Lewiston, Maine

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Lewiston, Maine
Skyline of Lewiston
Skyline of Lewiston
Official seal of Lewiston, Maine
Motto: "The Sky's the Limit"[1]
Location of Lewiston, Maine
Location of Lewiston, Maine
Coordinates: 44°5′51″N 70°11′33″W / 44.09750°N 70.19250°W / 44.09750; -70.19250Coordinates: 44°5′51″N 70°11′33″W / 44.09750°N 70.19250°W / 44.09750; -70.19250
CountryUnited States
Incorporated1795 (town), 1863 (city)
 • MayorRobert E. Macdonald
 • City35.54 sq mi (92.05 km2)
 • Land34.15 sq mi (88.45 km2)
 • Water1.39 sq mi (3.60 km2)
Elevation217 ft (66 m)
Population (2010)[3]
 • City36,592
 • Estimate (2012[4])41,592
 • Density1,071.5/sq mi (413.7/km2)
 • Metro107,702
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP codes04240, 04241, 04243
Area code(s)207
FIPS code23-38740
GNIS feature ID0569502
WebsiteTown of Lewiston, Maine
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Lewiston, Maine
Skyline of Lewiston
Skyline of Lewiston
Official seal of Lewiston, Maine
Motto: "The Sky's the Limit"[1]
Location of Lewiston, Maine
Location of Lewiston, Maine
Coordinates: 44°5′51″N 70°11′33″W / 44.09750°N 70.19250°W / 44.09750; -70.19250Coordinates: 44°5′51″N 70°11′33″W / 44.09750°N 70.19250°W / 44.09750; -70.19250
CountryUnited States
Incorporated1795 (town), 1863 (city)
 • MayorRobert E. Macdonald
 • City35.54 sq mi (92.05 km2)
 • Land34.15 sq mi (88.45 km2)
 • Water1.39 sq mi (3.60 km2)
Elevation217 ft (66 m)
Population (2010)[3]
 • City36,592
 • Estimate (2012[4])41,592
 • Density1,071.5/sq mi (413.7/km2)
 • Metro107,702
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP codes04240, 04241, 04243
Area code(s)207
FIPS code23-38740
GNIS feature ID0569502
WebsiteTown of Lewiston, Maine

Lewiston is a city in Androscoggin County in Maine, and the second-largest city in the state. The population was 36,592 at the 2010 census. It is one of two principal cities of and included within the Lewiston-Auburn, Maine metropolitan New England city and town area and the Lewiston-Auburn, Maine Metropolitan Statistical Area, which as of 2006 census estimates has a combined population of 107,702. It is also part of the extended Portland-Lewiston-South Portland, Maine combined statistical area, which has a combined population 621,219 as of 2006 estimates.

A former industrial center, it is located in south-central Maine, at the falls of the Androscoggin River, across from Auburn. Lewiston and Auburn are often considered a single entity and referred to as Lewiston–Auburn, colloquially abbreviated as L-A or L/A. They have a combined population of 59,647 people.[5] Together, Lewiston-Auburn is somewhat smaller than Maine's largest city, Portland (excluding its own suburbs). Lewiston is home to Bates College, the Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul, the University of Southern Maine's Lewiston-Auburn College, and two significant regional general hospitals: Central Maine Medical Center and Saint Mary's Regional Medical Center.


Early period[edit]

The Lewiston area was formerly inhabited by peoples of the Androscoggin (or Arosaguntacook) tribe. The Androscoggins were a tribe of the Abenaki nation. Facing annihilation from English attacks and epidemics of new infectious diseases, the Androscoggins started to emigrate to Quebec around 1669. They were driven out of the area in 1680 sometime after King Philip's War (1675-1676). The governor of New France allocated two seigneuries on the Saint Francis River which is now known as the Odanak Indian Reservation; and the second was founded near Bécancour and is called the Wolinak Indian Reservation.

A grant comprising the area of Lewiston was given to Moses Little and Jonathan Bagley, members of the Pejepscot Proprieters, on January 28, 1768 on the condition that fifty families lived in the area before June 1, 1774. Bagley and Little named the new town Lewistown. Paul Hildreth was the first man to settle in Lewiston in the fall of 1770. By 1795, Lewiston was officially incorporated as a town.[6] At least four houses that have survived from this period are currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

King Avenue and Ralph Avenue were named after Ralph Luthor King, who owned the land located near the fairgrounds. Elliott Avenue was named after his wife, Grace O. Elliott, whose son eventually built the family home at 40 Wellman Street.

Industrial development period[edit]

Child going to work at 5:30 a.m. in Lewiston, 1909. Photo by Lewis Hine.
Saints' Peter and Paul Basilica, one of only a few basilicas in New England, and the only in Maine, located on Ash Street

Lewiston was a slow but steadily growing farm town throughout its early history. By the early-to-mid-19th century, however, as water power was being honed, Lewiston's location on the Androscoggin River would prove to make it a perfect location for emerging industry.[6]

In 1809, Michael Little built a large wooden sawmill next to the falls. Burned in 1814 by an arsonist, it was later rebuilt. In 1836, local entrepreneurs — predominantly the Little family and friends — formed the Androscoggin Falls Dam, Lock & Canal Company:

"...for the purpose of erecting and constructing dams, locks, canals, mills, works, machines, and buildings on their own lands and also manufacturing cotton, wool, iron, steel, and paper in the towns of Lewiston, Minot, and Danville." [7]

Later reorganized as the Lewiston Water Power Company, the sales of stock attracted Boston investors — including Thomas J. Hill, Lyman Nichols, George L. Ward, Alexander De Witt, and Benjamin E. Bates (namesake of the Bates Mill and Bates College) – who financed a canal system and several textile mills on the Androscoggin River. This began the transformation from a small farming town into a textile manufacturing center on the model of Lowell, Massachusetts.[6] The Bates Mill remained the largest employer in Lewiston from the 1850s to the mid-late 20th century.

In 1853, the Grand Trunk Railway was built, connecting Maine to the St. Lawrence River, Montreal, and the Canadian Maritimes, and making Portland the winter port for Canadian trade. Subsequently, trains connected Quebec with Lewiston on a daily schedule. During the Civil War, the high demand for textiles helped Lewiston develop a strong industrial base. In 1860, a flood of French-Canadian immigration into Maine began, spawned by industrial work opportunities in Maine cities with water power from waterfalls.[8] This brought a significant influx of Québécois millworkers that replaced the former Yankee millgirls. Lewiston's population boomed between 1840 to 1890 from 1,801 to 21,701. Canadiens settled in an area downtown that became known as Little Canada, and Lewiston's character has remained largely Franco-American ever since.

In 1855, The Maine State Seminary in Lewiston, now Bates College, was incorporated. During this time, in 1863, Lewiston was incorporated as a city. In 1872, St. Peter's church was built in Lewiston. This was the first French-Canadian national church in Maine. In 1880, Le Messager, a French language newspaper, began printing in Lewiston to serve its predominant ethnic population.

The local Kora Shrine was organized in 1891 and held its first meetings in a Masonic temple on Lisbon Street. This group would from 1908 to 1910 build the Kora Temple on Sabattus Street, the largest home of a fraternal organization in the state. Architect George M. Coombs designed this Moorish style structure.

City leaders decided to build a cathedral in which the Roman Catholic Diocese of Portland could relocate. Construction of the Church of Saints Peter and Paul began in 1905 and ended in 1938, mostly funded through thousands of small donations from Lewiston residents. It is the largest Roman Catholic Church in Maine, and Lewiston's most prominent landmark. While the Diocese of Portland did not relocate to Lewiston, the church nevertheless became a basilica in 2004. It is one of the few American basilicas located outside of a major metropolitan area.

Lewiston factories c. 1910
Lewiston factories c. 1910

Lewiston-Auburn Shoe Strike[edit]

In 1937, one of the largest labor disputes in Maine history occurred in Lewiston and Auburn. The Lewiston-Auburn Shoe Strike lasted from March to June and at its peak involved 4,000 to 5,000 workers on strike. After workers attempted to march across the Androscoggin River from Lewiston to Auburn, Governor Lewis Barrows sent in the Maine Army National Guard. Some labor leaders, CIO Secretary Powers Hapgood, were imprisoned for months after a Maine Supreme Judicial Court judge issued an injunction seeking to end the strike.

Industrial decline period[edit]

Bates Mill and canal c. 1915

After World War I, profits from the textile industry in New England mill towns such as Lewiston, Biddeford, Manchester, New Hampshire, Waterbury, Connecticut, and Fall River, Haverhill, Lawrence and Lowell, Massachusetts began to decline. Businesses began moving to the South due to lower costs of power from more modern technologies (Lewiston's water wheel technology gave way to hydroelectricity, cheaper transportation (as most cotton and materials came from the South), and cheaper labor).

Starting in the late 1950s, many of Lewiston's textile mills began closing. This gradually led to a run-down and abandoned downtown area. Chain stores previously located downtown—Woolworth's, W. T. Grant, S. S. Kresge, JC Penney and Sears Roebuck—shut their doors or moved to malls on the outskirts of Lewiston or Auburn. The city's flagship department store, the four-story B. Peck & Co., closed in 1982 after more than a century in business. As businesses and jobs began to leave the city, people followed. The population stopped increasing at its previous rate and began to slowly decline after 1970, then at a greater rate in the 1990s.[9]

Economic diversification and renaissance[edit]

Following a difficult economic period in the 1980s that saw high unemployment and downtown stagnation, several key events have led to a period of economic and cultural growth, including the transformation of the historic Bates Mill Complex. Because the city took over the complex in 1992 after back taxes went unpaid, years of taxpayer frustration in the city's need to maintain the 1,100,000-square-foot (100,000 m2) behemoth led to two referenda (one non-binding vote, the other binding). Voters soundly supported the need to pursue redevelopment by maintaining the property and selling it to private developers. In 2001, the city sold three mill buildings to local developers. In 2003, Platz Associates sold the Bates Mill Complex, with the exception of Mill 5 and a small support building. For the next four years, a number of business enterprises expanded after Platz redeveloped the mill building.[9] The Bates Mill complex was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in December, 2010.

Oxford Networks headquarters

In May 2004, the city officials announced a plan for urban renewal near the downtown area. The plan was to demolish several blocks of 19th-century millworker housing, lay new streets with updated infrastructure, construct more owner-occupied, lower-density housing, and build a boulevard through one neighborhood using federal Community Development Block Grant funds provided over a period of ten years. Some residents of the affected neighborhoods felt that the plan was initially announced with little input from them. They formed a neighborhood group called "The Visible Community", which has since been actively involved in the planning process, and resulted in cooperation between neighbors and city officials to redesign Kennedy Park, including input on the location of new basketball courts, and feedback regarding creation of the largest all-concrete skate park in Maine.[10]

Downtown is home to a new headquarters for Oxford Networks, along with a $20 million upgrade in local fiber-optics, a new auto parts store, a campus of the for-profit Kaplan University, the headquarters for Northeast Bank, a parking garage, and the newly renovated Maine Supply Co. building, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. That facility is now called the Business Service Center at Key Bank Plaza, and is home to the local Chamber of Commerce, the Lewiston-Auburn Economic Growth Council, and an arrangement with a number of business service providers.

The area's renaissance has gained local, regional, and national recognition. In 2002 and again in 2006, the L-A area led the state in economic development activity, according to the Maine Department of Economic and Community Development's list of business investments and expansions. In a 2006 KPMG International study measuring the cost of locating and maintaining a business, Lewiston ranked first among the New England communities analyzed, and finished 24th out of 49 U.S. communities analyzed.

Lewiston also earned a 2007 All-America City Award designation by the National Civic League. The national competition "recognizes communities whose residents work together to identify and tackle community-wide challenges and achieve measurable, uncommon results." 10 cities are selected as All-America Cities each year.[11]

Somali and Bantu migration[edit]

In 1999, at the urging of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), the United States government began preparations to resettle an estimated 12,000 refugees from the Bantu minority ethnic group in Somalia to select cities throughout the United States. Most of the early arrivals in the United States settled in Clarkston, Georgia, a city adjacent to Atlanta. However, they were mostly assigned to low rent, poverty-stricken inner city areas, so many began to look to resettle elsewhere in the U.S.[12]

Word soon spread that Lewiston had a low crime rate, good schools and cheap housing.[13] Somalis subsequently began a secondary migration from other states to the former mill town, and after 2005, many Bantus followed suit.[12]

In October 2002, then-Mayor Laurier T. Raymond wrote an open letter addressed to leaders of the Somali community, predicting a negative impact on the city's social services and requesting that they discourage further relocation to Lewiston.[13] The letter angered some persons and prompted some community leaders and residents to speak out against the mayor, drawing national attention. Demonstrations were held in Lewiston, both by those who supported the immigrants' presence and those who opposed it.[14]

In January 2003, a small white supremacist group from Illinois demonstrated in Lewiston in support of what they believed the mayor meant, prompting a simultaneous counter-demonstration at Bates College and the organization of the "Many and One Coalition". The mayor was out of state on the day of the rallies, while governor John Baldacci and other officials attended.

In August 2010, the Lewiston Sun Journal reported that Somali entrepreneurs had helped reinvigorate downtown Lewiston by opening shops in previously closed storefronts. Amicable relations were also reported by the local Franco-American merchants and the Somali storekeepers.[15]


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 35.54 square miles (92.05 km2), of which, 34.15 square miles (88.45 km2) is land and 1.39 square miles (3.60 km2) is water.[2] Lewiston is drained by the Androscoggin River, which is located on its western border. The city is bordered by Auburn beyond the river, as well as the towns of Greene, Sabattus, and Lisbon. It is located between Portland, the state's biggest city and cultural center, and the state capital of Augusta.


Lower Lisbon Street in Downtown.

Webster Street neighborhood Consisting mostly of suburban mid-income housing, this neighborhood runs between Lisbon and Webster Streets, East Avenue, and Alfred Plourde Parkway. Schools that serve this neighborhood are Farwell Elementary, Martel Elementary, Lewiston Middle School, and Lewiston High School.

Pond Road neighborhood This neighborhood is bounded by the triangle formed by Pond Road, Randall Road, and Sabattus Street (Route 126). This neighborhood is mostly mid-income suburban residential. This area is served by McMahon Elementary, Lewiston Middle School, and Lewiston High School.


Climate data for Lewiston, Maine
Average high °F (°C)29
Average low °F (°C)11
Precipitation inches (mm)3.5
Source: Weatherbase


Large businesses[edit]

Central Maine Medical Center, seen from High Street
The Lewiston Sun Journal on Park Street

Lisbon Street[edit]

The District Court on Lisbon Street

Main Street[edit]

Main St. in Lewiston is US-Route 202, ME-Route 11, and ME-Route 100.

Top employers[edit]

According to Lewiston's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[16] the top employers in the city are:

#Employer# of Employees
1Central Maine Medical Center2,381
2St. Mary's Health System1,798
3TD Bank1,026
4Bates College788
6Affiliated Computer Services500
9Liberty Mutual307
10Lepage Bakeries303


Public transportation[edit]

City Link Bus near Walmart

The downtown shuttle is the only line that requires no fare at all. It runs through the downtown of both Lewiston and Auburn. The Citylink's station is located in Auburn. Its maintains only one line that goes into Lisbon. The Citylink services on average approximately 235,000 people a year.

Roadways and major routes[edit]


Airports and bus station[edit]




The Franco Center[edit]

The Franco Center, formerly the Franco-American Heritage Center, opened in 2000 in what was formerly St. Mary's Parish. The performing arts center programs events for both Franco-American related performances as well as other cultural displays, such as the Center's Piano and Celtic Series. The diverse programming of the venue hosts both local and international performers. The Center also hosts events and serves as a museum of the city's Franco-American past with historical artifacts and documentation on display as well as a small library.

The Public Theatre[edit]

Lewiston also features The Public Theatre, which puts on different plays throughout the year with about six to eight productions per season. It is located downtown on Maple St. It was formerly located on Park street. It features all types of plays, with actors from all over the world. Its offices are located in Auburn at the Great Falls Plaza.


Emerge Film Festival[edit]

The Emerge Film Festival was first held in June 2014 in downtown Lewiston and Auburn.

The Great Falls Balloon Festival[edit]

The Great Falls Balloon Festival is an event that is held one weekend in August every year. The Festival includes launching of balloons, games, and carnival rides. The launch sites take place at several open parks on the Lewiston-Auburn Androscoggin Riverfront. People come from all around the country and Canada to see the festivities. It is said to be the city's biggest annual event.[citation needed]

Festival FrancoFun[edit]

Formerly known as Festival de Joie, Festival FrancoFun is held annually at the Androscoggin Bank Colisee and is a celebration of the city's Franco-American heritage. The festival features performances from French-Canadian musicians as well as native French-Canadian food.

Liberty Festival[edit]

Held on July 4 of each year, the festival is the name given to the fireworks event over the Great Falls of the Androscoggin River in between the twin cities. The fireworks are launched in West Pitch Park in Auburn. Major viewpoints of the fireworks are Veterans Park, railroad Park and Great Falls Plaza in Auburn.

Patrick Dempsey Challenge[edit]

Lewiston hosts the annual Dempsey Challenge, which began in 2009. The event, hosted by Lewiston-native Patrick Dempsey, in a run/walk and cycling fundraiser for cancer research. In its opening year the event raised over one million dollars. The event has attracted famous athletes from all around including participants in the Tour de France. All the proceeds go to the Patrick Dempsey Center for Cancer Hope at the Central Maine Medical Center.

Notable people[edit]





Lewiston is part of the Portland television market, and receives all major channels in that market. WGME-TV and WCSH both have local bureau in the city, and are located across the street from each other on Main Street.


Lewiston is part of the Portland radio market, and receives most major stations in that market.

Sports and recreation[edit]

Androscoggin Bank Colisee

The Androscoggin Bank Colisée[edit]

The center of sports in Lewiston is the Androscoggin Bank Colisée (formerly known as the Central Maine Civic Center). The Lewiston Maineiacs, the only American team in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League played their first season in 2003-2004 and dissolved the team after the 2010-2011 season. The Colisée is also the home to the state Class A and Class B high school hockey championships each year. The city as a whole is known for its strong passion for the game of hockey, likely related to its French American heritage. Two Lewiston schools, Lewiston High School and St. Dominic Regional High School (now located in Auburn), combine for over half of the state class A high school hockey championships in the state's history. During the 2013-14 American Hockey League season, the Portland Pirates will play their first 12 home games at the Colisée while the Cumberland County Civic Center is being renovated.

Ali vs Liston rematch[edit]

In May 1965, Lewiston became the venue for a World Boxing Association heavyweight title rematch between Muhammad Ali and Sonny Liston; Ali had defeated Liston in a controversial fight in Miami Beach, Florida in February 1964, and the World Boxing Council was demanding an immediate rematch, which was against WBA rules. The rematch was originally planned to be held in Boston, but was halted by Massachusetts boxing authorities due to licensing issues. Promoters were eventually able to frame a lucrative deal moving the fight to the Colisée in Lewiston. As the venue held less than 3,700 spectators, only 2,434 fans were present, setting an all-time record for the lowest attendance for a heavyweight championship match. The fight was the scene of the famous photograph of Ali standing over Liston taunting him with his glove.[17]

Lewiston Maineiacs[edit]

Main article: Lewiston Maineiacs

The Lewiston Maineiacs were a major junior hockey team that played in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League (QMJHL)/la Ligue de hockey junior majeur du Québec (LHJMQ). The Maineiacs moved to Lewiston in 2003 from Sherbrooke, Quebec and were the only team in the QMJHL located in the United States. They played their home games at the Androscoggin Bank Colisée in Lewiston. In 2006-2007, the Maineiacs won the Jean Rougeau Trophy for having the best record in the QMJHL, won the President's Cup as QMJHL playoff champion, and represented the league at the 2007 Memorial Cup. Several Maineiacs alumni have played in the National Hockey League, including Jaroslav Halák, Jonathan Bernier, David Perron, and Alexandre Picard.

Maine Nordiques[edit]

Main article: Maine Nordiques

The Maine Nordiques were a professional hockey team that operated within the North American Hockey League from 1973–1977. They were based at the Central Maine Youth Center in Lewiston. The Nordiques served as a farm club for the Quebec Nordiques of the World Hockey Association.[18]


Lewiston's public education system has recently seen a number of new buildings constructed for Farwell Elementary School and Pettingill School, now replaced with the 600 Student capacity Geiger Elementary School. Plans to redo the cities Thomas J. McMahon School are under way.

The city is also home to Bates College, one of the most prestigious small colleges in the country.

Colleges and universities[edit]

Public schools[edit]

Private schools[edit]


Historical population

2010 census[edit]

As of the 2010 census, there were 36,592 people, 15,267 households, and 8,622 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,071.5 inhabitants per square mile (413.7/km2). There were 16,731 housing units at an average density of 489.9 per square mile (189.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 86.6% White, 8.7% Black or African American, 0.4% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.0% Asian, 2.0% Hispanic or Latino (of any race), 0.6% from some other race, and 2.6% from two or more races.[3]

In 2010, there were 15,267 households of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.5% were non-families. Of all households, 34.4% were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.90.

The median age in the city was 37.4 years. 22.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 12.9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24.1% were from 25 to 44; 25.3% were from 45 to 64; and 15.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.1% male and 51.9% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the 2000 census, there were 35,690 people, 15,290 households, and 8,658 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,047.0 people per square mile (404.2/km²). There were 16,470 housing units at an average density of 483.2 per square mile (186.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 95.7% White, 1.1% Black or African American, 0.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.8% Asian, 1.3% Hispanic or Latino (of any race), 0.4% from some other race, and 1.7% from two or more races.[21]

People of French-American descent were by far the most represented ethnic group in Lewiston, with 29.4% being of French-Canadian descent and 18.3% French (the two were listed as separate categories in the census although the vast majority were of French-Canadian descent). Following French were Irish at 10.2% and English at 9.9%.

There were 15,290 households out of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.9% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.4% were non-families. Of all households, 35.9% were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.81.

The median income for a household in the city was $36,743, and the median income for a family was $46,289. Males had a median income of $38,881 versus $30,465 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,014. About 16% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.8% of those under age 18 and 17.7% of those age 65 or over.



LanguagePopulationPercentage (%)
Other languages2930.88%

Voter registration

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of November 2012[23]
PartyTotal VotersPercentage
 Green Independent1,2595.17%

In popular culture[edit]

Old Post Office, in use from 1895 until 1934, as it appeared in 1915

Places of interest[edit]

National Register of Historic Places listings[edit]

Empire Theatre in 1907
Hospital Square in c. 1910
Kennedy Park in c. 1915
Kora Temple Shrine in c. 1915


  1. ^ "Town of Lewiston, Maine". Town of Lewiston, Maine. Retrieved August 26, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-23. 
  3. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-23. 
  4. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-07-05. 
  5. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_PL_GCTPL2.ST13&prodType=table
  6. ^ a b c Coolidge, Austin J.; John B. Mansfield (1859). A History and Description of New England. Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 188–191. 
  7. ^ Elder, Janus G. A History of Lewiston, Maine with a Genealogical Register of Early Families page 52.
  8. ^ Varney, George J. (1886), Gazetteer of the state of Maine. Lewiston, Boston: Russell 
  9. ^ a b History of Lewiston, Maine (municipal site)
  10. ^ Voyer, Andrea M. (2013-10-21). Strangers and Neighbors: Multiculturalism, Conflict, and Community in America. Cambridge University Press. pp. 155–. ISBN 9781107657748. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  11. ^ "LEWISTON NAMED ALL-AMERICA CITY". Lewiston Auburn Maine It's Happening Here!. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  12. ^ a b Perceived Barriers to Somali Immigrant Employment in Lewiston - A Supplement to Maine's Department of Labor Report
  13. ^ a b "The New Yankees", Mother Jones, March/April 2004
  14. ^ The Great Somali Welfare Hunt
  15. ^ Somali stores bring people back to Lisbon Street Lewiston Sun-Journal, August 30, 2010
  16. ^ City of Lewiston CAFR
  17. ^ "Most Popular". CNN. 
  18. ^ "Maine Nordiques Statistics and History". hockeyDB.com. Retrieved December 2014. 
  19. ^ [1], accessed December, 2007.
  20. ^ Lewiston city, Maine - Population Finder - American FactFinder
  21. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  22. ^ Modern Language Association Data Center
  23. ^ "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of November 6, 2012". Maine Bureau of Corporations. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Official website