Leslie Howard (actor)

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Leslie Howard

Still for the film Pygmalion (1938)
BornLeslie Howard Steiner
(1893-04-03)3 April 1893
Forest Hill, London, England,
United Kingdom
Died1 June 1943(1943-06-01) (aged 50)
At sea over Bay of Biscay
OccupationActor, director, producer
Years active1917–1943
Spouse(s)Ruth Evelyn Martin (1916–1943)
ChildrenRonald Howard
Leslie Ruth Howard
 
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Leslie Howard

Still for the film Pygmalion (1938)
BornLeslie Howard Steiner
(1893-04-03)3 April 1893
Forest Hill, London, England,
United Kingdom
Died1 June 1943(1943-06-01) (aged 50)
At sea over Bay of Biscay
OccupationActor, director, producer
Years active1917–1943
Spouse(s)Ruth Evelyn Martin (1916–1943)
ChildrenRonald Howard
Leslie Ruth Howard

Leslie Howard (3 April 1893 – 1 June 1943) was an English stage and film actor, director, and producer.[1] Among his best-known roles was Ashley Wilkes in Gone with the Wind (1939) and roles in Berkeley Square (1933), Of Human Bondage (1934), The Scarlet Pimpernel (1934), The Petrified Forest (1936), Pygmalion (1938), Intermezzo (1939), "Pimpernel" Smith (1941) and The First of the Few (1942).

Howard's Second World War activities included acting and filmmaking. He was active in anti-Nazi propaganda and reputedly involved with British or Allied Intelligence, which may have led to his death in 1943 when his airliner was shot down over the sea, sparking conspiracy theories regarding his death.

Contents

Early life

Howard was born Leslie Howard Steiner to a British mother, Lilian (née Blumberg), and a Hungarian father, Ferdinand Steiner, in Forest Hill, London, UK. His father was Jewish and his mother was raised a Christian; her own grandfather was a Jewish immigrant from East Prussia who had married into the English upper classes.[2][3] He was educated at Alleyn's School, London. Like many others around the time of the First World War, the family changed their name, using "Stainer" as less German-sounding. He worked as a bank clerk before enlisting at the outbreak of the First World War. He served in the British Army as a subaltern in the Northamptonshire Yeomanry, but suffered shell shock, which led to his relinquishing his commission in May 1916.

Theatre career

Howard began acting on the London stage in 1917 but had his greatest theatrical success in the United States on Broadway, in plays such as Aren't We All? (1923), Outward Bound (1924), and The Green Hat (1925). He became an undisputed Broadway star in Her Cardboard Lover (1927). After his success as time traveller Peter Standish in Berkeley Square (1929), he launched his Hollywood career by repeating the Standish role in the 1933 film version of the play.

The stage, however, continued to be an important part of his career. Howard frequently juggled acting, producing, and directing duties in the Broadway productions in which he starred.[4] Howard was also a playwright, starring in the Broadway productions of his plays Murray Hill (1927) and Out of a Blue Sky (1930). (He also wrote, but did not act in Elizabeth Sleeps Out (1936).) However, he was always best known for his acting, enjoying triumphs in The Animal Kingdom (1932) and The Petrified Forest (1935)[5] (repeating both roles on film in 1932 and 1936, respectively). But he had the bad timing to open on Broadway in William Shakespeare's Hamlet (1936) just a few weeks after John Gielgud launched a rival production of the same play that was far more successful[6] with both critics and audiences. Howard’s production, his final stage role, lasted only 39 performances.

Howard was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame in 1981.[7]

Film career

Bette Davis and Howard in Of Human Bondage (1934).

In 1920 Howard and his friend Adrian Brunel founded the short-lived company Minerva Films in London; Howard was producer and actor, and Brunel the story editor.[8] Early films include four written by A. A. Milne, including The Bump, starring C. Aubrey Smith; Twice Two; Five Pound Reward; and Bookworms. Some of these films survive in the archives of the British Film Institute.

Following his move to Hollywood, Howard often played stiff-upper-lipped Englishmen. He appeared in the film version of Outward Bound (1930), though in a different role than the one he portrayed on Broadway. He starred in the film version of Berkeley Square (1933), for which he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor. He played the title character in The Scarlet Pimpernel (1934) and later Professor Henry Higgins in the film version of George Bernard Shaw's play Pygmalion (1938), which earned him another Academy Award nomination for Best Actor. (In 1956, after Howard's death, Lerner and Loewe set Pygmalion to music in My Fair Lady. Rex Harrison played Higgins on Broadway and in the 1964 motion picture. Harrison once quipped to writer Earl Wilson, "Actually, my dear fellow, I play Leslie [Howard] doing Higgins."[citation needed])

Howard co-starred with Bette Davis in The Petrified Forest (1936) and reportedly insisted that Humphrey Bogart appear in the film as gangster Duke Mantee. It proved to be Bogart's break-out role. Howard and Bogart had previously appeared in the play together on Broadway and became lifelong friends; Bogart and Lauren Bacall later named their daughter "Leslie Howard Bogart" after him.[9]

Howard had earlier co-starred with Davis in the film adaptation of W. Somerset Maugham's book Of Human Bondage (1934) and later in the romantic comedy It's Love I'm After (1937) (also co-starring Olivia de Havilland). Howard starred with Ingrid Bergman in Intermezzo (1939) and Norma Shearer in a film version of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet (1936).

Howard is perhaps best remembered for his role as Ashley Wilkes in Gone With the Wind (1939), but he was uncomfortable with Hollywood and returned to England to help with the Second World War effort. He starred in a number of Second World War films including 49th Parallel (1941), "Pimpernel" Smith (1941), and The First of the Few (1942, known in the U.S. as Spitfire), the latter two of which he also directed and co-produced.[10] His friend and The First of the Few co-star, David Niven said Howard was "...not what he seemed. He had the kind of distraught air that would make people want to mother him. Actually, he was about as naïve as General Motors. Busy little brain, always going."[11]

In 1944, after his death, British exhibitors voted him the second most popular local star at the box office.[12]

Personal life

Howard married Ruth Martin in 1916[13] and they had two children. His son Ronald Howard (1918–1996)[14] became an actor and is noted for portraying the title character in a television series Sherlock Holmes (1954).

Arthur, Howard's younger brother, was also an actor, primarily in British comedies. A sister, Irene, was a costume designer. Another sister, Doris Stainer, founded a small school, Hurst Lodge, in Sunningdale, Berkshire, UK, and remained its headmistress for some years.

Widely known as a ladies' man[15] (he himself once said that he "didn't chase women but … couldn't always be bothered to run away").[16] Howard is reported to have had an affair with Tallulah Bankhead when they appeared on stage (in the UK) in Her Cardboard Lover (1927); Merle Oberon, while filming The Scarlet Pimpernel (1934) and Conchita Montenegro, with whom he had appeared in the film Never the Twain Shall Meet (1931). However, towards the end of his life, with the full knowledge of his wife, he did take a mistress, Violette Cunnington. The actress who appeared under the stage name of Suzanne Clair, in "Pimpernel" Smith and First of the Few in minor roles, acted as his secretary, but died in 1942 of pneumonia in her early 30s, six months before Howard's death. In his will, Howard had left her his Beverly Hills house.[17][18] His home in England was Stowe Maries, a 16th-century six-bedroom farmhouse on the edge of Westcott village near Dorking, Surrey.[16]

Howard's will revealed an estate of $251,000, or £62,761 (in 1943 pounds sterling).[19]

There are also rumors of affairs with Norma Shearer and Myrna Loy (during filming of The Animal Kingdom).[20] Howard was friends with Humphrey Bogart. They worked together on The Petrified Forest on Broadway in 1935, and later in the film version. Bogart's daughter, born in 1952, was named Leslie Howard Bogart.

Death

BOAC Flight 777 was shot down over the Bay of Biscay.

Howard died in 1943 when flying to Bristol, UK, from Lisbon, Portugal, on KLM Royal Dutch Airlines/BOAC Flight 777. The aircraft, "G-AGBB" a Douglas DC-3, was shot down by Luftwaffe Junkers Ju 88C6 maritime fighter aircraft over the Bay of Biscay.[21] Howard was among the 17 fatalities, including four ex-KLM flight crew.[22][23]

The BOAC DC-3 Ibis had been operating on a scheduled Lisbon–Whitchurch route throughout 1942–1943 that did not pass over what would commonly be referred to as a war zone. By 1942, however, the Germans considered the region an "extremely sensitive war zone."[24] On two occasions, 15 November 1942, and 19 April 1943, the camouflaged airliner had been attacked by Messerschmitt Bf 110 fighters (a single aircraft and six Bf 110s, respectively) while en route; each time, the pilots escaped via evasive tactics.[25] On 1 June 1943, "G-AGBB" again came under attack by a schwarm of eight V/KG40 Ju 88C6 maritime fighters. The DC-3's last radio message indicated it was being fired upon at longitude 09.37 West, latitude 46.54 North.[22]

According to German documents, the DC-3 was shot down at longitude 10.15 West, latitude 46.07 North, some 500 miles (800 km) from Bordeaux, France, and 200 miles (320 km) northwest of A Coruña, Spain. Luftwaffe records indicate that the Ju 88 maritime fighters were operating beyond their normal patrol area to intercept and shoot down the aircraft.[15]Bloody Biscay: The Story of the Luftwaffe's Only Long Range Maritime Fighter Unit, V Gruppe/Kampfgeschwader 40, and Its Adversaries 1942–1944 (Chris Goss, 2001) quotes First Oberleutnant Herbert Hintze, Staffel Führer of 14 Staffeln and based in Bordeaux, that his Staffel shot down the DC-3 because it was recognised as an enemy aircraft, unaware that it was an unarmed civilian airliner. Hintze further states that his pilots were angry that the Luftwaffe leaders had not informed them of a scheduled flight between Lisbon and the UK, and that had they known, they could easily have escorted the DC-3 to Bordeaux and captured it and all aboard. The German pilots photographed the wreckage floating in the Bay of Biscay and after the war, copies of these captured photographs were sent to Howard's family.[21]

The following day, a search of the Bay of Biscay was undertaken by "N/461", a Short Sunderland flying boat from No. 461 RAAF Squadron. Near the same coordinates where the DC-3 was shot down, the Sunderland was attacked by eight Ju 88s and after a furious battle, managed to shoot down three of the attackers, scoring an additional three "possibles," before crash-landing at Penzance. In the aftermath of these two actions, all BOAC flights from Lisbon were subsequently re-routed and operated only under the cover of darkness.[26]

The news of Howard's death was published in the same issue of The Times that reported the "death" of Major William Martin, the red herring used for the ruse involved in Operation Mincemeat.[27]

Theories

A long-standing hypothesis states that the Germans believed that UK Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who had been in Algiers, was on board the flight.[28] Churchill himself can be blamed for the spread of the theory; in his autobiography, he expresses sorrow that a mistake about his activities might have cost Howard his life.[29] In the BBC television series Churchill‘s Bodyguard (original broadcast 2006), it is suggested that (Abwehr) German intelligence agents were in contact with members of the merchant navy in Britain and had been informed of Churchill’s departure and route. German spies watching the airfields of neutral countries may have mistaken Howard and his manager, as they boarded their aircraft, for Churchill and his bodyguard. Howard's manager Alfred Chenhalls physically resembled Churchill, while Howard was tall and thin, like Churchill's bodyguard, Detective Inspector Walter H. Thompson. Churchill’s Bodyguard noted that Thompson had written that Churchill at times seemed clairvoyant about suspected threats to his safety and, acting on a premonition, he changed his departure to the following day. The crux of the theory posited that Churchill had asked one of his men to tamper with an engine on his aircraft, giving him an excuse not to travel at that time. Speculation by historians has also centred on whether the British code breakers had decrypted several top secret Enigma messages that detailed the assassination plan. Churchill wanted to protect any information that had been uncovered by the code breakers so that the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht would not suspect that their Enigma machines were compromised. Although the overwhelming majority of published documentation of the case repudiates this theory, it remains a possibility. Coincidentally, the timing of Howard's takeoff and the flight path was similar to Churchill's, making it easy for the Germans to mistake the two flights.[30]

Two books focusing on the final flight, Flight 777 (Ian Colvin, 1957), and In Search of My Father: A Portrait of Leslie Howard (Ronald Howard, 1984), concluded that the Germans shot down Howard's DC-3 for the specific purpose of killing him.[15] Howard had been travelling through Spain and Portugal, ostensibly lecturing on film, but also meeting with local propagandists and shoring up support for the Allied cause. The Germans in all probability suspected even more surreptitious activities since German agents were active throughout Spain and Portugal, which, like Switzerland, was a crossroads for persons from both sides, but even more accessible to Allied citizens. James Oglethorpe, a British historian specialising in the Second World War, has investigated Howard's connection to the secret services.[31] Ronald Howard's book explores in great detail written German orders to the Ju 88 Staffel based in France, assigned to intercept the aircraft, as well as communiqués on the British side that verify intelligence reports of the time indicating a deliberate attack on Howard. These accounts also indicate that the Germans were aware of Churchill's whereabouts at the time and were not so naive as to believe he would be travelling alone on board an unescorted and unarmed civilian aircraft, which Churchill also acknowledged as improbable. Howard and Chenhalls were not originally booked on the flight, and used their priority status to have passengers removed from the fully booked airliner.

Most of the 13 passengers were either British executives with corporate ties to Portugal, or lower-ranking British government civil servants. There were also two or three children of British military personnel.[15] The bumped passengers were the teenage sons of Cornelia Stuyvesant Vanderbilt: George and William Cecil, who had been recalled to London from their Swiss boarding school. Being bumped by Howard saved their lives. William Cecil is best associated with his ownership and preservation of his grandfather George Washington Vanderbilt's Biltmore estate in North Carolina. William Cecil described a story after several months back in London in which he met a woman who said she had secret war information and used his mother's phone to put in a call to the British Air Ministry. She told them that she had a message from Leslie Howard.[32]

While ostensibly on "entertainer goodwill" tours at the behest of the British Council, Howard's intelligence-gathering activities had attracted German interest. The chance to demoralise Britain with the loss of one of its most outspokenly patriotic figures may have motivated the Luftwaffe attack.[33] Ronald Howard was convinced the order to shoot down Howard's airliner came directly from Joseph Goebbels, Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda in Nazi Germany, who had been ridiculed in one of Howard's films and who believed Howard to be the most dangerous British propagandist.[15] The British Film Yearbook for 1945 described his work as "one of the most valuable facets of British propaganda".[34] A 2008 book by Spanish writer José Rey Ximena[35] claims that Howard was on a top-secret mission for Churchill to dissuade Francisco Franco, Spain's authoritarian dictator and head of state, from joining the Axis powers.[36] Via an old girlfriend, Conchita Montenegro,[36] Howard had contacts with Ricardo Giménez-Arnau, a young diplomat in the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Further circumstantial background evidence is revealed in Jimmy Burns's 2009 biography of his father, spymaster Tom Burns.[37] According to author William Stevenson in A Man called Intrepid, his biography of Sir William Samuel Stephenson (no relation), the senior representative of British Intelligence for the western hemisphere during the Second World War,[38] Stephenson postulated that the Germans knew about Howard's mission and ordered the aircraft shot down. Stephenson further claimed that Churchill knew in advance of the German intention to shoot down the aircraft, but decided to allow it to proceed to protect the fact that the British had broken the German Enigma code.[39]

Former CIA agent Joseph B. Smith recalled that, in 1957, he was briefed by the National Security Agency on the need for secrecy and that Leslie Howard's death had been brought up. The NSA claimed that Howard knew his aircraft was to be attacked by German fighters and sacrificed himself to protect the British code-breakers.[40]

The 2010 biography by Estel Eforgan, Leslie Howard: The Lost Actor, examines currently available evidence and concludes that Howard was not a specific target,[41] corroborating the claims by German sources that the shootdown was "an error in judgement".[26] There is a monument in San Andrés de Teixido, Spain, dedicated to the victims of the crash. Howard's aircraft was shot down over the sea north of this village.[42]

Popular culture

After the release of The Petrified Forest, Friz Freleng made the short-length cartoon parody She Was an Acrobat's Daughter (1937), which portrays a cinema audience watching The Petrified Florist, starring Bette Davis and Lester Coward.[43]

In the Dad's Army episode, "The Deadly Attachment," Pike suggests the captain deals with a hostage situation by mimicking Howard's behaviour in The Petrfied Forest, neglecting at first to mention Howard's character was killed in that film. Later, Pike says that on joining the RAF he will be "the second of the few"; a reference to Howard's The First of the Few.[44]

Biographies

Howard did not publish an autobiography, although a compilation of his writings, Trivial Fond Records, edited and with occasional comments by his son Ronald, was published in 1982. This book includes insights on his family life, first impressions of America and Americans when he first moved to the United States to act on Broadway, and his views on democracy in the years prior to and during the Second World War.

Howard’s son and daughter each published memoirs of their father: In Search of My Father: A Portrait of Leslie Howard (1984) by Ronald Howard, and A Quite Remarkable Father: A Biography of Leslie Howard (1959) by Leslie Ruth Howard.

Estel Eforgan's Leslie Howard: The Lost Actor is a full-length book biography published in 2010.

Leslie Howard: A Quite Remarkable Life, a film documentary biography produced by Thomas Hamilton of Repo Films, was shown privately at the NFB Mediatheque, Toronto, Canada in September 2009 for contributors and supporters of the film. Subsequently re-edited and retitled "Leslie Howard: The Man Who Gave a Damn", the documentary was officially launched on 2 September 2011 in an event held at Leslie Howard's former home "Stowe Maries" in Dorking, and reported on BBC South News the same day ([1]). Lengthy rights negotiations with Warners then delayed further screenings until May 2012, although the situation now appears to have been resolved and Repo Films now intends to enter the film into various International Film Festivals.

Filmography

YearCountryTitleCredited as
DirectorProducerActorRole
1914Great BritainThe Heroine of MonsYescast member
1917Great BritainThe Happy WarriorYesRollo
1919Great BritainThe Lackey and the LadyYesTony Dunciman
1920Great BritainTwice TwoYes
Great BritainThe Temporary LadyYes
Great BritainThe BumpYes
Great BritainBookwormsYesYesRichard
Great BritainRewardYesYesTony Marchmont
1921Great BritainToo Many CrooksYes
1930United StatesOutward BoundYesTom Prior
1931United StatesFive and TenYesBertram "Berry" Rhodes
United StatesDevotionYesDavid Trent
United StatesA Free SoulYesDwight Winthrop
United StatesNever the Twain Shall MeetYesDan Pritchard
1932Great BritainService for LadiesYesMax Tracey
United StatesSmilin' ThroughYesSir John Carteret
United StatesThe Animal KingdomYesTom Collier
1933United StatesBerkeley SquareYesPeter Standish
United StatesCaptured!YesCaptain Fred Allison
United StatesSecretsYesJohn Carlton
1934United StatesBritish AgentYesStephen "Steve" Locke
Great BritainThe Lady Is WillingYesAlbert Latour
United StatesOf Human BondageYesPhilip Carey
1935Great BritainThe Scarlet PimpernelYesSir Percy Blakeney
1936United StatesThe Petrified ForestYesAlan Squier
United StatesRomeo and JulietYesRomeo
1937United StatesStand-InYesAtterbury Dodd
United StatesIt's Love I'm AfterYesBasil Underwood
1938Great BritainPygmalionYesYesYesProfessor Henry Higgins
1939United StatesIntermezzoYesHolger Brandt
United StatesGone with the WindYesAshley Wilkes
1941Great Britain"Pimpernel" SmithYesYesYesProfessor Horatio Smith
Great BritainCommon HeritageYesHimself
Great Britain49th ParallelYesPhilip Armstrong Scott
Great BritainFrom the Four CornersYesA passer-by
Great BritainThe White EagleYesnarrator
1942Great BritainIn Which We ServeYesvoice
Great BritainThe First of the FewYesYesYesR.J.Mitchell
Great BritainNational Savings Trailer: Noel Coward and Leslie HowardYeson-screen participant
Great BritainMr. Leslie Howard "by request"Yespresenter
1943Great BritainWar in the MediterraneanYesvoice
Great BritainThe Gentle SexYesYesYes"Observations of a mere man" (voice)
Great BritainThe Lamp Still BurnsYes

References

Notes
  1. ^ Obituary Variety, 9 June 1943.
  2. ^ Eforgan 2010, pp. 1–10.
  3. ^ Nathan, John. "Leslie Howard: The Lost Actor, The life and death of a non-spy." The Jewish Chronicle, 20 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  4. ^ "Leslie Howard." Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
  5. ^ " 'The Petrified Forest'." Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
  6. ^ Croall, Jonathan. Gielgud: A Theatrical Life 1904–2000. London: Continuum, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8264-1333-8.
  7. ^ "26 Elected to the Theater Hall of Fame." The New York Times, 3 March 1981.
  8. ^ Eforgan 2010, pp. 39–46.
  9. ^ Sklar 1992, pp. 60–62.
  10. ^ Costanzi, Karen. "Leslie Howard: Actor & Patriot." things-and-other-stuff.com. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
  11. ^ Finnie, Moira. “A Few Kind Words for Leslie Howard.” Skeins of Thought, 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  12. ^ "Bitter Street fighting." Townsville Daily Bulletin (Qld.: 1885 – 1954), 6 January 1944, p. 2 via National Library of Australia, Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  13. ^ "Leslie H. Steiner = Ruth E. Martin." GRO Register of Marriages: Colchester, March 1916, 4a 1430.
  14. ^ "Ronald H. Stainer, mmn = Martin." GRO Register of Births: Lambeth, June 1918, 1d 598.
  15. ^ a b c d e Howard 1984
  16. ^ a b Gazeley, Helen. "Memories of Hollywood, in the hills of Surrey." Daily Telegraph (London), 29 April 2007. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  17. ^ "Milestones, 8 May 1944." Time Magazine, 8 May 1944.
  18. ^ Gates, Anita. "The Good Girl Gets the Last Word (interview with Olivia de Havilland)." The New York Times, 7 November 2004. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  19. ^ Parker, John. "1939." Who's Who in the Theatre, 10th ed. London: Pitmans, 1947.
  20. ^ "Leslie Howard found footage."The Guardian, 12 September 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  21. ^ a b Goss 2001, pp. 50–56.
  22. ^ a b "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas DC-3-194 G-AGBB Bay of Biscay." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
  23. ^ "Casualty details: Leslie Howard." Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC). Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  24. ^ Rosevink and Hintze 1991, p. 14.
  25. ^ "Douglas DC-3-194 PH-ALI 'Ibis'." web.archive.org, 2004. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
  26. ^ a b Matthews, Rowan. "N461: Howard & Churchill." n461.com, 2003. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
  27. ^ The Times, Thursday, 3 June 1943, p. 4.
  28. ^ Wilkes, Donald E., Jr. "The Assassination of Ashley Wilkes." The Athens Observer, 8 June 1995 p. 7A, via law.uga.edu. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
  29. ^ Churchill 1950, p. 830.
  30. ^ " 'Churchill‘s Bodyguard' – Complete Series." Nugus Martin Productions via 7digital.com, 2006. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
  31. ^ "Leslie Howard." lesliehowardsociety.multiply.com. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  32. ^ Covington 2006, pp. 102–103.
  33. ^ Colvin 2007, p. 187.
  34. ^ Noble 1945, p. 74.
  35. ^ Rey Ximena 2008
  36. ^ a b "Book: Howard kept Spain from joining WWII." United Press International, 6 October 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
  37. ^ Ridley, Jane. "From Madrid with Love." The Spectator via spectator.co.uk, 24 October 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  38. ^ Stevenson 2000, p. 179.
  39. ^ "Intrepid Book Brings Spy's Life From Shadows." trueintrepid.com. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
  40. ^ Smith 1976, p. 389.
  41. ^ Eforgan 2010, pp. 217–245.
  42. ^ Castro, Jesus (translated by Rachael Harrison). "The actor, the Jew and Churchill’s double." eyeonspain.com. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  43. ^ "She Was an Acrobat's Daughter." bcdb.com. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  44. ^ "Television's crowning moments." BBC News, 24 August 1999. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
Bibliography
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  • Churchill, Winston S. The Hinge of Fate. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 1950.
  • Colvin Ian. Admiral Canaris: Chief of Intelligence. London: Colvin Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4067-5821-4.
  • Colvin Ian. Flight 777: The Mystery Of Leslie Howard. London: Evans Brothers, 1957.
  • Covington, Howard E., Jr. Lady on the Hill: How Biltmore Estate Became an American Icon. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2006. ISBN 978-0-471-75818-1.
  • Eforgan, Estel. Leslie Howard: The Lost Actor. London: Vallentine Mitchell Publishers, 2010. ISBN 978-0-85303-941-9.
  • Goss, Chris. Bloody Biscay: The Story of the Luftwaffe's Only Long Range Maritime Fighter Unit, V Gruppe/Kampfgeschwader 40, and Its Adversaries 1942–1944. London: Crécy Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-947554-87-4.
  • Howard, Leslie, ed. with Ronald Howard. Trivial Fond Records. London: William Kimber & Co Ltd, 1982. ISBN 978-0-7183-0418-8.
  • Howard, Leslie Ruth. A Quite Remarkable Father: A Biography of Leslie Howard. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co., 1959.
  • Howard, Ronald. In Search of My Father: A Portrait of Leslie Howard. London: St. Martin's Press, 1984. ISBN 0-312-41161-8.
  • Macdonald, Bill. The True Intrepid: Sir William Stephenson and the Unknown Agents. Vancouver, BC: Raincoast Books 2002, ISBN 1-55192-418-8.
  • Noble, Peter, ed. British Film Yearbook for 1945. London: The British Broadcasting Corporation, 1945.
  • Rey Ximena, José. El Vuolo de Ibis [The Flight of the Ibis] (in Spanish). Madrid: Facta Ediciones SL, 2008. ISBN 978-84-934875-1-5.
  • Rosevink, Ben and Lt Col Herbert Hintze. "Flight 777." FlyPast, Issue #120, July 1991.
  • Sklar, Robert. City Boys: Cagney, Bogart, Garfield. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-691-04795-2].
  • Smith, Joseph B. Portrait of a Cold Warrior. New York: Random House, 1976. ISBN 978-0-399-11788-6.
  • Southall, Ivan. They Shall Not Pass Unseen. London: Angus and Robertson, 1956.
  • Stevenson, William. A Man Called Intrepid: The Incredible WWII Narrative of the Hero Whose Spy Network and Secret Diplomacy Changed the Course of History. Guilford, Delaware: Lyons Press, 1976, reissued in 2000. ISBN 1-58574-154-X.
  • Verrier, Anthony. Assassination in Algiers: Churchill, Roosevelt, De Gaulle, and the Murder of Admiral Darlan. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1st edition, 1991. ISBN 978-0-393-02828-7.

External links