia buxifolia
0.65% alkaloids from leaves and stems, 0.58% from pods and 0.09% from seeds, mostly phenethylamine[1]
Acacia caesia
Tryptamine and DMT N-oxide from bark[22]
Acacia cardiophylla
0.02-0.06% alkaloids from stems and leaves, consisting of tryptamine and phenethylamine;[3] one screening found no alkaloids[23]
Acacia catechu - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-003.jpg
Acacia catechu (syn. A. polyacantha, A. suma)
Claims of DMT in the plant[24] have been referenced to works that do not support the claim. Needs research.
Acaciacaven29b.jpg
Acacia caven
Claims of tryptamines in this species are unreferenced. Leaves of this (and/or other plants) and tobacco, are occasionally smoked with Anadenanthera seeds for psychoactive effects[25]
Acaciachundra.jpg
Acacia chundra (syn. A. catechu var. sundra)
Claims of DMT and other tryptamines in leaf and bark are unreferenced. Needs research.
Acacia colei
Claimed to contain up to 1.8% DMT in bark, 0.2-0.6% in leaf,[26] but others have found no alkaloids, or nearly none in this species[2]
Acacia complanata
0.3% N-methyl-tetrahydroharman, traces of tetrahydroharman in leaf and stem;[27] independent claims of DMT from bark[28] need confirmation
Acacia concinna Blanco2.374.png
Acacia concinna
2.1% Nicotine (w/w), 1.2% calycotomine (d/w) from leaves[29][30]
Starr 050107-2872 Acacia confusa.jpg
Acacia confusa
0.074% alkaloids from stems (20% DMT, 80% NMT);[31] NMT and an unidentified tryptamine alkaloid from trunk bark;[32] [33] 2.85% alkaloids from root bark (45% DMT, 55% NMT);[34] 0.005% DMT, 0.009% DMT N-oxide, 0.006% NMT and 0.007% N-chloromethyl-DMT (might be artefact of extraction) from unspecified parts[35]
Acacia constricta flower.jpg
Acacia constricta
0.02% alkaloids from leaves, including β-methyl-phenethylamine (tentatively identified)[12]
Acacia coriacea
Ash used in Pituri.[10][36] Not known if psychoactive.
A-cornigera.jpg
Acacia cornigera
May be psychoactive, as the root is used as an aphrodisiac, and may have been added to the Central American balché beverage.[25] Claims of tryptamines in this species[37] might be speculation. Research needed.
Acacia cultriformis leaves.jpg
Acacia cultriformis
0.02-0.07% alkaloids in leaves and stems, including tryptamine (tentatively identified) and a phenethylamine. 0.04% alkaloids in seeds and unripe seed pods;[1][3][38] tentative observation of 5-MeO-DMT in leaves, stems and flowers[7]
Acacia cuthbertsonii
Has been included on a list of psychoactive plants,[17] but requires supporting information
Acacia delibrata
Has been included on a list of psychoactive plants,[17] but requires supporting information
Whistling thorn.jpg
Acacia drepanolobium
DMT in bark (up to 1.4%) and leaves (0.5-0.8%), young leaves mainly containing tryptamine[2]
Acacia falcata Eastwood.jpg
Acacia falcata
Psychoactive,[17] but less than 0.02% alkaloids[39]
Acaciafarnesiana1web.jpg
Acacia farnesiana
Tentative identification of 5-MeO-DMT and an unidentified β-carboline from immature seed pods;[7] tryptamine in stem bark.[22] A claim of β-methyl-phenethylamine from flowers is not supported by the reference given.[40] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[11] Alkaloids are present in the bark[41] and leaves.[42] Others found no alkaloids.[23] Claims of amphetamines and mescaline in the tree[37] appear to be groundless
Acacia filiciana
Has been added to pulque,[25] but its psychoactivity is unknown
Acacia floribunda
Up to 0.18% alkaloids from tops, mostly tryptamine with some phenethylamine; 0.15-1.18% alkaloids from flowers, equal amounts tryptamine and phenethylamine;[38][43] traces of unidentified alkaloid from bark.[1] Recently found to actually contain mostly DMT (up to 0.1% from leaves, 0.3-0.5% from bark), with bark also containing NMT, and small amounts of tryptamine, harman and norharman[2]
Acacia greggii thorns.jpg
Acacia greggii
0.016% alkaloids from leaves, including (tentatively identified) N-methyl-β-phenethylamine and tyramine[12]
Acacia harpophylla
0.1-0.6% alkaloids in leaves, consisting of phenethylamine and hordenine at a ratio of 2:3; 0.3% alkaloids in bark[4][23]
Acacia holoserica
Hordenine, 1.2% in bark[4]
Acacia-horrida.jpg
Acacia horrida
Has been claimed to be psychoactive, but this is not supported by the reference given[36]
A.Implexa.jpg
Acacia implexa
Claimed to be psychoactive,[44] but this requires supporting information
Acacia jurema
Putative species claimed to contain DMT and NMT, without a reference; possibly assumed due to supposed use in jurema wine
Acacia karroo2.jpg
Acacia karroo
Probably psychoactive; roots used in Zimbabwe as an aphrodisiac and to treat dizziness, convulsions and body pains[45]
Acacia kempeana
Used in Pituri, but not known if psychoactive.[36]
Acacia kettlewelliae
1.3-1.88% alkaloids from leaves and stems, mostly (92%) phenethylamine;[3] 0.9% β-methyl-phenethylamine from leaves[4]
Acacia laeta
Published reports of DMT in the leaf[5] derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species.[6] Needs research
Acacia leucophloea
Tryptamine in root bark[22]
Acacia lingulata
Used in Pituri, but not known if psychoactive.[36]
Acacia-longifolia-branch.jpg
Acacia longifolia
0.2-1% alkaloids from tops, 0.14-0.29% from flowers; consisted mostly of tryptamine-like alkaloids (tryptamine itself found in some flowers), with small amount of phenethylamine.[1][38][43] Some strains have been found to contain up to 0.2% DMT in unspecified parts.[2][46] Leaves, bark, pods, seeds and flowers all contained varying levels of histamine amides[47]
Acacia sophorae
Contains alkaloids in leaves, stems and unripe seed pods[23][38] but they have been poorly investigated. A claim of tryptamine in leaveand bark[15] requires a proper reference. Several reports of DMT content unconfirmed[2][48]
Acacia macradenia
Claimed to contain tryptamine,[15] but without a reference. Needs research
Acacia maidenii
0.13-0.71% alkaloids from bark, consisting of NMT and DMT in about a 2:3 ratio;[23][49] both also present in leaves. Some varieties of the species are not good alkaloid sources.[2] Tentative identification of 5-MeO-DMT in wood and twigs, NMT in root[7]
Starr 031013-8002 Acacia mangium.jpg
Acacia mangium
Rumoured to contain DMT or similar psychoactive alkaloids[2]
Acacia melanoxylon branch.jpg
Acacia melanoxylon
Some plants may contain DMT in the bark and leaf, but may have been misidentified as most do not.[2] Traces of alkaloids detected in bark, leaf and seed; sometimes no alkaloids[1][23]
Acacia mellifera 3D-Modell.jpg
Acacia mellifera
Published reports of DMT in the leaf[5] derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species.[6] Needs research
Acacia mucronata sbsp. longifolia
DMT, NMT, tryptamine, other alkaloids [50]
Babool (Acacia nilotica) leaves & spines at Hodal W IMG 1251.jpg
Acacia nilotica
One ublished report of DMT in the leaf[5] may derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species.[6] Later analysis tentatively found 5-MeO-DMT in stems, leaves and roots; DMT, NMT and 5-MeO-DMT were tentatively observed in seeds, but follow-up tests were negative.[7][51] Bark contains unidentified alkaloids[52] Bark in one sample subsequently found to contain an alkaloid which has an Rf value suggesting DMT.[53]
Acacia nilotica
subsp. adstringens
DMT and Harmane derivatives [54]
Acacia obtusifolia
0.15-0.6% alkaloids from bark, 0.07% from fresh tips,[2][23][55] 0.15-0.3% from dried leaves. A small population seems to contain mainly DMT in bark, with most also containing other alkaloids including NMT, tryptamine, harman and norharman; leaves may contain more NMT than DMT. Some assays showed tentative presence of 5-MeO-DMT and/or bufotenine but these are unconfirmed and other assays did not detect them[2][56][57]
Acacia oerfota (syn. A. nubica)
0.016% DMT in leaf;[6] a claim of NMT in this species is unreferenced
Acacia penninervis
Claimed to be psychoactive,[17] but supporting information is needed. Bark and leaves have been used to poison fish[58]
Acacia phlebophylla.jpg
Acacia phlebophylla
0.3% DMT in leaf;[59] a claim of NMT[9] could not be found in the reference given and needs verification. Species is rare and threatened
Starr 020911-0004 Acacia podalyriifolia.jpg
Acacia podalyriaefolia
0.11-0.29% alkaloids in leaves and stems, 0.11% from seeds and pods, mostly tryptamine and sometimes with phenethylamine also present;[1][3][38] a later analysis found 0.06% tryptamine from leaves (w/w)[60]
Acacia polyacantha ssp. campylacantha (syn. A. campylacantha)
0.004%% DMT in leaf;[6] claims of NMT and other tryptamines in leaf and bark[61] are not supported by the reference given
Acacia pravissima
Up to 0.44% alkaloids from leaves and stems, mostly phenethylamine[38]
Acacia prominens 3.jpg
Acacia prominens (syn. A. praetervisa)
0.17-0.65% alkaloids from stems and leaves, 1.8% from flowering tops, consisting of phenethylamine and β-methyl-phenethylamine[1][3][38][62]
Acacia pruinocarpa
Ash used in Pituri.[10][36] Not known if psychoactive.
Acacia pruinosa
0.02-0.09% alkaloids from stems and leaves,[38] 0.04% from tops, mostly tryptamine with some phenethylamine[43]
Acacia pycnantha Golden Wattle.jpg
Acacia pycnantha
Less than 0.01% total alkaloids in leaf,[38] sometimes none.[23] 0.4% DMT in single tree[63]
Acacia melanoxylon2.jpg
Acacia retinodes
0.01% Nicotine was reported from leaves, but identity of the plant was not certain;[64] claims of DMT and NMT in the plant[65] require verification or a proper reference
Acacia rigidula.jpg
Acacia rigidula
0.025% alkaloids from leaves, including N-methyl-phenethylamine and N-methyl-tyramine (both tentatively identified).[12] Claims of DMT, NMT, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and many other alkaloids[66] are suspect[21]
Acacia roemeriana 01nsh.jpg
Acacia roemeriana
0.036% alkaloids from leaves, including β-methyl-phenethylamine, tyramine and N-methyl-tyramine[12]
Acacia-salicina-pod-w-seeds.jpg
Acacia salicina
Ash used in Pituri.[10][36] Not known if psychoactive.
Acacia-schaffneri-seed-pods.jpg
Acacia schaffneri
A claim of β-methyl-phenethylamine, phenethylamine, amphetamines and mescaline in this species[37] lacks a reference and is highly dubious
Acacia schottii
β-methyl-phenethylamine in leaves, tentatively identified[12]
Acacia senegal - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-004.jpg
Senegalia senegal
0.003% DMT in leaf;[6] claim of DMT in bark[15] requires verification
Acacia-seyal-leaves.jpg
Acacia seyal
Published reports of DMT in the leaf[5] derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species.[6] Ether extracts about 1-7% of the dried leaf mass.[11]
Img00522-A-sieberiana.jpg
Acacia sieberiana
Published reports of DMT in the leaf[5] derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species.[6] However it is rumoured that unpublished analysis has found DMT in the plant[2]
Acacia simplex.jpg
Acacia simplex (syn. A. simplicifolia)
3.6% alkaloids from leaves and stem bark (40% NMT, 22.5% DMT, 12.7% 2-methyl-tetrahydro-β-carboline, and traces of N-formyl-NMT which might be an artefact of extraction)[67]
Acacia spectabilis
0.21-0.35% alkaloids from leaves and stems, about 2/3 phenethylamine[3]
Acacia suaveolens
Up to 0.89% alkaloids from leaves and stems, 0.05-0.17% from unripe pods, mostly phenethylamine[1][38]
Acacia texensis
0.008% alkaloids from leaves including β-methyl-phenethylamine and tyramine (tentatively identified)[12]
Eat267.jpg
Acacia tortilis
Published reports of DMT in the leaf[5] derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species.[6] Needs research
Acacia vestita
Tryptamine, in the leaf and stem (up to 83% of total alkaloids); alkaloid content was highest in autumn and spring (0.12-0.28%), lowest in summer and winter (0.03-0.08%)[3]
Acacia victoriae
Tentative positive for DMT in aerial parts of a 1 yr old plant, and 5-MeO-DMT in roots of 2 yr old seedlings;[7] a formal screening found no alkaloids in leaf and stem.[23] Appears to contain DMT based on human bioassays[2]

Acacia species having little or no alkaloids in the material sampled[39][edit]

Species containing a concentration of alkaloids of 0-0.02% include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i White, E.P. 1951. “Legumes examined for alkaloids – additions and corrections.” New Zealand J. Sci. & Tech. 33B:54-60.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o recent Net reports, Australian underground info
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j White, E.P. 1957. “Evaluation of further legumes, mainly Lupinus and Acacia species for alkaloids.” New Zealand J. Sci. & Tech. 38B:718-725.
  4. ^ a b c d Fitzgerald, J.S. 1964. "Alkaloids of the Australian Leguminosae III. The Occurrence of Phenylethylamine Derivatives in Acacia Species." Aust. J . Chem. 17:160-2.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Shulgin, A. & Shulgin, A. 1997. TIHKAL. Transform Press, California.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Khalil, S.K.W. & Elkheir, Y.M. 1975. “Dimethyltryptamine from the leaves of certain Acacia species of Northern Sudan.” Lloydia 38(3):176-177.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Trout, K. & Friends. 2007. Some Simple Tryptamines. Second edition. Mydriatic Productions, USA.
  8. ^ Salisu, Y. et al. 2009. “Hypoglycaemic effects of Acacia albida Del. (Mimosaceae) methanol root bark extract.” Nigerian J. of Pharmaceutical Sciences 8(1):66-72.
  9. ^ a b Shaman Australis
  10. ^ a b c d e Duboisia hopwoodii - Pituri Bush - Solanaceae - Central America
  11. ^ a b c Wattle Seed Workshop Proceedings 12 March 2002, Canberra March 2003 RIRDC Publication No 03/024, RIRDC Project No WS012-06[dead link]
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  13. ^ English Title: Nutritive value assessment of the tropical shrub legume Acacia angustissima: anti-nutritional compounds and in vitro digestibility. Personal Authors: McSweeney, C. S., Krause, D. O., Palmer, B., Gough, J., Conlan, L. L., Hegarty, M. P. Author Affiliation: CSIRO Livestock Industries, Long Pocket Laboratories, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Qld 4068, Australia. Document Title: Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2005 (Vol. 121) (No. 1/2) 175-190
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  15. ^ a b c d Acacia (Polish)
  16. ^ Repke, D.B. et al. 1973. “Alkaloids of Acacia baileyana.” Lloydia 36(2):211-213.
  17. ^ a b c d e www.bushfood.net
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  20. ^ Clement, B.A. et al. 1997. “Toxic amines and alkaloids from Acacia berlandieri.” Phytochemistry 46(2):249-254.
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  26. ^ www.abc.net.au
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  28. ^ Acacia Complanata Phytochemical Studies
  29. ^ Gupta, G.L. & Nigam, S.S. 1971. "Chemical examination of the leaves of Acacia concinna." Planta Medica 19:55-62.
  30. ^ SBEPL
  31. ^ Arthur, H.R. et al. 1967. "Nb-Methylated tryptamines and other constituents of Acacia confusa Merr. of Hong Kong." Australian Journal of Chemistry 20:811-813.
  32. ^ Lou, V. et al. 1965 . “Isolation of N-methyltryptamine from Acacia confusa bark.” Lloydia 28(3):207-208.
  33. ^ Reference 32 may be outdated?
  34. ^ Liu, K.-C. et al. 1977. “Studies on the constituents of the cortex radicis of Acacia confusa.” Chemistry (The Chinese Chemical Society, Taiwan) 1:15-16.
  35. ^ NMR spectral assignments of a new chlorotryptamine alkaloid and its analogues from Acacia confusa Malcolm S. Buchanan, Anthony R. Carroll, David Pass, Ronald J. Quinn Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry Volume 45, Issue 4 , Pages359 - 361. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  36. ^ a b c d e f Rätsch, Christian. Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen, Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendungen, 7. Auflage. AT Verlag, 2004, 941 Seiten. ISBN 978-3-85502-570-1 at [1]
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  39. ^ a b Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen By Robert Hegnauer
  40. ^ Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases
  41. ^ www.bpi.da.gov.ph
  42. ^ Purdue University
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  44. ^ wiki.magiskamolekyler.org (Swedish)
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  46. ^ Lycaeum Acacia longifolia Archived 27 June 2007 at WebCite
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  48. ^ Internal Sydney University Bulletin 1993
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  50. ^ S. Voogelbreinder Garden Of Eden 2009
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  53. ^ Shakya et al 2012
  54. ^ Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa, Oliver-Bever, Cambridge University Press, 1986
  55. ^ Acacia obtusifolia Phytochemical Studies
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  57. ^ Trout, K. 2005. "Some thoughts on analysis and comparisons of extracts and synthetic DMT." The Entheogen review 14(1):116-118.
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  61. ^ Hortipedia
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  67. ^ Poupat, C. et al. 1976. “Alcaloïdes de Acacia simplicifolia.” Phytochemistry 15:2019-2020.