Lipan Apache people

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Lipan Apache People Tribe Of Texas
Total population
5000-8000 (2013)[1]
Regions with significant populations
 United States
( Texas,  New Mexico)
Languages
Lipan Apache, English
Related ethnic groups
other Apache peoples
 
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Lipan Apache People Tribe Of Texas
Total population
5000-8000 (2013)[1]
Regions with significant populations
 United States
( Texas,  New Mexico)
Languages
Lipan Apache, English
Related ethnic groups
other Apache peoples

Lipan Apache are Southern Athabascan (Apachean) people whose traditional territory includes present-day Texas, New Mexico, Colorado and the northern Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas prior to the 17th century. Present-day Lipans mostly live throughout the U.S. Southwest, in Texas, New Mexico and the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation in Arizona, as well as with the Mescalero tribe on the Mescalero Reservation in New Mexico; some also live in urban and rural areas throughout North America (Mexico, United States and Canada). The Lipan Apache is a state-recognized tribe headquartered in Mcallen Texas .[2][3] [4]

Synonymy[edit]

The name Lipán is a Spanish adaption of their self-designation as Lépai-Ndé reflecting their migratory story. The Lipan are also known as Querechos, Vaqueros, Pelones, Nde buffalo hunters, Eastern Apache, Apache de los Llanos, Lipan, Ipande, Ypandes, Ipandes, Ipandi, Lipanes, Lipanos, Lipanis, Lipaines, Lapane, Lapanne, Lapanas, Lipau, Lipaw, Apaches Lipan, Apacheria Lipana, and Lipanes Llaneros. The first recorded name is Ypandes.

Bands[edit]

By 1750, the Lipan Apache were driven from the Southern Great Plains by their Comanche foes and their allies, the so-called Norteños. The Lipan divided in following groups or bands.

Eastern Lipan (Spanish: Lipanes de arriba - "Upper Lipan", "Northern Lipan")

Western Lipan (Spanish: Lipanes de abajo - "Lower Lipan", "Southern Lipan")

In addition there are further bands:

The Spanish associated with the Lipan these groupings:

Their kin, west and southwest of them, sometime allies sometime foes, the Mescalero, called them after their location and living conditions:

History[edit]

A Lipan Apache warrior

The Lipan are first mentioned in Spanish record in 1718 when they raided Spanish settlements in San Antonio. It seems likely that the Lipan became established in Texas during the latter half of the 17th century. They moved southward during the 18th century where one Spanish mission was built in Coahuila in 1754 and another on the San Sabá River in 1757. Both missions were burned and deserted; the San Saba mission was destroyed by the Comanches and their allies. During 1757 the Lipan Apaches were involved in fighting with the Hasinais.[6] The Lipan participated in a Spanish Expedition against the Wichita and Comanche in 1759, but were defeated in the Battle of the Twin Villages.

Their territory ranged from the Colorado River to the Rio Grande. Two Lipan local group chiefs had a total of 700 people in 1762. Since there were at least 12 other local groups, Morris Opler estimates that the population was approximately 3,000-4,000. He estimates a total of 6,000 in 1700.

The Spanish and Lipan frequently were in conflict as Spain tried to invade and colonize the Texas territory. The Spanish tried to thwart the Lipan through alcohol, provoking conflict between the Lipan and Mescalero, making them economically dependent on Spanish trade goods, and through missionaries. It is not certain if the Lipan actually lived on the Spanish missions, but by 1767 all Lipan had completely deserted them. In the same year, Marquis of Rubí started a policy of Lipan extermination since in 1764 a smallpox epidemic had decimated the tribe. However, a little afterwards the Lipan entered an uneasy alliance with Spain in order to war against the Mescalero. The alliance fell apart before 1800. Another serious enemy of the Lipan was the Comanche, who incidentally was also an enemy of Spain. Many historians cite Comanche aggression as a factor leading to the Lipan's southernly migration. At the beginning of the 19th century the Lipan formed an alliance with the Comanche to attack the Spanish.

In 1869, Mexican troops from Monterrey were brought to Zaragosa to eliminate Lipan Apaches, who were blamed for causing trouble. Troops attacked many Lipan camps; survivors flee to the Mescaleros in New Mexico.

From 1875 to 1876, United States Army troops undertake joint military campaigns with the Mexican Army to eliminate Lipans from Coahuila.

In 1881, a large campaign by Mexican Army’s Díaz division (assisted by US troops) forced all Lipans out of Coahuila and into the state of Chihuahua.

Chiefs[edit]

Language[edit]

Lipan Apache is a Southern Athabaskan language, that was still spoken by two people in 1981 on the Mescalero Apache reservation,[1] as well as by members living off reservation throughout North America who strive to keep the language and culture alive.

In popular culture[edit]

A song by the band Tool titled "Lipan Conjuring" off of the multi-platinum 10,000 Days album features Native American chanting over soft percussion.

This tribe was mentioned in a 1996 episode of Unsolved Mysteries about Devil's Backbone.

Jason Snake Blocker of "Deadliest Warriors"(episode featuring Apache Warrior vs Gladiator)and National Geographic's Survivalists series is a famous Lipan Apache.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Lipan Apache." Ethnologue. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  2. ^ "State Recognition of The Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas." Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  3. ^ "SENATE RESOLUTION NO. 438." Texas Legislature Online. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  4. ^ General Accounting Office report on "Indian Issues: Federal Funding for Non-Federally Recognized Tribes" May 9, 2012.
  5. ^ The use of Peyote by the Carrizo and Lipan Apache tribes, Dr. Morris Edward Opler, American Anthropologist April-June 1938, New Series 40(2):271-285
  6. ^ Juliana Barr, Peace Came in the Form of a Woman: Indians and Spaniards in the Texas Borderlands (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007) p. 47

6.General Accounting Office report on "Indian Issues: Federal Funding for Non-Federally Recognized Tribes" May 9, 2012

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]