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Leo the Lion is the mascot for the Hollywood film studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and one of its predecessors, Goldwyn Pictures, featured in the studio's production logo, which was created by the Paramount Studios art director Lionel S. Reiss.
Since 1924 (when the studio was formed by the merger of Samuel Goldwyn's studio with Marcus Loew's Metro Pictures and Louis B. Mayer's company), there have been around seven different lions used for the MGM logo; these lions include Tanner and Leo, the current (and seventh) lion. Tanner was used on all Technicolor films and MGM cartoons (including the Tom and Jerry series), and in use on the studio logo for 22 years (Leo has been in use since 1957, a total of 57 years and counting). However, when the MGM animation department, which had closed in 1958, reopened with the Chuck Jones-directed Tom and Jerry shorts in 1963, these shorts used Tanner in the opening sequence rather than Leo, who had already been adapted onto the studio logo and the Gene Deitch-directed Tom and Jerry cartoons from 1960-62.
Slats, trained by Volney Phifer, was the first lion used for the newly formed studio. Born at the Dublin Zoo in 1919 and originally named Cairbre, Slats was used on all black-and-white MGM films between 1924 and 1928. The original logo was designed by Howard Dietz and used by the Goldwyn Pictures Corporation studio from 1917 to 1924 (see left). Goldwyn Pictures was ultimately absorbed into the partnership that formed MGM, and the first MGM film that used the logo was He Who Gets Slapped (1924). Dietz stated that he decided to use a lion as the company's mascot as a tribute to his alma matter Columbia University, whose athletic teams' nickname is The Lions; he further added that Columbia's fight song, "Roar, Lion, Roar", inspired him to make the lion roar. Ironically, unlike his successors, Slats did nothing but look around in the logo (as did the Goldwyn Pictures lion), and was therefore the only MGM lion not to roar. Slats died in 1936; his hide is currently on display at the McPherson Museum in McPherson, Kansas.
Jackie, trained by Mel Koontz, was the second lion used for the MGM logo. He was the first MGM lion to roar, which was first heard via a gramophone record during MGM's first sound production, White Shadows in the South Seas (1928). Jackie growled softly; this was followed by a louder roar, a brief pause, and then a final growl, before he looked off to the right of the screen. In the early years that this logo was used (1928–c. 1932), there was a slightly extended version of the logo wherein, after roaring, the lion looked off to the right and returned his gaze to the front seconds later. Jackie appeared on all black-and-white MGM films from 1928–1956, as well as the sepia-tinted opening credits of The Wizard of Oz (1939). He also appeared before MGM's black-and-white cartoons, such as the Flip the Frog and Willie Whopper series produced for MGM by the short-lived Ub Iwerks Studio, as well as the Captain and the Kids cartoons produced by MGM in 1938 and 1939. A colorized variation of the logo can be found on the colorized version of Babes in Toyland (1934), also known as March of the Wooden Soldiers; an animated version (done via rotoscope) appeared on the 1939 Captain and the Kids cartoon Petunia Natural Park. Jackie died on February 26, 1952. He would later make a comeback at the beginning of the film Hearts of the West (1975).
Interestingly, in the early 1930s, MGM reissued some of its earlier silent films with soundtracks containing recorded music and sound effects. Among the films reissued in this manner were Greed (1924), Ben-Hur (1925) and Flesh and the Devil (1926). For these sound reissues, Jackie was used instead of Slats, causing some film authorities to assume that the lion had been in use before 1928.
In addition to appearing in the MGM logo, Jackie appeared in over a hundred films, including the Tarzan movies that starred Johnny Weissmuller. Jackie also appeared with an apprehensive Greta Garbo in a well-known 1920s publicity still. The lion is also known for surviving several accidents (including two train wrecks, an earthquake, and an explosion in the studio), giving him the nickname "Leo the Lucky".
MGM began experiments with two-color short subjects in 1927 and animated cartoons in 1930. Two two-strip Technicolor variations of the MGM logo were created, with two different lions being used. The first lion appeared on all color MGM movies until 1932. The second lion made his debut in 1932, appearing on color films until 1934 (and 1935 for the Happy Harmonies shorts), when production was switched to full three-strip Technicolor filming. The Cat and the Fiddle (1934) had brief color sequences, but was otherwise in black-and-white (including its opening credits), so it used Jackie instead of "Coffee". (The Cat and the Fiddle however, showed its The End title card against a Technicolor background.)
An extended version of the logo featuring the second lion appears at the beginning of the short Wild People (1932), featuring the lion roaring three times rather than just twice.
MGM began producing full three-strip Technicolor films in 1934. Tanner, also trained by Mel Koontz, was used on all Technicolor MGM films (1934–1956) and cartoons (1935–1958, 1963–1967, except for 1965's The Dot and the Line). The Wizard of Oz (1939) had the Oz scenes in color, but it had the opening and closing credits (and the Kansas scenes) in sepia-toned black-and-white, so it used Jackie instead of Tanner. Third Dimensional Murder (1941) was shot in 3-D and in Technicolor, but it had the opening credits in black-and-white, so it also used Jackie instead of Tanner. The Picture of Dorian Gray (1945) and The Secret Garden (1949) both had brief color sequences, but were otherwise in black-and-white (including their opening credits), so they used Jackie instead of Tanner as well. (The Secret Garden, however, showed its The End title card and the cast list against a Technicolor background.)
Tanner, whose first appearance was before the short subject Star Night at the Coconut Grove (1934) (his first feature film appearance was before Sweethearts four years later, in 1938), was MGM's third longest-lived lion to be used (for a total of 22 years), after Jackie (who was used for a total of 28 years) and the current lion (who has been retained for 57 years). It is this version of the logo that was the most frequently used version throughout the Golden Age of Hollywood, although color did not really become the norm until the 1960s, and even then, many movies were still being made in black-and-white. An extended version of this logo appeared on the short Star Night at the Coconut Grove and early James A. Fitzpatrick Traveltalks color shorts, with two additional roars from the lion.
Tanner and Jackie were kept in the change from Academy ratio films to widescreen CinemaScope movies in 1953, with Tanner for color movies and Jackie for black-and-white films. The logo was modified for this change; the marquee below the ribbon design was removed, and the company name was placed in a semi-circle above the ribbons.
The sixth lion, officially named George, was introduced in 1956, and appeared more heavily maned than any of the predecessors and the current lion. Two different versions of this logo were used; one with the lion roaring toward the right of the screen and then roaring at the camera, and another with the lion roaring toward the upright corner of the screen. This logo would have either a black or dark brownish/grayish background; a blue background variant has been spotted on The Wings of Eagles (1957). This logo would also appear on black-and-white movies. From 1957 to 1958, this lion was used in tandem with the current lion.
Leo, the seventh lion, is MGM's longest-lived lion, having appeared on most MGM films since 1957. He was also the youngest at the time his roaring was filmed (hence his smaller mane).
Leo was purchased from famous animal dealer Henry Trefflich, and trained by Ralph Helfer. In addition to being used as the MGM lion, Leo also appeared in other productions such as the religious epic King of Kings (1961), Zebra in the Kitchen (1965), Fluffy (1965), and Napoleon and Samantha (1972); as well as a memorable TV commercial for Dreyfus Investments in 1961.
Two different versions of this logo were used: an "extended" version, with the lion roaring three times (used from 1957–1960); and the "standard" version, with the lion roaring twice (used since 1960). In the Chuck Jones-directed Tom and Jerry cartoons released between 1963 and 1967, Tanner was used in the opening sequence instead of Leo. Three MGM films, Raintree County (1957), Ben-Hur (1959), and Mutiny on the Bounty (1962), utilized a still-frame variation of this logo, with the lion's roar added to the backing track. (Ben-Hur, however, did not include the roar; instead, the film score continued underneath the still-frame of the logo.) This logo would also appear on black-and-white films, such as Jailhouse Rock (1957) and A Patch of Blue (1965).
A different logo, a circular still graphic image of a lion known as "The Stylized Lion", appeared on three films in the 1960s: Grand Prix (1966), 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), and The Subject Was Roses (1968). Leo was reintroduced after this logo was discontinued. The Stylized Lion, however, was retained by the MGM Records division and was also used as a secondary logo on MGM film posters, in addition to being shown at the end of credit rolls following most MGM movie releases of this period, continuing until 1982. It was later used by the MGM Grand casinos. (A refined version of it is used as the logo for their parent company, MGM Resorts International.)
The logo was retained in the corporate revamp following their acquisition of United Artists in 1981. The logo now read "MGM/UA Entertainment Co."; this logo would appear on all MGM/UA films from 1983 until 1986 and again in 1987 on the film O.C. and Stiggs (which was originally produced in 1985). It was also at this time that the original lion roar sound (which, in fact, sampled Tanner's roar) was replaced with a remade stereophonic one, redone by Mark Mangini; the first film to use the new roar sound was Poltergeist (1982). Incidentally, the sound effect was also used for a beast in the film.
From 1984 to 1985, MGM used a variation of its main studio logo for its 60th anniversary based on the print logo, with the ribbons in a golden color. Above the ribbons were the words "Diamond Jubilee", replacing the standard company name, and below the ribboning was the phrase "Sixty Years of Great Entertainment". The "Ars Gratia Artis" motto was removed from inside the circle and replaced with the text "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists". The drama mask from the bottom had its surrounding laurels removed, and the mask itself was moved up a little so that an additional golden ribbon with the text reading "Entertainment Co." below would be added. Although the new roar effect done by Mangini was primarily being used at the time, 2010: The Year We Make Contact (1984) had both the original and 1982 roar effects mixed together.
When the company began using MGM and UA as separate brands in 1986, a new logo for MGM was introduced a year later; the same gold ribbons used for the "Diamond Jubilee" variant was retained, and the text was redone in exactly the same color. Subsequently, a new "MGM/UA Communications Co." logo was introduced, and would precede both the MGM and UA logos until it was dropped in 1990. (However, both logos would still have the byline "An MGM/UA Communications Company" until 1992.) The lion roar was remixed again in 1995, because an MGM executive found the then-current roar to be "lacking muscle". Using digital audio technology to blend many roars together, including the 1982 roar, the new roar effect debuted with the release of Cutthroat Island (1995). (The purpose of the new roar, also done by Mark Mangini, was not only to give the sound more "muscle", but also to fit into films with 5.1 surround sound.) In 2001, MGM's website address, "www.mgm.com", was added to the bottom of the logo.
The logo was revised again in 2008, with the ribbons, text, and drama mask done in a more brilliant gold color; also, Leo's image was digitally enhanced. The lion's roar was remixed once again, but beginning with The Taking of Pelham 123 (2009), the 1995 roar was reused. The website address was also shortened to, "MGM.COM". The newly-done logo debuted with the release of the James Bond film Quantum of Solace.
In 2012, as first shown as a snippet in the teaser and theatrical trailers of the 23rd James Bond film Skyfall, to which can now be fully seen on the studio's website under its history link, Shine Studio was chosen to redesign and animate the logo in stereoscopic 3-D (three-dimensional). This marks the first time in the company's 88-year history that the MGM logo and its lion mascot have been created in 3-D stereo. To add dimension, Shine modeled a close up of Leo's eye creating an element to pull back through for a dramatic reveal of the lion, laurels and filmstrip. All the elements of the logo were re-built in 3-D, and then placed on different planes to add dimensional layers and drama. The 1995 roar is reused once again as Leo roars and the company name is brought in from above to center the top screen, which completes the logo sequence. MGM's website address was removed, as MGM is no longer as of 2012 a self-distribution entity, but rather a production company. One reason for the new full-motion logo is the fact that more commonplace digital 3-D movies are being released almost every week and for upcoming films MGM has partnered in production with, such as the Hobbit film series with New Line Cinema, Hansel and Gretel: Witch Hunters and G.I. Joe: Retaliation with Paramount Pictures, they are, for example, either shot in native digital 3-D or converted in post-production to stereoscopic digital 3-D.
MGM also used a secondary logo, seen in the opening or closing credits of many classic MGM movies. This design originated as the Metro-Goldwyn Pictures logo from 1923 to 1924. The logo features a graphic image of a reclining lion (from a side view) on a pedestal that has the text "A Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Picture" inscribed on it. Behind the lion is a semi-circular film ribbon with the "Ars Gratia Artis" motto, much like the film ribboning of the company's primary logo. On either side of the pedestal are torches. This secondary logo was used in the opening title and end titles of most MGM films from the 1920s until the early 1960s, then moved to the main film credits until the mid-1980s. For example, the logo is seen on the 1983 release A Christmas Story during the closing credits.
Many of the short subjects produced by Hal Roach studios during the late 1920s and 1930s (such as Our Gang and Laurel and Hardy) featured a variation of the secondary logo in their closing titles. This variation had a lion cub on the pedestal, looking straight at the viewer.
In addition, many MGM films made in the late 1930s and early '40s set their entire opening credits against a background of a relief carving of an outline of the reclining lion image. Among the films that include this kind of credits sequence are the 1938 version of A Christmas Carol, based on the Charles Dickens novel, and Ninotchka from 1939, starring Greta Garbo.
Monty Python's film And Now for Something Completely Different (1971) parodied MGM's logo with a croaking frog in place of the lion. The Goodies episode "The Movies" parodied the logo with a chicken taking the lion's place.
MTM Enterprises television shows, including The Mary Tyler Moore Show, The Bob Newhart Show and others, parodied the Leo the Lion logo with its colophon, at the very end of the program. In place of Leo was Mimsie the Cat, who meowed at the end of each show. The ribbon over the kitten's head read "MTM" instead of "Ars Gratia Artis." On the later Newhart show, Mimsie's voice was replaced by Bob Newhart himself dryly saying, "Meow!"
MGM made their first of several spoofs of their own logo for the first Marx Brothers MGM film, A Night at the Opera (1935). Jackie appears in the opening credits for the actual film, but the trailer for the film shows an unknown lion that looks similar to Tanner, followed by Groucho, then Chico, roaring inside of the film circle, with the sound of the actual lion being heard, and then Harpo doing the same, but silently. (Harpo then honks his horn instead of roaring again.) Another spoof MGM used for its own logo appeared in Roman Polanski's 1967 film, The Fearless Vampire Killers. Here, the lion morphs into a creepy-looking cartoon vampire with blood dripping from its mouth; in the European version, after a short introductory cartoon, Leo zooms in and roars as the cartoon's two main characters cower in fear, then grows saber-teeth (like the extinct cat Smilodon) as they run off. Also, the 1983 comedy film Strange Brew, which starred Rick Moranis and Dave Thomas, showed a drunk lion, instead of the standard current lion. They scroll past the screen to reveal Bob and Doug McKenzie, the film's main characters, attempting to "sober up" the lion (one suggests the other to "crank its tail"). In The Pink Panther (2006), starring Steve Martin, Leo starts roaring, but is then interrupted as Inspector Clouseau opens the circle like a door, looking around the place before leaving. The Pink Panther character appears behind him unnoticed, cleverly smirking and closes the door immediately afterwards, leaving Leo confused. In The Crocodile Hunter: Collision Course (2002), Leo is replaced with a saltwater crocodile. A trailer for the film features a lion different from the standard lion; Steve Irwin also appears and briefly addresses the viewers. The Steven Universe episode "Lion 2: the Movie" ends with Steven's pet lion, Lion, appearing in a spoof of the MGM logo. MGM parodied their logo in several of their cartoons. In the Tom and Jerry cartoon Switchin' Kitten (1961), Jerry roars like Leo as his mouse hole that resembles the ribbon of the MGM logo (in gold). In addition, the Chuck Jones-directed Tom and Jerry cartoons from 1963–1967 begin with a cartoon variation of the MGM logo using Tanner instead of Leo. Tanner from the early Tom and Jerry cartoon intros from MGM, roars at the beginning, and is then replaced by Tom, who yowls and hisses; the logo then transitions to the cartoon series' title sequence.
In the 1933 Looney Tunes cartoon Bosko's Picture Show, the feature film shown in Bosko's theater is produced by the "TNT pictures" company whose logo is a roaring and burping lion with the motto Eenie Meanie Minie Moe.
In National Lampoon's Animal House (1978), the motto of the Delta House is "Ars Gratia Artis".
The animated television series Tiny Toon Adventures included "end tags" for several of its main characters – short clips featuring the character(s) that were played immediately after the end credits. One of the end tags and post-credit scenes featured the character Furrball, who began by roaring at the screen like a lion before covering his mouth and letting out an apologetic mew.
The Muppets parodied the logo in two of their productions in 1981. It was spoofed by Animal in the role of Leo in The Great Muppet Caper, and by Fozzie Bear in the same role in The Muppets Go to the Movies. Also, in one Muppet Babies episode, Baby Animal roars as Gonzo's face replaces the mask usually seen under the lion.