Lipstick

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A tube of lipstick

Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils, waxes, and emollients that apply color, texture, and protection to the lips. Many varieties of lipstick exist. As with most other types of makeup, lipstick is typically, but not exclusively, worn by women. The use of lipstick dates back to ancient times.

History[edit]

Ancient Mesopotamian women were possibly the first women to invent and wear lipstick, about 5,000 years ago. l. They crushed gemstones and used them to decorate their faces, mainly on the lips and around the eyes.[1] Also around 3000 BC to 1500 BC, women in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization applied red tinted lipstick to their lips for face decoration.[2] Ancient Egyptians extracted red dye from fucus-algin, 0.01% iodine, and some bromine mannite, but this dye resulted in serious illness. Lipsticks with shimmering effects were initially made using a pearlescent substance found in fish scales.[3]

During the Islamic Golden Age the notable Arab Andalusian cosmetologist Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) invented solid lipsticks, which were perfumed sticks rolled and pressed in special molds, and he described them in his Al-Tasrif.[citation needed] [4]

England[edit]

Lip colouring started to gain some popularity in 16th century England. During the time of Queen Elizabeth I bright red lips and a stark white face became fashionable.[5] At that time, lipstick was made from a blend of beeswax and red stains from plants. Only upper class women and male actors wore makeup.[6]

In 1770 a British law was proposed to the Parliament that a marriage should be annulled if the woman wore cosmetics before her wedding day.[7]

Throughout most of the 19th century the obvious use of cosmetics was not considered acceptable in Britain for respectable women, and it was associated with marginalized groups such as actors and prostitutes. It was considered brazen and uncouth to wear makeup.[1] In the 1850s, reports were being published warning women of the dangers of using lead and vermillion in cosmetics applied to the face. By the end of the 19th century, Guerlain, a French cosmetic company, began to manufacture lipstick. The first commercial lipstick had been invented in 1884, by perfumers in Paris, France. It was covered in silk paper and made from deer tallow, castor oil, and beeswax.[1] Before then, lipstick had been created at home.[8] Complete acceptance of the undisguised use of cosmetics in England appears to have arrived for the fashionable Londoner at least by 1921.[9]

United States[edit]

In the 19th century, lipstick was colored with carmine dye. Carmine dye was extracted from cochineal, scale insects native to Mexico and Central America which lives on cactus plants. Cochineal insects produce carminic acid to deter predation by other insects. Carminic acid, which forms 17% to 24% of the weight of the dried insects, can be extracted from the insect's body and eggs. Mixed with aluminum or calcium salts it makes carmine dye (also known as cochineal).[10]:36

This lipstick did not come in a tube; it was applied with a brush. Carmine dye was expensive and the look of carmine colored lipstick was considered unnatural and theatrical, so lipstick was frowned upon for everyday wear. Only actors and actresses could get away with wearing lipstick. In 1880, few stage actresses wore lipstick in public.[11][12] The famous actress, Sarah Bernhardt, began wearing lipstick and rouge in public. Before the late 19th century, women only applied makeup at home. Bernhardt often applied carmine dye to her lips in public.[10]:36

In the early 1890s, Carmine was mixed with an oil and wax base. The mixture gave a natural look and it was more acceptable among women. At that time, lipstick was not sold in screw up metal tube; it was sold in paper tubes, tinted papers, or in small pots.[11] The Sears Roebuck catalog first offered rouge for lips and cheeks by the late 1890s.

By 1912 fashionable American women had come to consider lipstick acceptable, though an article in the New York Times advised on the need to apply it cautiously.[13]

By 1915, lipstick was sold in cylinder metal containers, which had been invented by Maurice Levy. Women had to slide a tiny lever at the side of the tube with the edge of their fingernail to move the lipstick up to the top of the case.[14] Although lipsticks in push-up metal containers had been available in Europe since 1911.[15] In 1923, the first swivel-up tube was patented by James Bruce Mason Jr. in Nashville, Tennessee. As women started to wear lipstick for photographs, photography made lipstick acceptable among women.[11] Elizabeth Arden and Estee Lauder began selling lipstick in their salons.[12]

During the Second World War, metal lipstick tubes were replaced by plastic and paper tubes. Lipstick was scarce during that time because some of the essential ingredients of lipstick, petroleum and castor oil, were unavailable.:50 World War II allowed women to work in engineering and scientific research, and in the late 1940s, Hazel Bishop, an organic chemist in New York and New Jersey, created the first long lasting lipstick, called No-Smear lipstick.[16] With the help of Raymond Specter, an advertiser, Bishop's lipstick business thrived.

Another form of lip color, a wax-free, semi-permanent liquid formula, was invented in the 1990s by the Lip-Ink International company. Other companies have imitated the idea, putting out their own versions of long-lasting "lip stain" or "liquid lip colour."

Spain[edit]

The first lipstick made in Spain was marketed in 1922 by the company Puig with the name of Milady.[17]

Lipstick trends[edit]

Actress Elizabeth Taylor helped to popularize red lipstick.

Throughout the early 20th century, lipstick came in a limited number of shades.

Dark red was one of the most popular shade throughout the 19th and 20th century. Dark red lipstick was popular in the 1920s. Flappers wore lipstick to symbolize their independence. Lipstick was worn around the lips to form a "Cupid's bow," inspired by actress Clara Bow.[18] At that time, it was acceptable to apply lipstick in public and during lunch, but never at dinner.[14][19]

In the early 1930s, Elizabeth Arden began to introduce different lipstick colors. She inspired other companies to create a variety of lipstick shades.[20] In the 1930s, lipstick was seen as symbol of adult sexuality. Teenage girls believed that lipstick was a symbol of womanhood. Adults saw it as an act of rebellion. Many Americans, especially immigrants, did not accept teenage girls wearing lipstick. A study in 1937 survey revealed that over 50% of teenage girls fought with their parents over lipstick.[21]

In the mid-1940s, several teen books and magazines stressed that men prefer a natural look over a made up look. Books and magazines also warned girls that wearing cosmetics could ruin their chances of popularity and a career. The implication of these articles was that lipstick and rouge were for teen girls who acted very provocatively with men.[21] Despite the increased use of cosmetics, it was still associated with prostitution. Teen girls were discouraged from wearing cosmetics for fear that they would be mistaken for "loose" girls or prostitutes.[22]

By the 1950s, movie actresses Marilyn Monroe and Elizabeth Taylor helped bring back dark red lips. A 1951 survey revealed that two-thirds of teenage girls wore lipstick.

In 1950 chemist Hazel Bishop formed a company, Hazel Bishop Inc., to promote her invention of long-lasting, non-smearing 'kissproof' lipstick ("stays on you... not on him"), which quickly gained acceptance.[23] At the end of the 1950s, a cosmetic company named Gala introduced pale shimmery lipstick. Later, Max Factor created a popular lipstick color called Strawberry Meringue. Lipstick manufacturers began creating lipsticks in lavender, pale pink, white, and peach. Since parents generally frowned on teen girls wearing red lipstick, some teen girls began wearing pink and peach lipsticks, which became a trend.[24] White or nearly white lipstick was popular in the 1960s.[21] Rock groups such as the Ronettes and the Shirelles popularized white lipstick. Girls would apply white lipstick over pink lipstick or place under-eye concealer on their lips. During that time, many lipstick were either matte, sheer, or slightly shiny.[25] In the 1960s, lipstick was associated with femininity. Women who did not wear lipstick were suspected of mental illness or lesbianism.[21]

In the 1970s, a number of cosmetic companies introduced lipsticks in more unusual colors such as iridescent light blue (Kanebo), frosted lime green (Conga Lime by Revlon), and silver sparkled navy blue (Metallic Grandma by Biba). M•A•C cosmetics continues to release limited edition and highly collectible lipsticks in a wide range of colors and finishes, including unusual hues of violets, blues, and greens.

Rocker Marilyn Manson helped popularize dark lipsticks in alternative subcultures.

Black lipstick became popular in the late 1970s and into the 1990s. In the 1950s, black lipstick had been worn by actresses starring in horror films. It became popular again due in part to punk and goth subcultures.[26]

In the mid-1980s, so-called mood lipstick were sold to adults by mainstream cosmetic companies. This type of lipstick changes colors after it is applied, based on changes in skin's pH that supposedly reflect the wearer's mood.[27] Previously these had be available as little girl's play makeup. They had another resurgence in the very early 21st century, offered by inexpensive as well as more exclusive cosmetic lines, and color changing chemicals also appeared in lip gloss, such as Smashbox O-Gloss, and blush, such as Stila Custom Color Blush.

In the 1990s, lipstick colors became semi-matte. Shades of brown were very popular. These shades were inspired by several shows such as "Friends". In the late 1990s and into the 21st century, pearl shades became very popular. Lipsticks were no longer matte or semi-matte, they were shiny and contained several interference pearls.

In 2012, bright bold lip colors became trendy again with saturated colors such as orange, or hot pink.[28]

Ingredients[edit]

Lipstick contains wax, oils, antioxidants and emollients.[29] Wax provides the structure to the solid lipstick. Lipsticks may be made from several waxes such as beeswax, ozokerite and candelilla wax. The high melting Carnauba wax is a key ingredient in terms of strengthening the lipstick. Various oils and fats are also used in lipsticks, such as olive oil, mineral oil, cocoa butter, lanolin, and petrolatum. More than 50% of lipsticks made in the United States contain pig fat or castor oil, which gives them a shiny appearance.

Lipsticks get their colors from a variety of pigments and lake dyes including, but not limited to bromo acid, D&C Red No. 21, Calcium Lake such as D&C Red 7 and D&C Red 34, and D&C Orange No. 17. Pink lipsticks are made by mixing colourless titanium dioxide and red shades. There are organic and inorganic pigments.

Matte lipsticks contain more filling agents like silica but do not have many emollients. Creme lipsticks contain more waxes than oils. Sheer and long lasting lipstick contain a lot of oil, while long lasting lipsticks also contain silicone oil, which seals the colors to the wearer's lips. Glossy lipstick contain more oil to give a shiny finish to the lips. Shimmery lipstick may contain mica, silica, fish scales, and synthetic pearl particles to give them a glittery or shimmering shine.[3]

Lipstick is made from grinding and heating ingredients. Then heated waxes are added to the mix for texture. Oils and lanolin are added for specific formula requirements. Afterwards, the hot liquid is poured onto a metal mold. The mixture is chilled and kept cool so that the lipsticks harden. Once they have hardened, they are heated in flame for half a second to create a shiny finish and to remove imperfections.[3]

Lead traces[edit]

A study by US consumer group Campaign For Safe Cosmetics, in October 2007 found 60 percent of lipsticks tested contained trace amounts of lead, especially in red lipsticks.[30] The levels of lead varied from 0.03 to 0.65 parts per million. One third of the lipsticks containing lead exceeded the 0.1ppm limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for lead in candy.[31][32]

Use in vernacular[edit]

In forensic science[edit]

Comparative examinations are usually based on the physical or chemical nature of a substance, or both. Lipsticks are composed of waxes, oils, organic dyes and inorganic pigments. Color matching can identify the lipstick responsible for leaving a smear. This color analysis may be used to identify the lipstick found at the crime scene. The colors of lipstick are often due to a mixture of several pigment compounds. These pigments can be separated using thin layer chromatography. Depending on the type of pigment, the mobile phase will vary. Lipsticks are soluble in toluene, so toluene serves as the mobile phase. After separation, the chromatogram is complete and illustrates the different pigments that make up a particular color of lipstick.[33]

Traces of Lipsticks, cosmetics, nail polish, or other smears could be found left on drinking cups, glasses, cigarette butts, and tissue papers and may all be significant forensic evidence in the investigation of a crime, especially in cases such as a sexual assault or a homicide. This physical evidence may be found on clothing, parts of the body, a tissue, or a cigarette. By comparing the composition of a lipstick smear with that of a victim, forensic scientists can demonstrate indirect proof of contact or a relationship between victim and suspect. Also, it is sometimes possible to extract saliva DNA from the print which might link a suspect to a crime scene. Various methods of forensic lipstick analysis are used. Small amount of lipstick (approximately 10 μg) could lead to good comparisons in TLC.

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a widely used chromatography technique used to separate chemical compounds. Thin-layer chromatography incorporates a solid stationary phase and a moving liquid phase to cause a separation of the constituents of a mixture. Although simple test may be run by simply allowing a solvent to pick up a piece of porous paper, a more revealing test requires the preparation of a plate. Because most compounds are colorless, no separation will be noticed after development unless the materials are visualized.[33] This may be done by: • Exposure to UV light • Exposure to fluorescent dyes • Exposure to iodine • Spraying with a reagent

These procedures may be used alone or in conjunction to make the components of a sample visible. The distance a component has traveled up a plate can be assigned a numerical value known as the Rf value. Rf is defined as the distance traveled by the component divided by the distance traveled by the solvent. In the example to the right, the solvent was allowed to travel 10 cm up the plate before the plate was removed from the chamber and dried.[33]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "The Slightly Gross Origins of Lipstick". InventorSpot. Retrieved 09-02-2010. 
  2. ^ Yona Williams. Ancient Indus Valley: Food, Clothing & Transportation.
  3. ^ a b c "What's That Stuff?". Chemical and Engineering News. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  4. ^ Harvard Law School:Reading Our Lips: The History of Lipstick Regulation in Western Seats of Power
  5. ^ http://www.elizabethancostume.net/makeup.html Elizabethan Makeup
  6. ^ "Elizabethan Make-up". Elizabethanera. org.uk. Retrieved 09-02-2010. 
  7. ^ "Mascara For The Gods: The History of Make-up". Pop Goes the Culture. Retrieved 09-02-2010. 
  8. ^ Conway, Susannah (1999-01-03). "Fashion: The History of... Lipstick - Lip-Smackers Good". London: The Independent (U.K.). Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  9. ^ The Times, Monday, Dec 12, 1921; pg. 7; Issue 42901; col C, Shops At Their Best: "Vanity cases are in endless variety, large enough to hold mirror, powder-puff, lip-stick, and other necessaries of feminine social life."
  10. ^ a b Riordan, Theresa (10-05-2004). Inventing Beauty: A History of the Innovations that Have Made Us Beautiful. New York, NY: Crown Publishing Group. pp. 36–60. ISBN 0-7679-1451-1. 
  11. ^ a b c "A Brief History of Lipstick". Enjoy Your Style. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  12. ^ a b "How Lipstick Works". Discovery Health. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  13. ^ New York Times, March 17, 1912, "The Art of Making Up":"There was a time when to confess to make up was to place one's self beyond the pale...We flaunt the vanity box these days as frankly as our ancestors did in the eighteenth century.... Touch the lips slightly with a lip-stick, but do not make your mouth look like raw beef."
  14. ^ a b "Clara Bow Lips - 1920s Beauty". About.com. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  15. ^ "Cosmetic Explosion That Started With A Lipstick". My Art Deco Style. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  16. ^ Berg, Rona (2001-01-01). Beauty: The New Basics. New York, NY: Workman Publishing. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-7611-0186-4. 
  17. ^ "Puig, a Spanish fashion empire that started with a lipstick". Modaes. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  18. ^ "The Roaring 20s - Image Review". Illinois State University. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  19. ^ McVeigh, Tracy (2010-01-17). "Lipstick Follows Economy Into Red". London: The Guardian (U.K.). Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  20. ^ Sherrow, Victoria (2001-03-30). For Appearance's Sake: The Historical Encyclopedia of Good Looks, Beauty, and Grooming. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing. p. 180. doi:10.1336/1573562041. ISBN 1-57356-204-1. 
  21. ^ a b c d Mitchell, Claudia; Jacqueline Reid-Walsh (2007-12-30). Girl Culture: An Encyclopedia. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing. pp. 396–397. doi:10.1336/0313339082. ISBN 0-313-33908-2. 
  22. ^ Forman-Brunell, Miriam (01-06-2001). Girlhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 159. ISBN 1-57607-206-1. 
  23. ^ New York Times, December 10, 1998, obituary: 'Hazel Bishop, 92, an innovator who made lipstick kissproof'
  24. ^ "Beauty and Make Up Fashion History After 1950". Fashion Era. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  25. ^ "White Lipstick". Enjoy Your Style. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  26. ^ Black Lipstick
  27. ^ Mansour, David (2005). From Abba to Zoom: A Pop Culture Encyclopedia of the Late 20th Century. Kansas City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 319. ISBN 978-0-7407-5118-9. 
  28. ^ 2012 Critics' Choice Awards Beauty Trend: Bold Lipstick
  29. ^ Günther Schneider, Sven Gohla, Jörg Schreiber, Waltraud Kaden, Uwe Schönrock, Hartmut Schmidt-Lewerkühne, Annegret Kuschel, Xenia Petsitis, Wolfgang Pape, Hellmut Ippen and Walter Diembeck "Skin Cosmetics" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a24_219
  30. ^ My Product Alert: Extensive Report on Lead in Lipsticks
  31. ^ US FDA: Document on Lead in Candy
  32. ^ FDA Lipstick and Lead: Questions and Answers
  33. ^ a b c Joshi B, Verma K, Singh J (2013) A Comparison of Red Pigments in Different Lipsticks Using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). J Anal Bioanal Techniques 4: 157. doi:10.4172/2155-9872.1000157

References[edit]

External links[edit]