Liquorice

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Liquorice
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Fabales
Family:Fabaceae
Subfamily:Faboideae
Tribe:Galegeae
Genus:Glycyrrhiza
Species:G. glabra
Binomial name
Glycyrrhiza glabra
L.[1]
Synonyms
 
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Liquorice
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Fabales
Family:Fabaceae
Subfamily:Faboideae
Tribe:Galegeae
Genus:Glycyrrhiza
Species:G. glabra
Binomial name
Glycyrrhiza glabra
L.[1]
Synonyms
Glycyrrhiza glabra - MHNT

Liquorice or licorice (/ˈlɪk(ə)rɪʃ/ LIK-(ə-)rish or /ˈlɪk(ə)rɪs/ LIK-(ə-)ris)[2] is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a somewhat sweet flavor can be extracted. The liquorice plant is a legume that is native to southern Europe and parts of Asia. It is not botanically related to anise, star anise, or fennel, which are sources of similar flavouring compounds. The word 'liquorice'/'licorice' is derived (via the Old French licoresse), from the Greek γλυκύρριζα (glukurrhiza), meaning "sweet root",[3] from γλυκύς (glukus), "sweet"[4] + ῥίζα (rhiza), "root",[5][6] the name provided by Dioscorides.[7]

Description[edit]

It is a herbaceous perennial, growing to 1 m in height, with pinnate leaves about 7–15 cm (3–6 in) long, with 9–17 leaflets. The flowers are 0.8–1.2 cm (½–⅓ in) long, purple to pale whitish blue, produced in a loose inflorescence. The fruit is an oblong pod, 2–3 cm (1 in) long, containing several seeds.[8] The roots are stoloniferous.[9]

Chemistry[edit]

The scent of liquorice root comes from a complex and variable combination of compounds, of which anethole is the most minor component (0-3% of total volatiles)[clarification needed]. Much of the sweetness in liquorice comes from glycyrrhizin, which has a sweet taste, 30–50 times the sweetness of sugar. The sweetness is very different from sugar, being less instant and lasting longer.

The isoflavene glabrene and the isoflavane glabridin, found in the roots of liquorice, are xenoestrogens.[10][11]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Liquorice grows best in deep valleys, well-drained soils, with full sun, and is harvested in the autumn, two to three years after planting.[8] Countries producing liquorice include Iran, Afghanistan, the People’s Republic of China, Pakistan, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Turkey.[12]

Liquorice extract is produced by boiling liquorice root and subsequently evaporating most of the water, and is traded both in solid and syrup form. Its active principle is glycyrrhizin, a sweetener between 30 to 50 times as sweet as sucrose, and which also has pharmaceutical effects.

The world's leading manufacturer of liquorice products is MacAndrews & Forbes, which manufactures more than 70% of the worldwide liquorice flavors sold to end-users.[13]

Tobacco[edit]

Most liquorice is used as a flavoring agent for tobacco. For example, MacAndrews & Forbes reported in 2011 that approximately 63% of its liquorice product sales are to the worldwide tobacco industry for use as tobacco flavor enhancing and moistening agents in the manufacture of American blend cigarettes, moist snuff, chewing tobacco and pipe tobacco.[12] This percentage was higher in earlier years, when American blend cigarettes made up a larger portion of worldwide tobacco consumption. MacAndrews & Forbes sold approximately 73% of its liquorice products to the tobacco industry in 2005,[14] and a consultant to MacAndrews & Forbes stated in 1975 that it was believed that well over 90% of the total production of liquorice extract and its derivatives found its way into tobacco products.[15]

Liquorice provides tobacco products with a natural sweetness and a distinctive flavor that blends readily with the natural and imitation flavoring components employed in the tobacco industry, represses harshness, and is not detectable as liquorice by the consumer.[15] Tobacco flavorings such as liquorice also make it easier to inhale the smoke by creating bronchodilators, which open up the lungs.[16] Chewing tobacco requires substantially higher levels of liquorice extract as emphasis on the sweet flavor appears highly desirable.[15]

Food and candy[edit]

Liquorice flavour is found in a wide variety of liquorice candies or sweets. In most of these candies the taste is reinforced by aniseed oil, and the actual content of liquorice is very low. Liquorice confections are primarily purchased by consumers in the European Union.[12]

In the Netherlands, where liquorice candy ("drop") is one of the most popular forms of sweet, only a few of the many forms that are sold contain aniseed, although mixing it with mint, menthol or with laurel is quite popular. Mixing it with ammonium chloride ('salmiak') is also popular. The most popular liquorice, known in the Netherlands as zoute drop (salty liquorice) actually contains very little salt, i.e. sodium;[17] the salty taste is probably due to ammonium chloride, and the blood pressure raising effect is due to glycyrrhizin, see below. Strong, salty candies are popular in Scandinavia.

Pontefract in Yorkshire was the first place where liquorice mixed with sugar began to be used as a sweet in the same way it is in the modern day.[18] Pontefract cakes were originally made there. In County Durham, Yorkshire and Lancashire it is colloquially known as Spanish, supposedly because Spanish monks grew liquorice root at Rievaulx Abbey near Thirsk.[19]

Liquorice flavouring is also used in soft drinks, and in some herbal infusions where it provides a sweet aftertaste. The flavour is common in medicines to disguise unpleasant flavours.

Liquorice root
Various liquorice products.
Different flavoured liquorice sticks

Liquorice is popular in Italy (particularly in the South) and Spain in its natural form. The root of the plant is simply dug up, washed and chewed as a mouth freshener. Throughout Italy unsweetened liquorice is consumed in the form of small black pieces made only from 100% pure liquorice extract; the taste is bitter and intense. In Calabria a popular liqueur is made from pure liquorice extract. Liquorice is also very popular in Syria where it is sold as a drink. Dried liquorice root can be chewed as a sweet. Black liquorice contains approximately 100 calories per ounce (15 kJ/g).[20]

Chinese cuisine uses liquorice as a culinary spice for savoury foods. It is often employed to flavour broths and foods simmered in soy sauce.

Other herbs and spices of similar flavour include anise, star anise, tarragon, sassafras, and fennel.

It is also the main ingredient of a very well known soft drink in Egypt, called عرقسوس ('erk-soos).

Sticks of liquorice typically have a diameter between two and ten millimetres. Although they resemble plain wooden sticks, they are soft enough to be chewed on. They used to be popular among Dutch, Danish and Swedish children[citation needed]. In Lancashire and Yorkshire in the early 1950s & 1960s, wooden sticks of liquorice, around 8mm diameter, were readily available (and popular) in sweet shops. Also in Essex during late 50s. They were bought as 'sticks of liquorice', and they were chewed by young children. The wood was yellowish, and fibrous when chewed. Liquorice root can have either a salty or sweet taste. The thin sticks are usually quite salty and sometimes taste like salmiak (salty liquorice), whereas the thick sticks are usually quite sweet, with a salty undertone[citation needed]. Liquorice root is also widely available in Denmark. It is also sold by the drugstore and drysalter chain Matas and many greengrocers.

Medicine[edit]

Licorice
Foliage
Glycyrrhiza glabra from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants

The compound glycyrrhizic acid, found in liquorice, has been proposed as being useful for liver protection in tuberculosis therapy, however evidence does not support this use which may in fact be harmful.[21]

Alternative medicine[edit]

In traditional Chinese medicine, liquorice (मुलेठी, 甘草, شیرین بیان) is commonly used in herbal formulae to "harmonize" the other ingredients in the formula and to carry the formula to the twelve "regular meridians".[22]

Liquorice is called as Yashtimadhu in Sanskrit and mulethi in Hindi, has been conventionally used by Ayurveda in an attempt to treat respiratory and digestive disorders. Its use is specifically indicated in the treatment of chronic acidity, ulcers and chronic bronchial conditions. Also it is claimed to act as an antistress and anabolic agent.Mulethi

Glycyrrhizin from Glycyrrhiza root has been shown to modulate airway constriction, lung inflammation and infiltration of eosinophils in bronchial areas by stimulating CD4 and CD8 immune cell function.[23]

More recently licorice has been used for symptomatic improvement in patients with the Postural Tachycardia Syndrome.

Liquorice may be useful in conventional and naturopathic medicine for both mouth ulcers[24] and peptic ulcers.[25]

Toxicity[edit]

Excessive consumption of liquorice or liquorice candy is known to be toxic to the liver[26] and cardiovascular system, and may produce hypertension[27] (acquired pseudohyperaldosteronism) and edema.[28] In occasional cases, blood pressure has increased with excessive consumption of liquorice tea, but such occasions are rare and reversible when the herb is withdrawn.[29] Most cases of hypertension from liquorice were caused by eating too much concentrated liquorice candy.[30] Doses as low as 50 grams (2 oz) of liquorice daily for two weeks can cause a significant rise in blood pressure.[31]

The European Commission 2008 report suggested that "people should not consume any more than 100mg of glycyrrhizic acid a day, for it can raise blood pressure or cause muscle weakness, chronic fatigue, headaches or swelling, and lower testosterone levels in men." Haribo, manufacturer of Pontefract cakes, stated: "Haribo advises, as with any other food, liquorice products should be eaten in moderation." A 56-year-old Yorkshire woman was hospitalized after liquorice overdose (200 grams or 7 ounces a day), which caused muscle failure. The hospital restored her potassium levels, by intravenous drip and tablets, allowing her to recover after 4 days.[32]

Comparative studies of pregnant women suggest that excessive amounts of liquorice (100g a week) may also adversely affect both IQ and behaviour traits of offspring.[33]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Glycyrrhiza glabra information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 6 March 2008. 
  2. ^ licorice. Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary, © 2007 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
  3. ^ γλυκύρριζα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  4. ^ γλυκύς, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  5. ^ ῥίζα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus<
  6. ^ liquorice, on Oxford Dictionaries
  7. ^ google books Maud Grieve, Manya Marshall - A modern herbal: the medicinal, culinary, cosmetic and economic properties, cultivation and folk-lore of herbs, grasses, fungi, shrubs, & trees with all their modern scientific uses, Volume 2 Dover Publications, 1982 & Pharmacist's Guide to Medicinal Herbs Arthur M. Presser Smart Publications, 1 Apr 2001 2012-05-19
  8. ^ a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. ISBN 0-333-47494-5
  9. ^ Brown, D., ed. (1995). "The RHS encyclopedia of herbs and their uses". ISBN 1-4053-0059-0
  10. ^ Somjen, D.; Katzburg, S.; Vaya, J.; Kaye, A. M.; Hendel, D.; Posner, G. H.; Tamir, S. (2004). "Estrogenic activity of glabridin and glabrene from licorice roots on human osteoblasts and prepubertal rat skeletal tissues". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 91 (4–5): 241–246. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2004.04.008. PMID 15336701. 
  11. ^ Tamir, S.; Eizenberg, M.; Somjen, D.; Izrael, S.; Vaya, J. (2001). "Estrogen-like activity of glabrene and other constituents isolated from licorice root". The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 78 (3): 291–298. doi:10.1016/S0960-0760(01)00093-0. PMID 11595510. 
  12. ^ a b c M & F Worldwide Corp., Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2010.
  13. ^ M & F Worldwide Corp., Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2001.
  14. ^ M & F Worldwide Corp., Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2005.
  15. ^ a b c Marvin K. Cook, The Use of Licorice and Other Flavoring Material in Tobacco (Apr. 10, 1975).
  16. ^ Boeken v. Phillip Morris Inc., 127 Cal. App. 4th 1640, 1673, 26 Cal. Rptr. 3d 638, 664 (2005).
  17. ^ [1] the online Dutch food composition database]
  18. ^ "Right good food from the Ridings". AboutFood.com. 25 October 2007. 
  19. ^ "Where Liquorice Roots Go Deep". Northern Echo. Retrieved 9 December 2008. 
  20. ^ Licorice Calories
  21. ^ Liu Q, Garner P, Wang Y, Huang B, Smith H (2008). "Drugs and herbs given to prevent hepatotoxicity of tuberculosis therapy: systematic review of ingredients and evaluation studies". BMC Public Health (Systematic review) 8: 365. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-8-365. PMC 2576232. PMID 18939987. 
  22. ^ Bensky, Dan; et al. (2004). Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition. Eastland Press. ISBN 0-939616-42-4. 
  23. ^ Brush, Mendenhall E, Guggenheim A, Chan T, Connelly E, et al., The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69 expression and immune cell activation in humans, Phytother Res. 2006 Jun 28, Pubmed ID: 16807880.
  24. ^ Das, S. K.; Das, V.; Gulati, A. K.; Singh, V. P. (1989). "Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in aphthous ulcers". The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 37 (10): 647. PMID 2632514. 
  25. ^ Krausse, R.; Bielenberg, J.; Blaschek, W.; Ullmann, U. (2004). "In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Extractum liquiritiae, glycyrrhizin and its metabolites". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 54 (1): 243–246. doi:10.1093/jac/dkh287. PMID 15190039. 
  26. ^ The Nurse's Guide To Herbal Remedies from Salisbury University
  27. ^ Liquorice and hypertension Editorial in The Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 2005
  28. ^ A Guide to Medicinal and Aromatic Plants from Purdue University
  29. ^ Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Safety Issues Affecting Herbs: Herbs that May Increase Blood Pressure, retrieved 14 May 2010
  30. ^ Woman 'overdoses' on liquorice, BBC News online, published Friday, 21 May 2004
  31. ^ Sigurjónsdóttir, H.A., et al. Liquorice-induced rise in blood pressure: a linear dose-response relationship. Journal of Human Hypertension (2001) 15, 549-552.
  32. ^ BBC Woman 'overdoses' on liquorice 21 May 2004
  33. ^ Eurekalert press release 2009

External links[edit]