Lille

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Lille
Grand' place, Lille city centre.
Grand' place, Lille city centre.
Coat of arms of Lille
Coat of arms
Lille is located in France
Lille
Lille
Coordinates: 50°37′40″N 3°03′30″E / 50.6278°N 3.0583°E / 50.6278; 3.0583Coordinates: 50°37′40″N 3°03′30″E / 50.6278°N 3.0583°E / 50.6278; 3.0583
CountryFrance
RegionNord-Pas-de-Calais
DepartmentNord
ArrondissementLille
IntercommunalityLille Métropole
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2014)Martine Aubry (PS)
Area
 • Urban (2009)442.5 km2 (170.9 sq mi)
 • Metro (2007)7,200 km2 (2,800 sq mi)
 • Land134.8 km2 (13.4 sq mi)
Population (2009)
 • Rank10th in France
 • Urban (2009[1])1,015,744
 • Urban density2,300/km2 (5,900/sq mi)
 • Metro (2007[2])3,800,000
 • Metro density530/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
 • Population2226,827
 • Population2 density6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
Time zoneCET (GMT +1)
INSEE/Postal code59350 / 59000, 59800
Websitewww.mairie-lille.fr/cms

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
 
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For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation).
Lille
Grand' place, Lille city centre.
Grand' place, Lille city centre.
Coat of arms of Lille
Coat of arms
Lille is located in France
Lille
Lille
Coordinates: 50°37′40″N 3°03′30″E / 50.6278°N 3.0583°E / 50.6278; 3.0583Coordinates: 50°37′40″N 3°03′30″E / 50.6278°N 3.0583°E / 50.6278; 3.0583
CountryFrance
RegionNord-Pas-de-Calais
DepartmentNord
ArrondissementLille
IntercommunalityLille Métropole
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2014)Martine Aubry (PS)
Area
 • Urban (2009)442.5 km2 (170.9 sq mi)
 • Metro (2007)7,200 km2 (2,800 sq mi)
 • Land134.8 km2 (13.4 sq mi)
Population (2009)
 • Rank10th in France
 • Urban (2009[1])1,015,744
 • Urban density2,300/km2 (5,900/sq mi)
 • Metro (2007[2])3,800,000
 • Metro density530/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
 • Population2226,827
 • Population2 density6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
Time zoneCET (GMT +1)
INSEE/Postal code59350 / 59000, 59800
Websitewww.mairie-lille.fr/cms

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Lille (French pronunciation: [lil] ( ); Dutch: Rijsel [ˈrɛi̯səɫ]) is a city in the North of France. It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in France after those of Paris, Lyon and Marseille. Lille is situated in French Flanders, on the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium. It is the capital of the Nord-Pas de Calais region and the prefecture of the Nord department.

The city of Lille, to which the previously independent town of Lomme was annexed on 27 February 2000, had a population of 226,827 as recorded by the 2009 census.[3] However, Lille Métropole, which also includes Roubaix, Tourcoing and numerous suburban communities, had a population of 1,091,438. The Eurometropolis Lille-Kortrijk-Tournai, which also includes the Belgian cities of Kortrijk, Tournai and Mouscron, had 2,155,161 residents in 2008.[4][5]

History[edit]

Origin of the city[edit]

The legend of "Lydéric and Phinaert" puts the foundation of the city of "L'Isle" at 640. Although the first mention of the town appears in archives from the year 1066, some archeological digs seem to show the area as inhabited by as early as 2000 BC[citation needed], most notably in the modern-day quartiers of Fives, Wazemmes, and Old Lille.

The original inhabitants of this region were the Gauls, such as the Menapians, the Morins, the Atrebates, and the Nervians, who were followed by Germanic peoples, the Saxons and the Frisians, and the Franks later.

From 830 until around 910, the Vikings invaded Flanders. After the destruction caused by Norman and Magyar invasion, the eastern part of the region was ruled by various local princes.

The name Lille comes from insula or l'Isla, i.e., "the island", since the area was at one time marshy. This name was used for the castle of the Counts of Flanders, built on dry land in the middle of the marsh. The Dutch name for the town, Rijsel, has the same meaning ("Ryssel" in French Flemish, from "ter Yssel" meaning "to/at the island").

The Count of Flanders controlled a number of old Roman cities (Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai) as well as some founded by the Carolingians (Valenciennes, Saint-Omer, Ghent, Bruges). The County of Flanders thus extended to the left bank of the Scheldt, one of the richest and most prosperous regions of Europe.

Middle Ages[edit]

A notable local in this period was Évrard, who lived in the 9th century and participated in many of the day's political and military affairs.

From the 12th century, the fame of the Lille cloth fair began to grow. In 1144 Saint-Sauveur parish was formed, which would give its name to the modern-day quartier Saint-Sauveur.

The counts of Flanders, Boulogne, and Hainaut came together with England and East Frankia and tried to regain territory taken by Philip II of France following Henry II of England's death, a war that ended with the French victory at Bouvines in 1214. Infante Ferdinand, Count of Flanders was imprisoned and the county fell into dispute: it would be his wife, Jeanne, Countess of Flanders and Constantinople, who ruled the city. She was said to be well loved by the residents of Lille, who by that time numbered 10,000.

In 1225, the street performer and juggler Bertrand Cordel, doubtlessly encouraged by local lords, tried to pass himself off as Baldwin I of Constantinople (the father of Jeanne of Flanders), who had disappeared at the battle of Adrianople. He pushed the kingdoms of Flanders and Hainaut towards sedition against Jeanne in order to recover his land. She called her cousin, Louis VIII ("The Lion"). He unmasked the imposter, whom Countess Jeanne quickly had hanged. In 1226 the King agreed to free Infante Ferdinand, Count of Flanders. Count Ferrand died in 1233, and his daughter Marie soon after. In 1235, Jeanne granted a city charter by which city governors would be chosen each All Saint's Day by four commissioners chosen by the ruler. On 6 February 1236, she founded the Countess's Hospital (Hospice Comtesse), which remains one of the most beautiful buildings in Old Lille. It was in her honour that the hospital of the Regional Medical University of Lille was named "Jeanne of Flanders Hospital" in the 20th century.

The Countess died in 1244 in the Abbey of Marquette, leaving no heirs. The rule of Flanders and Hainaut thus fell to her sister, Margaret II, Countess of Flanders, then to Margaret's son, Guy of Dampierre. Lille fell under the rule of France from 1304 to 1369, after the Franco-Flemish War (1297-1305).

The county of Flanders fell to the Duchy of Burgundy next, after the 1369 marriage of Margaret III, Countess of Flanders, and Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Lille thus became one of the three capitals of said Duchy, along with Brussels and Dijon. By 1445, Lille counted some 25,000 residents. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, was even more powerful than the King of France, and made Lille an administrative and financial capital.

On 17 February 1454, one year after the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, Philip the Good organised a Pantagruelian banquet at his Lille palace, the still-celebrated "Feast of the Pheasant". There the Duke and his court undertook an oath to Christianity.

In 1477, at the death of the last duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, Mary of Burgundy married Maximilian of Austria, who thus became Count of Flanders. At the end of the reign of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Spanish Flanders fell to his eldest son, and thus under the rule of Philip II of Spain, King of Spain. The city remained under Spanish rule until the reign of Philip IV of Spain.

Early modern era[edit]

The 'Vieille Bourse' on the 'Grand Place'
1641 map of Lille (Rijssel) in Flandria Illustrata by Anton Sander (Sanderus)

The 16th century was marked by the outbreak of the Plague, a boom in the regional textile industry, and the Protestant revolts.

Calvinism first appeared in the area in 1542; by 1555 the authorities were taking steps to suppress this form of Protestantism. In 1578, the Hurlus, a group of Protestant rebels, stormed the castle of the Counts of Mouscron. They were removed four months later by a Catholic Wallon regiment, after which they tried several times between 1581 and 1582 to take the city of Lille, all in vain. The Hurlus were notably held back by the legendary Jeanne Maillotte. At the same time (1581), at the call of Elizabeth I of England, the north of the Seventeen Provinces, having gained a Protestant majority, successfully revolted and formed the United Provinces.

In 1667, Louis XIV of France (the Sun King) successfully laid siege to Lille, resulting in it becoming French in 1668 under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, provoking discontent among the citizens of the prosperous city. A number of important public works undertaken between 1667 and 1670, such as the Citadel (erected by Vauban), or the creation of the quartiers of Saint-André and la Madeleine, enabled the King to gradually gain the confidence of his new subjects in Lille, some of whom continued to feel Flemish, though they had always spoken the Romance Picard language.

Entrance to the 'Vauban Citadel' (17th century)

For five years, from 1708 to 1713, the city was occupied by the Dutch, during the War of the Spanish Succession. Throughout the 18th century, Lille remained profoundly Catholic. It took little part in the French Revolution, though there were riots and the destruction of churches. In 1790, the city held its first municipal elections.

After the French Revolution[edit]

In 1792, in the aftermath of the French Revolution, the Austrians, then in the United Provinces, laid siege to Lille. The "Column of the Goddess", erected in 1842 in the "Grand-Place" (officially named Place du Général-de-Gaulle), is a tribute to the city's resistance, led by Mayor François André-Bonte. Although Austrian artillery destroyed many houses and the main church of the city, the city did not surrender and the Austrian army left after eight days.

The black dots around the windows (not the decorative cartouches) are Austrian cannonballs lodged in the façade.

The city continued to grow, and by 1800 held some 53,000 residents, leading to Lille becoming the county seat of the Nord départment in 1804. In 1846, a rail line connecting Paris and Lille was built.

At the beginning of the 19th century, Napoleon I's continental blockade against the United Kingdom led to Lille's textile industry developing itself even more fully. The city was known for its cotton, and the nearby towns of Roubaix and Tourcoing worked wool.

In 1853, Alexandre Desrousseaux composed his famous lullaby P'tit quinquin. In 1858, an imperial decree led to the annexation of the adjacent towns of Fives, Wazemmes, and Moulins. Lille's population was 158,000 in 1872, growing to over 200,000 by 1891. In 1896 Lille became the first city in France to be led by a socialist, Gustave Delory.

By 1912, Lille's population was at 217,000: the city profited from the Industrial Revolution, particularly via coal and the steam engine. The entire region had grown wealthy thanks to the mines and to the textile industry.

First World War[edit]

German military parade in Lille, 1915
Liberation of Lille: British troops march past, 28 October 1918

Between 4–13 October 1914, the troops in Lille were able to trick the enemy by convincing them that Lille possessed more artillery than was the case; in reality, the city had only a single cannon. Despite the deception, the German bombardments destroyed over 2,200 buildings and homes. When the Germans realised they had been tricked, they burned down an entire section of town, subsequently occupying the city. Lille was liberated by the British on 17 October 1918, when General Sir William Birdwood and his troops were welcomed by joyous crowds. The general was made an honorary citizen of the city of Lille on 28 October of that year.

Lille was also the hunting ground of World War I German flying Ace Max Immelmann who was nicknamed "the Eagle of Lille".

The Années Folles, the Great Depression, and the Popular Front[edit]

In July 1921, at the Pasteur Institute in Lille, Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin discovered the first anti-tuberculosis vaccine, known as BCG ("Bacille de Calmette et Guérin"). The Opéra de Lille, designed by Lille architect Louis M. Cordonnier, was dedicated in 1923.

From 1931 Lille felt the repercussions of the Great Depression, and by 1935 a third of the city's population lived in poverty. In 1936, the city's mayor, Roger Salengro, became Minister of the Interior of the Popular Front, eventually killing himself after right-wing groups led a slanderous campaign against him.

Second World War[edit]

Wrecked vehicles near Lille, after the siege of the city.

During the Battle of France, Lille was besieged by German forces for several days. When Belgium was invaded, the citizens of Lille, still marked by the events of the First World War, began to flee the city in large numbers. Lille was part of the zone under control of the German commander in Brussels, and was never controlled by the Vichy government in France. Lille was instead controlled under the military administration in Northern France. The départments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais (with the exception of the coast, notably Dunkirk) were, for the most part, liberated in five days, from September 1–5, 1944, by British, American, Canadian, and Polish troops. On 3 September, the German troops began to leave Lille, fearing the British, who were on their way from Brussels. The city was retaken with little resistance when the British tanks arrived. Rationing came to an end in 1947, and by 1948 normality had returned to Lille.

Post-war to the present[edit]

In 1967, the Chambers of Commerce of Lille, Roubaix and Tourcoing were joined, and in 1969 the Communauté urbaine de Lille (Lille urban community) was created, linking 87 communes with Lille.

Throughout the 1960s and 70s, the region was faced with some problems after the decline of the coal, mining and textile industries. From the start of the 1980s, the city began to turn itself more towards the service sector.

In 1983, the VAL, the world's first automated rapid transit underground network, was opened. In 1993, a high-speed TGV train line was opened, connecting Paris with Lille in one hour. This, with the opening of the Channel Tunnel in 1994 and the arrival of the Eurostar train, put Lille at the centre of a triangle connecting Paris, London and Brussels.

Work on Euralille, an urban remodelling project, began in 1991. The Euralille Centre was opened in 1994, and the remodeled district is now full of parks and modern buildings containing offices, shops and apartments. In 1994 the "Grand Palais" was also opened.

Lille was elected European Capital of Culture in 2004, along with the Italian city of Genoa.

Lille and Roubaix were impacted by the 2005 Riots which affected all of France's urban centres.

Climate[edit]

Lille can be described as having a temperate oceanic climate; summers do not reach high temperatures, but winters can fall below zero temperatures. Precipitation is above average year round.

The table below gives average temperatures and precipitation levels for the 1981-2010 reference period.

Climate data for Lille (1981–2010 averages)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)15.2
(59.4)
18.9
(66)
22.7
(72.9)
27.9
(82.2)
31.7
(89.1)
34.8
(94.6)
36.1
(97)
36.6
(97.9)
33.8
(92.8)
27.8
(82)
20.1
(68.2)
15.9
(60.6)
36.6
(97.9)
Average high °C (°F)6
(43)
6.9
(44.4)
10.6
(51.1)
14.1
(57.4)
17.9
(64.2)
20.6
(69.1)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
19.7
(67.5)
15.2
(59.4)
9.9
(49.8)
6.4
(43.5)
14.49
(58.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.6
(38.5)
4.1
(39.4)
7.1
(44.8)
9.7
(49.5)
13.4
(56.1)
16.2
(61.2)
18.6
(65.5)
18.4
(65.1)
15.4
(59.7)
11.6
(52.9)
7.1
(44.8)
4.2
(39.6)
10.78
(51.43)
Average low °C (°F)1.2
(34.2)
1.3
(34.3)
3.6
(38.5)
5.4
(41.7)
8.9
(48)
11.7
(53.1)
13.8
(56.8)
13.6
(56.5)
11.2
(52.2)
8.1
(46.6)
4.4
(39.9)
1.9
(35.4)
7.09
(44.77)
Record low °C (°F)−19.5
(−3.1)
−17.8
(0)
−10.5
(13.1)
−4.7
(23.5)
−2.3
(27.9)
0.0
(32)
3.4
(38.1)
3.9
(39)
1.2
(34.2)
−4.4
(24.1)
−7.8
(18)
−17.3
(0.9)
−19.5
(−3.1)
Precipitation mm (inches)60.5
(2.382)
47.4
(1.866)
58.3
(2.295)
50.7
(1.996)
64.0
(2.52)
64.6
(2.543)
68.5
(2.697)
62.8
(2.472)
61.6
(2.425)
66.2
(2.606)
70.1
(2.76)
67.8
(2.669)
742.5
(29.232)
Avg. precipitation days11.79.611.410.110.610.09.89.210.111.012.611.3127.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours65.570.7121.1172.2193.9206.0211.3199.5151.9114.461.449.61,617.5
Source: Météo France[6]

Economy[edit]

A former major mechanical, food industry and textile manufacturing centre as well as a retail and finance center, Lille forms the heart of a larger conurbation, regrouping Lille, Roubaix, Tourcoing and Villeneuve d'Ascq, which is France's 4th-largest urban conglomeration with a 1999 population of over 1.1 million.

Revenues and taxes[edit]

For centuries, Lille, a city of merchants, has displayed a wide range of incomes: great wealth and poverty have lived side by side, especially until the end of the 1800s. This contrast was noted by Victor Hugo in 1851 in his poem Les Châtiments: « Caves de Lille ! on meurt sous vos plafonds de pierre ! » ("Cellars of Lille: there is death below your stone roofs")

Employment[edit]

Employment in Lille has switched over half a century from a predominant industry to tertiary activities and services. Services account for 91% of employment in 2006.

Employment in Lille-Hellemmes-Lomme from 1968 to 2006

Business area196819751982199019992006
Agriculture340240144116175216
Industry and engineering51 90043 50034 58822 40615 35113 958
Tertiary activities91 992103 790107 916114 992122 736136 881
Total144 232147 530142 648137 514138 262151 055
Sources of data : INSEE[7]

Employment per categories in 1968 and in 2006

 FarmersBusinesspersons,
entrepreneurs
Upper classMiddle classEmployeesBlue-collar worker
196820061968200619682006196820061968200619682006
Lille0,1%0,0%7,8%3,2%7,5%20,2%16,7%30,0%33,1%32,8%34,9%13,8%
Greater Lille1,3%0,3%9,0%3,8%5,3%17,5%14,6%27,7%24,4%29,6%45,4%21,1%
France12,5%2,2%9,9%6,0%5,2%15,4%12,4%24,6%22,5%28,7%37,6%23,2%
Sources of data : INSEE[8]

Unemployment in active population from 1968 to 2006

196819751982199019992006
Lille2,9%4,6%10,3%14,6%16,9%15,2%
Greater Lille2,4%3,8%8,8%12,4%14,3%13,2%
France2,1 %3,8 %7,4 %10,1 %11,7 %10,6 %
Sources of data : INSEE[9]

Enterprises[edit]

In 2007, Lille hosts around 21,000 industry or service sites.

Enterprises as per 31 December 2007

 NumberSize categoryMean number of employees
Greater LilleLille% LilleNone1 to 1920 to 99100 to 499500+LilleGreater
Industries3 77481922%404361401221722
Construction4 03075819%3643603221710
Commerce13 5784 26531%2 2431 92683130711
Transports1 64940725%19618223513226
Finance2 14469232%282340511722118
Real property5 1231 77135%1 159587232054
Business services12 5194 08733%2 6561 2491492761517
Services to consumers8 9163 07534%1 6361 347866076
Education and health11 3113 21728%2 18476519558154331
Administration4 4041 77040%1 1874568034135948
Total67 46820 86131%12 3117 573762176391817
Sources of data : INSEE[10]
Euratechnologies.
Port de Lille
Lille chamber of commerce

Main sights[edit]

Lille features an array of architectural styles with various amounts of Flemish influence, including the use of brown and red brick. In addition, many residential neighborhoods, especially in Greater Lille, consist of attached 2–3 story houses aligned in a row, with narrow gardens in the back. These architectural attributes, many uncommon in France, help make Lille a transition in France to neighboring Belgium, as well as nearby Netherlands and England, where the presence of brick, as well as row houses or the Terraced house is much more prominent.

Points of interest include

La Braderie[edit]

Main article: Braderie de Lille

Lille hosts an annual braderie on the first Sunday in September. Its origins date back to the twelfth century and between two and three million visitors are drawn into the city. It is one of the largest gatherings of France and the largest flea market in Europe.

Many of the roads in the inner city (including much of the old town) are closed and local shops, residents and traders set up stalls in the street.

Gallery[edit]

Transport[edit]

Public transport[edit]

A tram in Lille.
Main article: Transpole

The Lille Métropole has a mixed mode public transport system, which is considered one of the most modern in the whole of France. It comprises buses, trams and a driverless metro system, all of which are operated under the Transpole name. The Lille Metro is a VAL system (véhicule automatique léger = light automated vehicle) that opened on 16 May 1983, becoming the first automatic metro line in the world. The metro system has two lines, with a total length of 45 kilometres (28 miles) and 60 stations. The tram system consists of two interurban tram lines, connecting central Lille to the nearby communities of Roubaix and Tourcoing, and has 45 stops. 68 urban bus routes cover the metropolis, 8 of which reach into Belgium.[11]

Railways[edit]

Lille is an important crossroads in the European high-speed rail network. It lies on the Eurostar line to London (1:20 hour journey). The French TGV network also puts it only 1 hour from Paris, 35 minutes from Brussels and other major centres in France such as Marseille, Lyon, and Toulouse further away. It has two railway stations, which stand next door to one another: Lille-Europe station (Gare de Lille-Europe), which primarily serves high-speed trains and international services (Eurostar), and Lille-Flandres station (Gare de Lille-Flandres), which primarily serves lower speed regional trains and regional Belgian trains.

Highways[edit]

Lille: motorway network.

Five autoroutes pass by Lille, the densest confluence of highways in France after Paris:

A sixth one – the proposed A24 – will link Amiens to Lille if built, but there is opposition to its route.

Air traffic[edit]

Lille Lesquin International Airport is 15 minutes from the city centre by car (11 km). In terms of shipping, it ranks fourth, with almost 38,000 tonnes of freight which pass through each year.[citation needed] Its passenger traffic, around 1,2 millions a year in 2010, is modest due to the proximity to Brussels and Paris-CDG airports. The airport mostly connects other French and European cities (some with low cost companies) as well as Mediterranean destinations.

Waterways[edit]

Lille Gare De Flandres

Lille is the third largest French river port after Paris and Strasbourg. The river Deûle is connected to regional waterways with over 680 km (423 mi) of navigable waters. The Deûle connects to Northern Europe via the River Scarpe and the River Scheldt (towards Belgium and the Netherlands), and internationally via the Lys River (to Dunkerque and Calais).

Shipping statistics

Year199720002003
Millions of tonnes5.566.687.30
By river or sea8.00%8.25%13.33%
By rail6.28%4.13%2.89%
By road85.72%87.62%83.78%

Education[edit]

With over 110 000 students, the metropolitan area of Lille is one France's top student cities.

Notable people from Lille[edit]

Writers[edit]

  • Jean Prieur (1914-), writer and professor

Scientists and mathematicians[edit]

Artists[edit]

Politicians, professionals and military[edit]

Charles De Gaulle is very popular in Lille

Sportspeople[edit]

Sports[edit]

The city's most major association football club, Lille OSC, currently plays in Ligue 1, the highest level of football in France. The club has won eight major national trophies and regularly feature in the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League. In the 2010–11 season, Lille won the league and cup double.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Lille is twinned with:[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.insee.fr/fr/bases-de-donnees/esl/comparateur.asp?codgeo=uu2010-59702
  2. ^ http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/document.asp?reg_id=19&ref_id=18191
  3. ^ INSEE: 2009 Census
  4. ^ List of municipalities : http://fr.eurometropolis.eu/qui-sommes-nous/territoire.html
  5. ^ Eurometropolis Lille-Kortrijk-Tournai official website
  6. ^ "Weather Information for Lille". World Weather Information Service. Retrieved 1 January 2009. [dead link]
  7. ^ INSEE (2006). "SecteurEmpLT-DonnéesHarmoniséesRP68-99". statistiques-locales.insee.fr. Retrieved 11 October 2009. 
  8. ^ INSEE (2006). "CS-EmploisLT-DonnéesHarmoniséesRP68-99". statistiques-locales.insee.fr. Retrieved 11 October 2009. 
  9. ^ INSEE (2006). "CS-ActivitéLR-DonnéesHarmoniséesRP68-99". statistiques-locales.insee.fr. Retrieved 11 October 2009. 
  10. ^ INSEE (2007). "Caractéristiques des entreprises et établissements". statistiques-locales.insee.fr. Retrieved 11 October 2009. 
  11. ^ "Travel & Transport". La mairie de Lille. Archived from the original on 31 January 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2008. 
  12. ^ Rapport L'Optimisation du réseau de formation initiale d'enseignement supérieur en région, rapport de M. Alain Lottin Au Conseil Economique et Social Régional Présenté lors de la séance plénière du 7 novembre 2006.
  13. ^ [1][dead link]
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Lile Facts & Figures". Mairie-Lille.fr. Retrieved 9 April 2009. 
  15. ^ "Lille, France – City of Buffalo". Ci.buffalo.ny.us. Retrieved 2011-06-01. 
  16. ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 2013-07-11. 
  17. ^ Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs - Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 2013-06-18. Retrieved 2013-08-06. 

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