The accumulation of lipofuscin-like material may be the result of an imbalance between formation and disposal mechanisms: Such accumulation can be induced in rats by administering a protease inhibitor (leupeptin); after a period of three months, the levels of the lipofuscin-like material return to normal, indicating the action of a significant disposal mechanism. However, this result is controversial, as it is questionable if the leupeptin-induced material is true lipofuscin. There exists evidence that "true lipofuscin" is not degradable in vitro; whether this holds in vivo over longer time periods is not clear.
Relation to diseases
Lipofuscin accumulation is a major risk factor implicated in macular degeneration, a degenerative disease of the eye.
Wet macular degeneration can be treated using Selective Photothermolysis where a pulsed unfocused laser predominantly heats and kills pigment- (i.e.: lipofuscin-) rich cells, leaving untouched healthy cells to multiply and fill in the gaps. The technique is also used as a skin treatment to remove tattoos, liverspots, and in general make skin appear younger. This ability to selectively target lipofuscin has opened up research opportunities in the field of Anti-aging medicine.
Lipofuscin quantification is used for age determination in various crustaceans such as lobsters and spiny lobsters. Since these animals lack bony parts, they cannot be aged in the same way as bony fish, in which annual increments in the ear-bones or otoliths are commonly used. Age determination of fish and shellfish is a fundamental step in generating basic biological data such as growth curves, and is needed for many stock assessment methods. Several studies have indicated that quantifying the amount of lipofuscin present in the eye-stalks of various crustaceans can give an index of their age. This method has not yet been widely applied in fisheries management mainly due to problems in relating lipofuscin levels in wild-caught animals with accumulation curves derived from aquarium-reared animals.
^Terman, A, Brunk, UT (1998) "Ceroid/lipofuscin formation in cultured human fibroblasts: the role of oxidative stress and lysosomal proteolysis", Mech Ageing Dev104, pp.277-291, PMID 9818731
^Elleder, M, Drahota, Z, Lisá V, Mares V, Mandys V, Müller J, Palmer DN.(1995) "Tissue culture loading test with storage granules from animal models of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (Batten disease): testing their lysosomal degradability by normal and Batten cells" Am J Med Genet57, pp.213-221, PMID 7668332
^Joakim Allaire, François Maltais, Pierre LeBlanc, Pierre-Michel Simard, François Whittom, Jean-François Doyon, Clermont Simard & Jean Jobin (2002). "Lipofuscin accumulation in the vastus lateralis muscle in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Muscle and Nerve25 (3): 383–389. doi:10.1002/mus.10039.
^Ingebrigt Uglem, Mark Belchier & Terje Svåsand (2005). "Age determination of European lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.) by histological quantification of lipofuscin". Journal of Crustacean Biology25 (1): 95–99. JSTOR1549930.