Leonard F. Chapman, Jr.

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Leonard Fielding Chapman, Jr.
Leonard F. Chapman.jpg
24th Commandant of the Marine Corps (1968-1972)
Born(1913-11-03)November 3, 1913
Key West, Florida, U.S.
DiedJanuary 6, 2000(2000-01-06) (aged 86)
Falls Church, Virginia, U.S.
Buried atArlington National Cemetery
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Marine Corps
Years of service1935-1972
RankUS-O10 insignia.svg General
Commands heldCommandant of the Marine Corps
Battles/warsWorld War II
*Battle of Coral Sea
*Battle of Midway
*Battle of Peleliu
*Battle of Okinawa
AwardsDistinguished Service Medal (3)
Legion of Merit (2)
Bronze Star
Other workCommissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Service
 
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Leonard Fielding Chapman, Jr.
Leonard F. Chapman.jpg
24th Commandant of the Marine Corps (1968-1972)
Born(1913-11-03)November 3, 1913
Key West, Florida, U.S.
DiedJanuary 6, 2000(2000-01-06) (aged 86)
Falls Church, Virginia, U.S.
Buried atArlington National Cemetery
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Marine Corps
Years of service1935-1972
RankUS-O10 insignia.svg General
Commands heldCommandant of the Marine Corps
Battles/warsWorld War II
*Battle of Coral Sea
*Battle of Midway
*Battle of Peleliu
*Battle of Okinawa
AwardsDistinguished Service Medal (3)
Legion of Merit (2)
Bronze Star
Other workCommissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Service

Leonard Fielding Chapman, Jr. (November 3, 1913 – January 6, 2000) was the 24th Commandant of the Marine Corps and served in that capacity from 1968 to 1972. He was a World War II combat veteran, and was decorated for his actions in the Battle of Peleliu and the Battle of Okinawa. He retired from the Marine Corps after 37 years of service. In retirement, he served as the Commissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

Early life[edit]

Chapman was born in Key West, Florida, and graduated from high school in DeLand, Florida. In 1931, he entered the University of Florida where he became a member of the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps unit for four years, was initiated into Phi Kappa Tau Fraternity, and was tapped into the Florida Blue Key leadership honorary. Upon graduation in June 1935, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps.

Military career[edit]

After completing The Basic School at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Chapman served with the 1st Battalion, 10th Marines at Quantico, Virginia, from April 1936 until August 1937. In June 1938, after completing Field Artillery School at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, he was assigned to the 10th Marines at Marine Corps Base, San Diego, California. He was promoted to first lieutenant in September 1938.

In June 1940, Chapman departed San Diego for Honolulu. There he completed Gunnery School aboard USS New Orleans before reporting to USS Astoria in July 1940 for a two-year assignment as Commanding Officer of the Marine Detachment. He was promoted to captain in April 1941.

On board Astoria following the outbreak of World War II, Chapman took part in the early Pacific raids culminating in the battles of the Coral Sea and Midway, and earned the Navy Commendation Ribbon with Combat “V.” He was promoted to major in May 1942 and returned to the United States in June.

Chapman was assigned to Marine Corps Schools, Quantico, in August 1942 as an instructor in the Artillery Course. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in May 1943, and that October was named Executive Officer of the Artillery Section at Marine Corps Schools.

In June 1944, Chapman again departed for combat duty, joining the 1st Marine Division in the Pacific area. He earned the Legion of Merit with Combat “V” for meritorious service as Operations Officer, 11th Marines, and Commanding Officer, 4th Battalion, 11th Marines, during combat at Peleliu in September and October 1944; and the Bronze Star Medal with Combat “V” as 4th Battalion Commander at Okinawa, April to July 1945.

Following the war, when he returned to the continental United States, Chapman served as Secretary of the General Staff, Fleet Marine Force (FMF) Pacific from September 1945 to July 1946. From August 1946 until May 1949, he was stationed at Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC), Washington, D.C., serving as Executive Officer, G-3 Section, Division of Plans and Policies.

Ordered to Marine Corps Schools, Quantico, Chapman served as Coordinator, Reserve Artillery Training Unit; completed the Amphibious Warfare School, Senior Course, in June 1950; and then served as Chief of the Supporting Arms Group, Marine Corps Development Center. While at Quantico, he was promoted to colonel in July 1950.

In July 1952, Chapman departed Quantico for Camp Pendleton, California, where he joined the 3rd Marine Division as Commanding Officer, 12th Marines. He sailed with the division in August 1953 for Japan, where he continued to command the 12th Marines. In August 1954, he was named Commanding Officer, Marine Barracks, U.S. Fleet Activities, Yokosuka, Japan, serving in this capacity until May 1956.

In July 1956, Chapman assumed duties in Washington, D.C., as Commanding Officer, Marine Barracks, and Director of the Marine Corps Institute. Two years later, he was promoted to brigadier general on July 1, 1958.

Following his promotion, Chapman was assigned to Camp Lejeune, North Carolina serving as Commanding General, Force Troops, FMF Atlantic, until August 1961. He reported to HQMC in September 1961 for duty as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4 and was promoted to major general in November 1961. For exceptionally meritorious service in this capacity from September 1961 through December 1963, he was awarded his second Legion of Merit.

Chapman (6th from left, front row) at the 1967 General Officers Symposium

On January 1, 1964, Chapman was designated as Chief of Staff, with the rank of lieutenant general. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal by the Secretary of the Navy. On July 1, 1967, Chapman became Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps. While serving as Assistant Commandant, he was awarded the Armed Forces Management Association Merit Award for 1967.

On December 4, 1967, Chapman was nominated by President Lyndon B. Johnson to be the 24th Commandant of the Marine Corps and was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 13, 1967. On January 1, 1968, he was promoted to general on assuming the office of Commandant.

Joint Chiefs of Staff, January 1971; Chapman is on the far right

During his first year in office, General Chapman traveled widely, covering nearly 100,000 miles while visiting Marines stationed around the world. The heavy commitment to Vietnam took him to that country twice in 1968. In January 1969, President Pak Chong-Hui of the Republic of Korea presented General Chapman the Order of National Security Merit, First Class. Later that month, General Chapman earned a Gold Star in lieu of a second award of the Distinguished Service Medal.

By the end of his tenure, General Chapman witnessed the III Marine Amphibious Force withdrawal from Vietnam and the strength of the Corps drop from a peak of 289,000 to 198,000. Anticipating an austere budget and fewer Marines, he had earlier made his move for a "hard, lean, fully combat-ready Corps," reduced in size, but not in professionalism. Before his retirement, President Nixon presented Gen Chapman a third award of the Distinguished Service Medal, December 10, 1971.

General Chapman retired January 1, 1972 and became Commissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, retiring in 1977.

General Chapman died on January 6, 2000 at age 86 from complications resulting from cancer. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery with full military honors on January 14, 2000. He was eulogized by former Commandant Carl Mundy, a friend, fraternity brother, and protégé.

Awards and decorations[edit]

Chapman's awards include:

Gold star
Gold star
Combat Distinguishing Device.png Award star (gold).png
Combat Distinguishing Device.pngCombat Distinguishing Device.png
Bronze star
Bronze star
Silver star
Bronze star
Navy Distinguished Service Medal with 2 starsLegion of Merit with 1 star & valor device
Bronze Star with valor deviceNavy Commendation Medal with valor deviceNavy Presidential Unit Citation with 1 starAmerican Defense Service Medal with 1 star
American Campaign MedalAsiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with 5 starsWorld War II Victory MedalNational Defense Service Medal with 1 star
Korean Service MedalKorean Order of National Security Merit, Tong-il MedalNational Order of Vietnam, Officer gradeUnited Nations Korea Medal

See also[edit]

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps.

Military offices
Preceded by
Gen. Wallace M. Greene, Jr.
Commandant of the United States Marine Corps
1968–1971
Succeeded by
Gen. Robert E. Cushman, Jr.