Lenape

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Lenape peoples of North America
Approximate extent of the Delaware Nation.
Total population
Estimated 16,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
 United States ( Oklahoma)11,195 (2010)[2]
Languages
English, Munsee, and Unami[1]
Religion
Christianity, Native American Church,
traditional tribal religion
Related ethnic groups
Other Algonquian peoples
 
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Lenape peoples of North America
Approximate extent of the Delaware Nation.
Total population
Estimated 16,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
 United States ( Oklahoma)11,195 (2010)[2]
Languages
English, Munsee, and Unami[1]
Religion
Christianity, Native American Church,
traditional tribal religion
Related ethnic groups
Other Algonquian peoples
Jennie Bobb and her daughter, Nellie Longhat (both Delaware), Oklahoma, 1915[3]

The Lenape /ləˈnɑːpi/ are Native American peoples now living in Canada and the United States.[4] They are also called Delaware Indians, or the Delaware Nation[5] after their historic territory along the frequently mountainous landscapes flanking the Delaware River watershed.[notes 1] As a result of disruptions and political will of the white population following the American Revolutionary War and later developments such as the oft-voiced attitudes later termed manifest destiny, which in part led to the Indian removals from the eastern United States, the main groups now live in Ontario (Canada), Wisconsin, and Oklahoma.[6]

The Lenape kinship system was traditionally organized by clans determined by matrilineal descent. That is, children were considered to belong to the mother's clan, where they gained their social status and identity. The mother's eldest brother was more significant as a mentor to the boy children than was their father, who was of another clan. Hereditary leadership passed through the maternal line, and women elders could remove leaders of whom they disapproved. Traditionally, the Lenape had no concept of landed property. But clans had use rights. Agricultural land was managed by women and allotted according to the subsistence needs of their extended families. Matrilocal residence further enhanced the position of women in society. A young married couple would live with the woman's family, where her mother and sisters could also assist her with her growing family.

Most Lenape were pushed out of their homeland by expanding European colonies during the eighteenth century after undergoing a debilitating weakening from Indian-on-Indian conflicts.[5] Lenape polities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and European violence. Iroquoian polities occasionally contributed to the process. The surviving Lenape reorganized their polities and moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and U.S. independence pushed them further west. In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Oklahoma Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, with some communities living also in Kansas, Wisconsin, Ontario (Canada), and in their traditional homelands.

Name[edit]

Lenni-Lenape (or Lenni-Lenapi) comes from their term "Len Nee La-pee" (or Len Ni Lapi), which means "Man Me Again." In plain English it means, "Person Like Me." It was shortened to "Len-a-pee" (or Len-api) and "Lenape" is the preferred term. The Dutch, English, and Swedish traders heard and wrote the term as "Lenni-Lenape." The Lenape are a loose association of kindred people who spoke the same language and who shared the same familial bonds in an area that they called "Len-api Hok Ing" (People Like Me Area Place). Today, Len-api Hok Ing is divided between present eastern Pennsylvania, western New Jersey, and eastern Delaware. Len-api Hok Ing is fed by the "Len-api Hanna" or "Lenape River" (present-day Delaware River, which was named after Lord De La Warr, the governor of the colony at Jamestown, Virginia).[1] As such, the English colonists used the exonym "Delaware" for almost all the Lenape living along this river and its many tributaries. The Lenape considered the Len-api Hanna and its tributaries much like a tree. Among this "tree," they lived in small, scattered, towns, or sometimes in single-family settlements. As such, the Len-api Hanna is also called the "Len-api Hit-uck" or "People Like Me Tree."

The major tributaries of Len-api Hanna or Len-api Hit-uck were the Maak-waas Hanna (Bear River--present-day Christina River--called "Minquas Kill" by early Dutch traders), the Tool-pay Hanna (Turtle River--present-day Schuylkill River),and the Lock-ah Hanna (Sand River--present-day Lehigh River). The major areas of Len-api Hoking were Sick-oh-nees Unk (Siconese, present Lewes, Delaware), Maax-waas Hanna Unk (Bear River Place--present Wilmington, Delaware), Hopo Hok Ing (Clay Area Place--present northern Delaware), Man-tes Unk (present Glouchester, New Jersey), Ran-coe Unk (present Rancocas, New Jersey), Check-en-awk Ing (Blackbird Place, present Chester, Pennsylvania), Tin-eek Unk (Tinicum), Wick-ak Unk (Wicaco), Pass-ay Unk (Passyunk--Low Place or Valley--present Philadelphia), Wiss-ee-in-ohm Ing (Wissionoming), Tack-ohn Ing (Tacony), Min-ach Unk (present Biles Island), Shacka-max Ing (Shackamaxon--present Frankford-Kensington), Poe-kwes Ing (Poquessin), Pem-ik-pack Ing (Pennypacking), Wiss-ah-Hok Ing (Wissahickon), Nesh-am-in Ing (Neshaminy, Bucks County), Poe Kayz Ing (Hickory Nut Place, present Perkasie, Bucks County), Nock-ah-mix Ing (Nockamixon, Bucks County), Toe Hok Ing (Tohican, Bucks County), Man-ay Unk (Food Place--present Manayunk), Con-shaw Hok Ing (Big Bend Place--present Conshohocken), Tool-pay Hok Ing (Turtle Area Place--present Tulpehocken near Reading, Berks County), Coe-cal-ee Unk (present Cocalico, Lancaster County), Swat-are Ing (Swatara, present Lebanon County), Pax-tan Ing (Paxton, present Harrisburg, Dauphin County), May-hoe Ah-too Hok Ing (Food Deer Place--Mahantango, present Schuylkill and Northumberland counties), and May-hoe Ing (Food Place--Mahoning--present Schuylkill County).

Society[edit]

Map depicting the historic homeland of the Lenape. In the north were the Munsee speakers, the center Lenape spoke Unami and in the southern territory, the people spoke Unalichtigo, a subdivision of Unami.[7][8]
Susie Elkhair (d. 1926-age 77) of the Delaware Tribe of Indians (Lenape) based in Bartlesville, Oklahoma shown wearing traditional Lenape clothing.

The area of Lenape (or Len-api) settlement, which they called Len-api Hok Ing ("People Like Me Area Place") encompassed the Delaware Valley of present eastern Pennsylvania and western New Jersey from the Lehigh River south into eastern Delaware and the Delaware Bay. The Lenape lived in scores of small towns along the rivers and streams that fed the Len-api Hanna (People Like Me River), later to be called the Delaware River by the English. There were three broad groups of Lenape-speaking people just prior to European contact in 1600: Unalami, Unami, and Unalachtigo. Una-la-me (Unalami) means "Upriver"; Una-nah-me (Unami) means "Downriver"; and Woo-nah-wah-lot Tee-kow Unk (Unalachtigo) means "Watch Waves Place." The Unalami stretched from the present Delaware Water Gap in the north all the way down to the big bend in the Delaware River at present Morrisville, Pennsylvania, and Trenton, New Jersey, in the south. The Unami stretched from present Morrisville, Pennsylvania, and Trenton, New Jersey, in the north all the way down to present New Castle, Delaware, and Salem, New Jersey, in the south. The Unalachtigo stretched from present New Castle, Pennsylvania, and Salem, New Jersey, in the north all the way down to the opening of the present Delaware Bay at Lewes, Delaware, and Cape May, New Jersey, in the south. The German and English-speaking Moravian Missionary, David Zeisberger, wrote sometime around 1780: "The Unamis are the chief people of the nation; their language differing by but little from that of the Wunalachtico, is the most melodious."

A closely related, but separate people, were the Munsee (sometimes spelled Muncy), who lived north of the Unalami from the present Delaware Water Gap on up to Matamoros, Pennsylvania, and Port Jervis, New York, on up through northern New Jersey and into southwestern New York. Munsee is short for Mun-it-too Ach-sin-in Unk Len, which means "Scattered Stone Place People." Heckewelder wrote: "The Monsey tong [sic] is quite different even though [it and Lenape] out of one parent language. The last tribes [of the Munsee] lived in Minnising [present Port Jervis, New York, and Matamoros, Pennsylvania] along the Delaware, behind the blue [sic] Mountains [i.e., the Kittatinny Mountains]."

The traditional boundary between the Lenape and the Munsee were the Kit Ah-tin Ah-choo-hoe (Far Go Hills or Endless Hills, which today are called the Kittatinny Mountains) or Kit Ah-tin Ing (Far Go Place, which is near present Saylorsburg, Pennsylvania). So while the Lenape lived south of Kit Ah-tin Ing all the way down to Woo-nah-wah-lot Tee-kow Unk (Watch Waves Place, which is the present Delaware Bay), the Munsees lived north of Kit Ah-tin Ing in present northern-Pennsylvania east of the West Branch of the Susquehanna at Why-ohm Ing (Food Place, which is present Wilkes-Barre), across the Len-api Hanna at the present Delaware Water Gap, and on into northern New Jersey and parts of southern New York. The Munsee, in turn, were related to the River Indians of present southeastern New York, such as the Catskills, Tappan, Wappinger, Mohican, Massapequa, etc. As the Lenape and Munsee peoples were forced west, however, onto Iroquois League lands, their languages and words mixed far more.

Because of their locality, there were no eastern neighbors to the Lenape People. As such, the Lenape were sometimes called by those who lived to their west, "People Who Live Where the Sun Comes Up." The western neighbors and competitors of the Lenape people were the Maax-waas Len or "Bear People" who lived along the Sis-kwe Hanna (Brown River--present Susquehanna River) at Kon-es Toe Ga (Buried Pole Place or Town). While the English out of Virginia and Maryland heard and wrote these people as the "Susquehannocks," the Dutch of New Netherland heard and wrote them as "Minquas." The south-western neighbors of the Lenape were the elusive but kindred people of Nant-ee Coke (Nanticokes), who lived in present western Delaware and eastern Maryland. Some Nanticoke chiefs were known for their ability to change the rules of nature (which the Dutch and English called witch craft).

The Lenape and Munsee languages have been classified by linguists as belonging to the Eastern Algonquian language group. Although the Lenape and Munsee language/people are similar, they considered themselves different as they used different words. For example, according to the German and English-speaking Moravian Missionary David Zeisberger, the Lenape word for "Food" is "May-hoe-me-chink"; in Munsee it is "Wool-as-gat." The Lenape word for "Hill" is "Ah-choo"; in Munsee it is "Watts Unk." The Lenape word for "Soup" is "She-tay"; in Munsee it is "Zocks-ah-pawn." The Lenape word for "Deer" is "Ah-too"; in Munsee it is "Ack-too." The Lenape word for "Elk" is "Mosh"; in Munsee it is "Moos." The Lenape word for "Turkey" is "She-kay-noom Choo-loons"; in Munsee it is "Schick-eh Choo-loons." The Lenape word for "Bird" is "Choo-loons"; in Munsee it is "Schig-ah-chayz." As one can see, there are similarities and differences, but the differences are more pronounced. However, the Lenape and the Munsee also share the same word for the same thing. For example, they share the same word for "Corn," which is "Xash-queem" or "Wolf," which is "Too-may," or "Crow," which is "Ah-has," or "Turtle," which is "Tool-pay," or "River," which is "Hanna" or "See-poo." They also call themselves the same thing, which is Len Ni Lapi. William Penn, who first met the Lenape in 1682, stated that the Unami used the following words (by this time, the Unalachtigo had been absorbed by the Unami): "Mother" is "Ah-na," "Brother" is "Iss-ee-mus," "Friend" is "Neh-tap," "Very Good" is "Oohs-que Or-et," "Bread" is "Ah-pone," "Eat" is "Met-zay," and "No" is "Mah-tah."

The German and English-speaking Moravian missionaries David Zeisberger and John Heckewelder, who lived among the Lenape and Munsee People in present-day Ohio during the late-18th and early-19th centuries, conducted scores interviews with surviving band members. They compiled their findings into several books that many modern historians and anthropologists still value. David Zeisberger wrote: The Diary of David Zeisberger: A Moravian Missionary Among the Ohio Indians, Grammar of the Language of the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians, and Zeisberger’s Indian Dictionary: English, German, Iroquois—The Onondaga and Algonquin—The Delaware. “The Delaware” that Zeisberger translated was actually Munsee, however, and not Lenape. John Heckewelder wrote The History, Manners, and Customs of the Indian Nations Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania and Neighboring States and The Names Which the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians Gave to Rivers, Streams, and Localities. The best source of period Lenape Language is The Lenape-English Dictionary, which was compiled by Daniel Brinton, C.F. Denke, and Albert Anthony at the turn of the 20th Century from period documents and interviews with Lenape-speaking people.

Early Indian "tribes" are better understood as language groups, rather than as "nations". At the time of first European contact, a Lenape individual would have identified primarily with his or her immediate family and clan, friends, and/or village unit; then with surrounding and familiar village units; next with more distant neighbors who spoke the same dialect; and ultimately, with all those in the surrounding area who spoke mutually comprehensible languages, including the Nanticoke, who lived to their south and west in present western Delaware and eastern Maryland, and the Munsee, who lived to their north. Among many Algonquian peoples along the East Coast, the Lenape were considered the "grandfathers" from whom other Algonquian-speaking peoples originated. Consequently, in inter-tribal councils, the Lenape were given respect as one would to elders.

Among the Lenape, there were three broad familial clans, gens, or phratries: Ground Crawlers (Poe-koe-ohn-gook), Ground Scratchers (Pool-ah-gook), and Round Feet (Took-seet). Each clan then had at least ten families or sub-groups. For example, the leading family of the Ground Crawlers was the Turtle. Other families included the Snake, Frog, etc. The leading family of the Ground Scratchers was the Turkey. Other families were the Grouse, Snipe, etc. The leading family of the Round Feet or Animals was the Wolf. Other families included the Deer, Bear, etc. Each clan had a designated Maw-tawk (lead chief) from its leading family. In order of precedence was the Turtle, Turkey, and Wolf. This is why English, Dutch, or Swedes, including William Penn, would often call the Maw-tawk from the Turtle Family the "King of the Delawares." Granted, none of the Maw-tawks, including the "Delaware King," had absolute power over any Lenape, but they did speak for/represent the interests of the majority of the families through their clan matrons. Generally speaking, the Maw-tawk of the Turtle Clan lived in Unami, the Maw-tawk of the Turkey Clan lived in Unalachtigo, and the Maw-tawk of the Wolf Clan lived in Unalami. This is why members of the Iroquois League would often call the Lenape "the Wolf People" just as the Lenape and Munsee would call them the "Bear People."

By 1682, when William Penn arrived to his American commonwealth, the Lenape had been so reduced by disease, famine, and war that the sub-clan mothers had sadly resolved to consolidate their families into the main clan family. This is why William Penn and all those after him believed that the Lenape clans had always only had three divisions ('Turtle, Turkey, and Wolf) when, in fact, they had over thirty at on the eve of European contact. For example, sometime between 1650 and 1680, the Bear, Deer, etc. families, with few members left, absorbed into the leading Wolf Family.

Members of each clan were found throughout Len-api Hok Ing and clan lineage was traced through the mother. While clan mothers controlled the land, the houses, and the families, the clan fathers provided the meat, cleared the fields, built the houses, and protected the clan. Upon reaching adulthood, a Lenape male would marry outside of his clan, a practice known by ethnographers as, "exogamy". The practice effectively prevented inbreeding, even among individuals whose kinship was obscure or unknown. This means that a male from the Turkey Clan was expected to marry a female from either the Turtle or Wolf clans. His children, however, would not belong to the Turkey Clan, but to the mother's clan. As such, a person's mother's brothers (the person's matrilineal uncles) played a large role in his or her life as they shared the same clan lineage. To add clarity to the clan system, all males, as a part of their passage rites into adulthood, were tattooed with their clan symbol on their chests. This is why many English, Dutch, and Swedish traders believed that the Lenape had three or more tribes, when in fact, they were one nation of kindred people.

Those of a different language stock – such as the Iroquois (or, in the Lenape language, the Maax-waas Len [Bear People] or Minquas) – were regarded as foreign. As in the case of the Iroquois, the animosity of difference and competition spanned many generations, and different language tribes became traditional enemies. Ethnicity seems to have mattered little to the Lenape and many other "tribes". Archaeological excavations have found Lenape burials that included identifiably ethnic Iroquois remains interred along with those of Lenape. The two groups were bitter enemies since before recorded history, but intermarriage occurred. In addition, both tribes practiced adopting young captives from warfare into their tribes and assimilating them as full tribal members.

Early Europeans who first wrote about Indians found matrilineal social organization to be unfamiliar and perplexing. Because of this, Europeans often tried to interpret Lenape society through more familiar European arrangements. As a result, the early records are full of clues about early Lenape society, but were usually written by observers who did not fully understand what they were seeing. For example, a man's maternal uncle (his mother's brother), and not his father, was usually considered to be his closest male ancestor, since his uncle belonged to his mother's clan and his father belonged to a different one. The maternal uncle played a more prominent role in the lives of his sister's children than did the father. Early European chroniclers did not understand this concept.

The band assigned land of their common territory to a particular clan for hunting, fishing, and cultivation. Individual private ownership of land was unknown, as the land belonged to the clan collectively while they inhabited it, but women often had rights to traditional areas for cultivation.[9] Clans lived in fixed settlements, using the surrounding areas for communal hunting and planting until the land was exhausted. In a common practice known as "agricultural shifting", the group then moved to found a new settlement within their territory.

The Lenape practiced large-scale agriculture to augment a mobile hunter-gatherer society in the regions around the Delaware River. The Lenape were largely a sedentary people who occupied campsites seasonally, which gave them relatively easy access to the small game that inhabited the region: fish, birds, shellfish and deer. They developed sophisticated techniques of hunting and managing their resources.

By the time of the arrival of Europeans, the Lenape were cultivating fields of vegetation through the slash and burn technique.[10][11][12][13][14][15] This extended the productive life of planted fields. They also harvested vast quantities of fish and shellfish from the bays of the area,[16] and, in southern New Jersey, harvested clams year-round.[17] The success of these methods allowed the tribe to maintain a larger population than nomadic hunter-gatherers could support. Scholars have estimated that at the time of European settlement, there may have been about 15,000 Lenape total in approximately 80 settlement sites around much of the New York City area, alone.[18] In 1524 Lenape in canoes met Giovanni da Verrazzano, the first European explorer to enter New York Harbor.

At the time of European contact, the Lenape practiced agriculture, mostly companion planting. The women cultivated many varieties of the "Three Sisters:" corn, beans, and squash. The men also practiced hunting and the harvesting of seafood. The people were primarily sedentary rather than nomadic; they moved to seasonal campsites for particular purposes such as fishing and hunting. European settlers and traders from the seventeenth-century colonies of New Netherland and New Sweden traded with the Lenape for agricultural products, mainly maize, in exchange for iron tools. The Lenape also arranged contacts between the Minquas or Susquehannocks and the Dutch and Swedish West India companies to promote the fur trade. The Lenape were major producers of wampum or shell beads, which they traditionally used for ritual purposes and as ornaments. After the Dutch arrival, they began to exchange wampum for beaver furs provided by Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannock and other Minquas. They exchanged these furs for Dutch and, from the late 1630s, also Swedish imports. Relations between some Lenape and Minqua polities briefly turned sore in the late 1620s and early 1630s, but were relatively peaceful most of the time.[19]

The early European settlers, especially the Dutch and Swedes, were surprised at the Lenape's skill in fashioning clothing from natural materials.[citation needed] In hot weather both men and women wore only loin cloth and skirt respectively, while they used beaver pelts or bear skins to serve as winter mantles. Additionally, both sexes might wear buckskin leggings and moccasins in cold weather.[20] Deer hair, dyed a deep scarlet, was a favorite component of headdresses and breast ornaments for males.[21] The Lenape also adorned themselves with various ornaments made of stone, shell, animal teeth, and claws. The women often wore headbands of dyed deer hair or wampum. They painted their skin skirts or decorated them with porcupine quills. These skirts were so elaborately appointed that, when seen from a distance, they reminded Dutch settlers of fine European lace.[22] The winter cloaks of the women were striking, fashioned entirely from the iridescent body feathers of wild turkeys.[23]

History[edit]

European contact[edit]

The first recorded contact with Europeans and people presumed to have been the Lenape was in 1524. The explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was greeted by local Lenape who came by canoe, after his ship entered what is now called Lower New York Bay.

The early interaction between the Lenape and Dutch traders in the 17th century was primarily through the fur trade, specifically, the Lenape trapped and traded beaver pelts for European-made goods. According to Dutch settler Isaac de Rasieres, who observed the Lenape in 1628, the Lenape's primary crop was maize, which they planted in March. They quickly adopted European metal tools for this task.

In May, the Lenape planted kidney beans near the maize plants; the latter served as props for the climbing bean vines. They also planted squash, whose broad leaves cut down on weeds and conserved moisture in the soil. The women devoted their summers to field work and harvested the crops in August. Women cultivated varieties of maize, squash and beans, and did most of the field work, processing and cooking of food.

The men limited their agricultural labor to clearing the field and breaking the soil. They primarily hunted and fished during the rest of the year. Dutch settler David de Vries, who stayed in the area from 1634 to 1644, described a Lenape hunt in the valley of the Achinigeu-hach (or "Ackingsah-sack," the Hackensack River), in which one hundred or more men stood in a line many paces from each other, beating thigh bones on their palms to drive animals to the river, where they could be killed easily. Other methods of hunting included lassoing and drowning deer, as well as forming a circle around prey and setting the brush on fire.

Early colonial era[edit]

At the time of sustained European contact in the 16th centuries and 17th centuries, the Lenape were a powerful[clarification needed] Native American nation who inhabited a region on the mid-Atlantic coast spanning the latitudes of southern Massachusetts to the southern extent of Delaware in what anthropologists call the Northeastern Woodlands.[24] Although never politically unified, the confederation of the Delaware roughly encompassed the area around and between the Delaware and lower Hudson rivers, and included the western part of Long Island in present-day New York.[25] Some of their place names, such as Manhattan, Raritan, and Tappan were adopted by Dutch and English colonists to identify the Lenape people that lived there. Based on the historical record of the mid-seventeenth century, it has been estimated that most Lenape polities consisted of several hundred people[26] but it is conceivable that some had been considerably larger prior to close contact, given the wars between the Susquehannocks and the Iroquois,[5] both of whom were armed by the Dutch fur traders,[5] whilst the Lenape were at odds with the Dutch and so lost that particular arms race.[5]

Further, even regions at a long distance from European settlement, such as Iroquoia in upstate New York and Indian villages in central Pennsylvania, had been reported to be devastated by smallpox by the 1640s,[27] but others have pointed out the Lenape and Susquehannocks fought a war in the middle of the seventeenth century that left the Delaware a tributary state even as the Susquehannocks had defeated the Province of Maryland between 1642-50s,[28]

17th century[edit]

New Amsterdam was founded in 1624 by the Dutch in what would later become New York City. Dutch settlers also founded a colony at present-day Lewes, Delaware on June 3, 1631 and named it Zwaanendael (Swan Valley).[29] The colony had a short life, as in 1632 a local band of Lenape killed the 32 Dutch settlers after a misunderstanding escalated over Lenape defacement of the insignia of the Dutch West India Company.[30] In 1634, the Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannock went to war with the Lenape over access to trade with the Dutch at New Amsterdam. They defeated the Lenape, and some scholars believe that the Lenape may have become tributaries to the Susquehannock.[31] After the warfare, the Lenape referred to the Susquehannock as "uncles." The Iroquois added the Lenape to the Covenant Chain in 1676; the Lenape were tributary to the Five Nations (later Six) until 1753, shortly before the outbreak of the French and Indian War (a part of the Seven Years War in Europe).

The Lenape's quick adoption of trade goods, and their need to trap furs to meet high European demand, resulted in their disastrous over-harvesting of the beaver population in the lower Hudson Valley. With the fur sources exhausted, the Dutch shifted their operations to present-day upstate New York. The Lenape who produced wampum in the vicinity of Manhattan Island temporarily forestalled the negative effects of the decline in trade.[32] Lenape population fell sharply during this period, due to high fatalities from epidemics of infectious diseases carried by Europeans, such as measles and smallpox, to which they had no natural immunity, as the diseases had arisen on the Asian continent and moved west into Europe, where they had become endemic in the cities.

The Lenape had a culture in which the clan and family controlled property. Europeans often tried to contract for land with the tribal chiefs, confusing their culture with that of neighboring tribes such as the Iroquois. The Lenape would petition for grievances on the basis that not all their families had been recognized in the transaction (not that they wanted to "share" the land).[33] After the Dutch arrival in the 1620s, the Lenape were successful in restricting Dutch settlement until the 1660s to Pavonia in present-day Jersey City along the Hudson. The Dutch finally established a garrison at Bergen, which allowed settlement west of the Hudson within the province of New Netherland. This land was purchased from the Lenape after the fact.[33]

Benjamin West's painting (in 1771) of William Penn's 1682 treaty with the Lenape

In 1682, William Penn and Quaker colonists created the English colony of Pennsylvania beginning at the lower Delaware River. A peace treaty was negotiated between the newly arriving English and Lenape at what is now known as Penn Treaty Park. In the decades immediately following, some 20,000 new colonists arrived in the region, putting pressure on Lenape settlements and hunting grounds. Although Penn endeavored to live peaceably with the Lenape and to create a colony that would do the same, he also expected his authority and that of the colonial government to take precedence. His new colony effectively displaced many Lenape and forced others to adapt to new cultural demands. Penn gained a reputation for benevolence and tolerance, but his efforts resulted in more effective colonization of the ancestral Lenape homeland than previous ones.[34]

18th century[edit]

Lapowinsa, Chief of the Lenape, Lappawinsoe painted by Gustavus Hesselius in 1735.

William Penn died in 1718. His heirs, John and Thomas Penn, and their agents were running the colony, and had abandoned many of the elder Penn's practices. Trying to raise money, they contemplated ways to sell Lenape land to colonial settlers. The resulting scheme culminated in the so-called Walking Purchase. In the mid-1730s, colonial administrators produced a draft of a land deed dating to the 1680s. William Penn had approached several leaders of Lenape polities in the lower Delaware to discuss land sales further north. Since the land in question did not belong to their polities, the talks came to nothing. But colonial administrators had prepared the draft that resurfaced in the 1730s. The Penns and their supporters tried to present this draft as a legitimate deed. Lenape leaders in the lower Delaware refused to accept it.

What followed was a "convoluted sequence of deception, fraud, and extortion orchestrated by the Pennsylvania government that is commonly known as the Walking Purchase."[35]

In the end, all Lenape who still lived on the Delaware were driven off the remnants of their homeland under threats of violence. Some Lenape polities eventually retaliated by attacking Pennsylvania settlements. When they fought British colonial expansion to a standstill at the height of the Seven Years' War, the British government investigated the causes of Lenape resentment. The British asked William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, to lead the investigation. Johnson had become wealthy as a trader and acquired thousands of acres of land in the Mohawk River Valley from the Iroquois Mohawk of New York.[35]

Beginning in the 18th century, the Moravian Church established missions among the Lenape.[36] The Moravians required the Christian converts to share their pacifism, as well as to live in a structured and European-style mission village.[37] Moravian pacifism and unwillingness to take loyalty oaths caused conflicts with British authorities, who were seeking aid against the French and their Native American allies during the French and Indian War (Seven Years War). The Moravians' insistence on Christian Lenapes' abandoning traditional warfare practices alienated mission populations from other Lenape and Native American groups, who revered warriors. The Moravians accompanied Lenape relocations to Ohio and Canada, continuing their missionary work. The Moravian Lenape who settled permanently in Ontario after the American Revolutionary War were sometimes referred to as "Christian Munsee", as they mostly spoke the Munsee branch of the Delaware language.

During the French and Indian War, the Lenape initially sided with the French, as they hoped to prevent further British colonial encroachment in their territory. But, such leaders as Teedyuscung in the east and Tamaqua in the vicinity of modern Pittsburgh shifted to building alliances with the English. After the end of the war, however, Anglo-American settlers continued to kill Lenape, often to such an extent that the historian Amy Schutt writes the dead since the wars outnumbered those killed during the war.[38]

The Treaty of Easton, signed in 1758 between the Lenape and the Anglo-American colonists, required the Lenape to move westward, out of present-day New York and New Jersey and into Pennsylvania, then Ohio and beyond. Sporadically they continued to raid European-American settlers from far outside the area.

In 1763 Bill Hickman, Lenape, warned English colonists in the Juniata River region of an impending attack. Many Lenape joined in Pontiac's War, and were numerous among those Native Americans who besieged Pittsburgh.[39] In April 1763 Teedyuscung was killed when his home was burned. His son Captain Bull responded by attacking settlers from New England who had migrated to the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania. The settlers had been sponsored by the Susquehanna Company.[40]

The Lenape were the first Indian tribe to enter into a treaty with the new United States government, with the Treaty of Fort Pitt signed in 1778 during the American Revolutionary War. By then living mostly in the Ohio Country, the Lenape supplied the Continental Army with warriors and scouts in exchange for food supplies and security.

Displacements[edit]

After the signing of the Treaty of Easton in 1758, the Lenape were forced to move west out of their native lands into what is today known as Ohio, although not everyone went.[41]

During the American Revolution, the Munsee-speaking Lenape (then called Delaware) bands of the Ohio Country were deeply divided over which side, if any, to take in the conflict. Their bands lived in numerous villages around their main village of Coshocton.[42] At the time of the Revolutionary War, the Lenape villages lay between the western frontier strongholds of the British and the Patriots: the American colonists had Fort Pitt (present-day Pittsburgh) and the British with Indian allies controlled the area of Fort Detroit (in present-day Michigan).

Some Lenape decided to take up arms against the American colonials and moved to the west, closer to Detroit, where they settled on the Scioto and Sandusky rivers. Those Lenape sympathetic to the United States remained at Coshocton, and leaders signed the Treaty of Fort Pitt (1778) with the Americans. Through this, the Lenape hoped to establish the Ohio Country as a state inhabited exclusively by Native Americans, as part of the new United States. A third group of Lenape, many of them converted Christian Munsees, lived in several mission villages run by Moravians. (They spoke the Munsee branch of Delaware, an Algonquian language.)

White Eyes, the Lenape chief who had negotiated the treaty, died in 1778. Many Lenape at Coshocton eventually joined the war against the Americans. In response, Colonel Daniel Brodhead led an expedition out of Fort Pitt and on 19 April 1781 destroyed Coshocton. Surviving residents fled to the north. Colonel Brodhead convinced the militia to leave the Lenape at the Moravian mission villages unmolested, since they were unarmed non-combatants.

Brodhead's having to restrain the militia from attacking the Moravian villages was a reflection of the brutal nature of frontier warfare. Violence had escalated on both sides. Relations between regular Continental Army officers from the East (such as Brodhead) and western militia were frequently strained. The tensions were worsened by the American government's policy of recruiting some Indian tribes as allies in the war. Western militiamen, many of whom had lost friends and family in Indian raids against settlers' encroachment, blamed all Indians for the acts of some.

During the early 1770s, missionaries, including David Zeisberger and John Heckewelder, arrived in the Ohio Country near the Delaware villages. The Moravian Church sent these men to convert the natives to Christianity. The missionaries established several missions, including Gnadenhutten, Lichtenau, and Schoenbrunn. The missionaries asked that the natives forsake all of their traditional customs and ways of life. Many Delaware did adopt Christianity, but others refused to do so. The Delaware became a divided people during the 1770s, including in Killbuck's family. Killbuck resented his grandfather for allowing the Moravians to remain in the Ohio Country. The Moravians believed in pacifism, and Killbuck believed that every convert to the Moravians deprived the Delaware of a warrior to stop further white settlement of their land.

During the French and Indian War, Killbuck assisted the English against their French enemy. In 1761, Killbuck led an English supply train from Fort Pitt to Fort Sandusky. The British paid him one dollar per day. Later Killbuck became a leader in a very dangerous time for the Delaware. The American Revolution had just begun, and Killbuck found his people caught between the English in the West and the Americans in the East. At the war's beginning, Killbuck and many Delaware claimed to be neutral. In 1778, Killbuck permitted American soldiers to traverse Delaware territory so that the soldiers could attack Fort Detroit. In return, Killbuck requested that the Americans build a fort near the natives' major village of Coshocton to provide the Delaware with protection from English attacks. The Americans agreed and built Fort Laurens, which they garrisoned.

Other Indian groups, especially the Wyandot, the Mingo, the Munsee, the Shawnee, and the Wolf Clan of the Delaware, favored the British. They believed that by their proclamation of 1763, restricting Anglo-American settlement to east of the Appalachian Mountains, that the British would help them preserve a Native American territory. The British planned to attack Fort Laurens in early 1779 and demanded that the neutral Delawares formally side with the British. Killbuck warned the Americans of the planned attack. His actions helped save the fort, but the Americans abandoned it in August 1779. The Delaware had lost their protectors and, in theory, faced attacks from the British, their native allies, and the American settlers who flooded into the area in the late 1770s and early 1780s after the war. Most Delaware formally joined the British after the American withdrawal from Fort Laurens.

Facing pressure from the British, the Americans, and even his fellow natives, Killbuck hoped a policy of neutrality would save his people from destruction. It did not.

19th century[edit]

The amateur anthropologist Silas Wood published a book claiming that there were several American Indian tribes that were distinct to Long Island, New York. He collectively called them the Metoac. Modern scientific scholarship has shown that two linguistic groups representing two Algonquian cultural identities lived on the island, not "13 individual tribes" as asserted by Wood. The bands to the west were Lenape. Those to the east were more related culturally to the Algonquian tribes of New England across Long Island Sound, such as the Pequot.[43][44] Wood (and earlier settlers) often misinterpreted the Indian use of place names for identity as indicating their names for "tribes."

Over a period of 176 years, European settlers progressively crowded the Lenape out of the East Coast and Ohio, and pressed them to move further west. Most members of the Munsee-language branch of the Lenape left the United States after the British were defeated in the American Revolutionary War. Their descendants live on three Indian reserves in Western Ontario, Canada. They are descendants of those Lenape of Ohio Country who sided with the British during the Revolutionary War. The largest reserve is at Moraviantown, Ontario, where the Turtle Clan settled in 1792 following the war.

Two groups migrated to Oneida County, New York by 1802, the Brotherton Indians of New Jersey and the Stockbridge-Munsee. After 1819, they removed to Wisconsin, under pressure from state and local governments.

Indiana to Missouri[edit]

By the Treaty of St. Mary’s, signed October 3, 1818 in St. Mary's, Ohio, the Delaware ceded their lands in Indiana for lands west of the Mississippi and an annuity of $4,000. Over the next few years, the Delaware settled on the James River in Missouri near its confluence with Wilson Creek, occupying eventually about 40,000 acres (160 km2) of the approximately 2,000,000 acres (8,100 km2) allotted to them.[45] Anderson, Indiana is named after Chief William Anderson, whose father was Swedish. The Delaware Village in Indiana was called Anderson's Town, while the Delaware Village in Missouri on the James River was often called Anderson’s Village. The tribes' cabins and cornfields were spread out along the James River and Wilson Creek.[46]

Role in western history[edit]

Many Delaware participated in exploration of the western United States, working as trappers with the mountain men, and as guides and hunters for wagon trains. They served as army guides and scouts in events such as the Second Seminole War, Frémont's expeditions, and the conquest of California during the Mexican-American War.[47][48][49] Occasionally, they played surprising roles as Indian allies.[50]

Sagundai accompanied one of Frémont's expeditions as one of his Delaware guides. From California, Fremont needed to communicate with Senator Benton. Sagundai volunteered to carry the message through some 2,200 kilometres of hostile territory. He took many scalps in this adventure, including that of a Comanche with a particularly fine horse, who had outrun both Sagundai and the other Comanche. Sagundai was thrown when his horse stepped into a prairie-dog hole, but avoided the Comanche's lance, shot the warrior dead, and caught his horse and escaped the other Comanche. When Sagundai returned to his own people in present-day Kansas, they celebrated his exploits with the last war and scalp dances of their history. These were held at Edwardsville, Kansas.[51]

Kansas reservation[edit]

Lenape farm on the Delaware Indian Reservation in Kansas in 1867

By the terms of the "Treaty of the James Fork" made September 24, 1829 and ratified by the US Senate in 1830, the Delaware were forced to move further west. They were granted lands in Indian Territory in exchange for lands on the James Fork of the White River in Missouri. These lands, in what is now Kansas, were west of the Missouri and north of the Kansas River. The main reserve consisted of about 1,000,000 acres (4,000 km2) with an additional "outlet" strip 10 miles (16 km) wide extending to the west.[52][53][54]

In 1854 Congress passed the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which created the Territory of Kansas and opened the area for white settlement. It also authorized negotiation with Indian tribes regarding removal. The Delaware were reluctant to negotiate for yet another relocation, but they feared serious trouble with white settlers, and conflict developed.

As the Delaware were not considered United States citizens, they had no access to the courts, and no way to enforce their property rights. The United States Army was to enforce their rights to reservation land after the Indian Agent had both posted a public notice warning trespassers and served written notice on them, a process generally considered onerous. Major B.F. Robinson, the Indian Agent appointed in 1855, did his best, but could not control the hundreds of white trespassers who stole stock, cut timber, and built houses and squatted on Delaware lands. By 1860 the Delaware had reached consensus to leave Kansas, which was in accord with the government's Indian removal policy.[55]

Oklahoma[edit]

The main body of Lenape arrived in the northeast region of Oklahoma in the 1860s.[citation needed] As a result of the multiple removals, each leaving some Delaware who chose to stay in place, recognized tribes of Lenape descendants are located today in New Jersey, Wisconsin and southwest Oklahoma.

The two largest groups are the Delaware Nation (Anadarko, Oklahoma), and the Delaware Tribe of Indians (Bartlesville, Oklahoma), the only two federally recognized Lenape (Delaware) tribes in the United States.[56] The Oklahoma branches were established in 1867. The Delaware were required to purchase land from the reservation of the Cherokee Nation; they made two payments totaling $438,000. A court dispute followed over whether the sale included rights for the Delaware as citizens within the Cherokee Nation.

While the dispute was unsettled, the Curtis Act of 1898 dissolved tribal governments and ordered the allotment of communal tribal lands to individual households of members of tribes. After the lands were allotted in 160-acre (650,000 m²) lots to tribal members in 1907, the government sold "surplus" land to non-Indians. The relatively arid land was not suitable for subsistence farming on such small plots.[citation needed]

Texas[edit]

The Delaware migrated into Texas in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Elements of the Delaware migrated from Missouri into Texas around 1820, settling around the Red River and Sabine River. The Delaware were peaceful and shared their territory in Spanish Texas with the Caddo and other immigrating bands, as well as with the Spanish and ever-increasing American population. This peaceful trend continued after Mexico won their independence from Spain in 1821.[57]
In 1828, Mexican General Manuel de Mier y Terán made an inspection of eastern Mexican Texas and estimated that the region housed between 150 to 200 Delaware families. The Delaware requested Mier y Terán to issue them land grants and send teachers, so they might learn to read and write the Spanish language. The General, impressed with how well they had adapted to the Mexican culture, sent their request to Mexico City, but the authorities never granted the Delaware any legal titles.
The situation changed when the Texas Revolution began in 1835. Texas officials were eager to gain the support of the Texas tribes to their side and offered to recognize their land claims by sending three commissioners to negotiate a treaty. A treaty was agreed upon in February 1836 which mapped the boundaries of Indian lands; but, this agreement was never officially ratified by the Texas government.[57]

The Delaware remained friendly after Texas won its independence. Republic of Texas President, Sam Houston favored a policy of peaceful relations with all tribes. He sought the services of the friendly Delaware and in 1837 enlisted several Delaware to protect the frontier from hostile western tribes. Delaware scouts joined with Texas Rangers as they patrolled the western frontier. Houston also tried to get the Delaware land claims recognized but his efforts were only met by opposition.

The next Texan President, Mirabeau B. Lamar, completely opposed all Indians. He considered them as illegal intruders who threatened the settlers safety and lands and issued an order for their removal from Texas. The Delaware were sent north of the Red River into Indian Territory, however, a few scattered Delawares remained in Texas.

In 1841, Houston was reelected to a second term as president and his peaceful Indian policy was then reinstated. A treaty with the remaining Delaware and a few other tribes was negotiated in 1843 at Fort Bird and the Delaware were enlisted to help him make peace with the Comanche. Delaware scouts and their families were allowed to settle along the Brazos and Bosque rivers in order to influence the Comanche to come to the Texas government for a peace conference. The plan was successful and the Delaware helped bring the Comanches to a treaty council in 1844.[57]

In 1845, the Republic of Texas agreed to annexation by the US to become an American State. The Delaware continued their peaceful policy with the Americans and served as interpreters, scouts and diplomats for the US Army and the Indian Bureau. In 1847, John Meusebach was assisted by Jim Shaw (Delaware), in settling the German communities in the Texas Hill Country. For the remainder of his life, Shaw worked as a military scout in West Texas. In 1848, John Conner (Delaware) guided the Chihuahua-El Paso Expedition and was granted a league of land by a special act of the Texas legislature in 1853. The expeditions of the map maker Randolph B. Marcy through West Texas in 1849, 1852, and 1854 were guided by Black Beaver (Delaware).

In 1854, despite the history of peaceful relations, the last of the Texas Delaware were moved by the American government to the Brazos Indian Reservation near Graham, Texas. In 1859 the US forced the remaining Delaware to remove from Texas to a location on the Washita River in the vicinity of present Anadarko, Oklahoma.[57]

20th century[edit]

In 1979, the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs revoked the tribal status of the Delaware living among Cherokee in Oklahoma. They began to count the Delaware as Cherokee. The Delaware had this decision overturned in 1996, when they were recognized by the federal government as a separate tribal nation.[citation needed]

21st century[edit]

The Cherokee Nation filed suit to overturn the independent federal recognition of the Delaware. The tribe lost federal recognition in a 2004 court ruling in favor of the Cherokee Nation, but regained it on 28 July 2009.[58] After recognition, the tribe reorganized under the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act. Members approved a constitution and by laws in a May 26, 2009 vote. Jerry Douglas was elected as tribal chief.[56]

In 2004, the Delaware Nation filed suit against Pennsylvania in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, seeking to reclaim 315 acres (1.27 km2) included in the 1737 Walking Purchase to build a casino. In the suit titled "The Deleware Nation v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania" the plaintiffs acting as the successor in interest and political continuation of the Lenni Lenape and of Lenape Chief “Moses” Tundy Tatamy, claimed aboriginal and fee title to the 315 acres of land located in Forks Township in Northampton County, near the town of Tatamy, Pennsylvania. After the Walking Purchase, Chief Tatamy was granted legal permission for him and his family to remain on this parcel of land, known as “Tatamy's Place". In addition to suing the state, the tribe also sued the township, the county and elected officials, including Gov. Ed Rendell.

The court held that the justness of the extinguishment of aboriginal title is nonjusticiable, including in the case of fraud. Because the extinguishment occurred prior to the passage of the first Indian Nonintercourse Act in 1790, that Act did not avail the Delaware.

As a result the court granted the Commonwealth's motion to dismiss. In its conclusion the court stated: ... we find that the Delaware Nation's aboriginal rights to Tatamy's Place were extinguished in 1737 and that, later, fee title to the land was granted to Chief Tatamy-not to the tribe as a collectivity.[59]

Contemporary tribes and organizations[edit]

Federally recognized groups[edit]

Three Lenape tribes are federally recognized in the United States. They are as follows:

Canadian First Nations[edit]

The Canadian Lenape left the United States in the late 1700s following the American Revolutionary War and settled in what is now Ontario. Consequently, Canada recognizes three Lenape First Nations (with four Indian reserves); they are located in Southwestern Ontario:

Eastern United States[edit]

New Jersey has two state recognized tribes, who are in part Lenape: the Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape Indians of New Jersey and Ramapough Lenape Nation.[60] In Delaware, the Lenape are organized and state-recognized as the Lenape Indian Tribe of Delaware.[61]

Some Lenape or Delaware live in communities known as Urban Indians in their historic homeland in a number of states such as Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, and Virginia. A small town, Lenni Lenape, NJ, is located in New Jersey between Princton and Trenton, along US Route 1. New York City and Philadelphia are known to have some Lenape residents.

Central United States[edit]

Some Lenape live within the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma, and others live in diaspora across the country.[citation needed] Large communities of Lenape descendants live in the vicinities of Bartlesville, Oklahoma and Anadarko, Oklahoma. Additionally, over a dozen unrecognized tribes claim Lenape descent. Unrecognized Lenape organizations in Colorado, Idaho, and Kansas have petitioned the United States federal government for recognition.[62]

Currently[edit]

In Canada, they are enrolled in the Munsee-Delaware Nation 1, the Moravian of the Thames First Nation, and the Delaware of Six Nations. In the United States, they are enrolled in three federally recognized tribes, that is, the Delaware Nation and the Delaware Tribe of Indians, both located in Oklahoma, and the Stockbridge-Munsee Community, located in Wisconsin. In Delaware, they are organized and state-recognized as the Lenape Indian Tribe of Delaware.[63] The Ramapough Mountain Indians and the Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape identify as Lenape descendants and are recognized as tribes by the state of New Jersey.[64]

Literature and popular culture[edit]

The Delaware feature prominently in The Last of the Mohicans and the other Leatherstocking Tales of James Fenimore Cooper. The Boy Scouts of America honor society, Order of the Arrow was inspired by their interpretation of Lenape culture and language.[citation needed]

The Walam Olum, which purported to be an account of the Delaware's migration to the lands around the Delaware River, emerged through the works of Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in the 19th century. For many decades, scholars believed it was genuine. In the 1980s and 1990s, newer textual analysis suggested it was a hoax.[65][66]

In Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian, the group of American scalphunters are aided by an unspecified number of Delaware, who serve as scouts and guides through the western deserts. In The Light in the Forest, True Son is adopted by a band of Lenape.[citation needed]

In Mark Raymond Harrington's 1938 novel, The Indians of New Jersey: Dickon among the Lenapes, a group of Lenape find a shipwrecked English boy. His gradual integration into the tribe provides a study of Lenape life, society, weaponry, and beliefs. The book includes a glossary for Lenape terms. Trouble's Daughter: The Story of Susanna Hutchinson, Indian Captive is a young adult novel of a fictional kidnapping by the Lenape Turtle Clan of a daughter of Anne Hutchinson, the religious reformer and founder of the Rhode Island colony. Moon of Two Dark Horses is a novel of the friendship between a white settler and a Lenape boy at the time of the Revolutionary War. Standing in the Light, The Captive Diary of Catherine Carey Logan, part of the Dear America series of fictional diaries, is a novel by Mary Pope Osborne. It tells the story of the capture of a teenage girl and her brother by a band of Lenape, and the youths' assimilation into Lenape culture.

Peter Lindestrom's Geographia America with an Account of the Delaware Indians is one of the few sympathetic contemporary accounts of Lenape life in the lower Delaware River valley during the 17th century.

Moravian missionary John Heckewelder published a sympathetic account of the Lenape in exile in the Ohio Valley. His account, published in 1818, provides some alternate Lenape tribal history disputing the tributary relationship with the Susquehannock. "Scouts of '76: a tale of the revolutionary war", a 1924 book by Charles E. Willis, contains an account of the contributions of the Lenni Lenape to the American Revolution when they lived in the area of Lake Wawayanda.

The television series Warehouse 13 featured a magical "cloak of the Lenape people" in one episode.

Notable Lenape people[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Description of the Lenape peoples (Delaware nations) historic territories inside the divides of the frequently mountainous landforms flanking the Delaware River's drainage basin. These terrains encompass from South to North and then counter-clockwise:
    • the shores from the east-shore mouth of the river and the sea coast to Western Long Island (all of both colonial New York City and New Jersey), and
    • portions of Western Connecticut upto the latitude of the Massachusetts corner of today's boundaries—making the eastern bounds of their influence, thence their region extended:
    • westerly past the region around Albany, NY to the Susquehanna River side of the Catskills, then
    • southerly through the eastern Poconos outside the rival Susquehannock lands past Eastern Pennsylvania then southerly past the site of Colonial Philadelphia past the west bank mouth of the Delaware and extending south from that point along a stretch of sea coast in northern colonial Delaware.

    The Susquehanna-Delaware watershed divides bound the frequently contested 'hunting grounds' between the rival Susquehannock peoples and the Lenape peoples, whilst the Catskills and Berkshires played a similar boundary role in the northern regions of their original colonial era range.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Pritzker 422
  2. ^ "Pocket Pictorial." Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission. 2010: 13. (retrieved 10 June 2010)
  3. ^ "Art on the Prairies: Delaware", All About the Shoes, (retrieved 19 July 2011)
  4. ^ Goddard, Ives (1978). "Delaware". In Bruce G. Trigger. Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 15: Northeast. Washington. pp. 213–239. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Editor: Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., by The editors of American Heritage Magazine (1961). "The American Heritage Book of Indians". In pages 188-189. ,. American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc. LCCN 61-14871. 
  6. ^ http://www.nj.gov/state/historical/pdf/lenape-guide.pdf
  7. ^ Fariello, Leonardo A. "A Place Called Whippany", Whippanong Library, 2000 (retrieved 19 July 2011)
  8. ^ *Kraft, Herbert C. The Lenape-Delaware Indian Heritage: 10,000 B.C. to A.D. 2000.: Lenape Books, 2001. ISBN 0-935137-03-3
  9. ^ see New Amsterdam for discussion of the Dutch "purchase" of Manhattan
  10. ^ Stevenson W. Fletcher, Pennsylvania Agriculture and Country Life 1640–1840 (Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1950), 2, 35–37, 63–65, 124.
  11. ^ Day, Gordon M. “The Indian as an Ecological Factor in the Northeastern Forests.” Ecology, Vol. 34, #2 (April): 329–346. New England and New York Areas 1580–1800. Notes that the Lenni Lenape (Delaware) tribe in New Jersey and the Massachuset tribe in Massachusetts used fire in ecosystems.1953
  12. ^ Russell, Emily W.B. Vegetational Change in Northern New Jersey Since 1500 A.D.: A Palynological, Vegetational and Historical Synthesis Ph.D. dissertation. New Brunswick, PA: Rutgers University. Author notes on page 8 that Indians often augmented lightning fires. 1979
  13. ^ Russell, Emily W.B. "Indian Set Fires in the Forests of the Northeastern United States." Ecology, Vol. 64, #1 (Feb): 78 88. 1983a Author found no strong evidence that Indians purposely burned large areas, but they did burn small areas near their habitation sites. Noted that the Lenna Lenape Tribe used fire.
  14. ^ A Brief Description of New York, Formerly Called New Netherlands with the Places Thereunto Adjoining, Likewise a Brief Relation of the Customs of the Indians There, New York, NY: William Gowans. 1670. Reprinted in 1937 by the Facsimile Text Society, Columbia University Press, New York. Notes that the Lenni Lenape (Delaware) tribe in New Jersey used fire in ecosystems.
  15. ^ Smithsonian Institution—Handbook of North American Indians series: Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15—Northeast. Bruce G. Trigger (volume editor). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 1978 References to Indian burning for the Eastern Algonquians, Virginia Algonquians, Northern Iroquois, Huron, Mahican, and Delaware Tribes and peoples.
  16. ^ Mark Kurlansky, 2006.
  17. ^ D. Dreibelbis, 1978.
  18. ^ Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, 1999.
  19. ^ Utz, Axel (2011). Cultural exchange, imperialist violence, and pious missions: Local perspectives from Tanjavur and Lenape country, 1720–1760 (Ph.D. thesis). Pennsylvania State University. pp. 140–147. 
  20. ^ Weslager, C. A.., The Delaware Indians: A History, Rutgers University Press, 2000, p. 54.
  21. ^ Kraft, Herbert C., The Lenape-Delaware Indian Heritage: 10,000 BC to AD 2000, Lenape Books, 2001, pp. 237–240.
  22. ^ Kraft, Herbert C. The Lenape-Delaware Indian Heritage: 10,000 BC to AD 2000. Lenape Books, 2001, p. 239.
  23. ^ Weslager, p. 54.
  24. ^ Trigger, Bruce C. (1978). Sturtevant, William C., ed. Handbook of North American Indians (general ed. ed.). Washington,DC: Smithsonian Institution. 
  25. ^ Paul Otto, 179 "Intercultural Relations Between Native Americans and Europeans in New Netherland and New York" in Four Centuries of Dutch-American Relations,SUNY Press, 2009
  26. ^ Goddard. "Delaware". Handbook. pp. 213–216. 
  27. ^ Snow, Dean R. (1996). "Mohawk demography and the effects of exogenous epidemics on American Indian populations". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 15: 160–182. 
  28. ^ Editor: Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., by The editors of American Heritage Magazine (1961). "The American Heritage Book of Indians". In pages 188-189, quote page 198. ,. American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc. LCCN 61-14871. "The Principal avenue of the march of settlement was through the Delaware confederacy, cracked open by the Susquehanna wars of conquest in the middle 1600s." 
  29. ^ Munroe, John A.: Colonial Delaware: A History: Millwood, New York: KTO Press; 1978; pp. 9–12
  30. ^ Cook, Albert Myers. Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, West New Jersey and Delaware 1630–1707. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912, p. 9
  31. ^ Jennings (2000), p. 117
  32. ^ Otto, Paul, 91 The Dutch-Munsee Encounter in America: The Struggle for Sovereignty in the Hudson Valley. New York: Berghahn Press, 2006.
  33. ^ a b William Christie MacLeod. "The Family Hunting Territory and Lenape Political Organization," American Anthropologist 24.
  34. ^ Spady (2004), pp. 18–40
  35. ^ a b Harper, Steven Craig (2006). Promised Land: Penn's Holy Experiment, the Walking Purchase, and the dispossession of Delawares, 1600–1763. Bethlehem, PA. 
  36. ^ Gray, Elma. Wilderness Christians: Moravian Missions to the Delaware Indians. Ithaca. 1956
  37. ^ Olmstead, Earl P. Blackcoats among the Delaware: David Zeisberger on the Ohio frontier. Kent, Ohio. 1991
  38. ^ Amy C. Schutt. Peoples of the Rivers. p. 118
  39. ^ Schutt. People of the River, p. 118
  40. ^ Schutt. People of the River, p. 119
  41. ^ Keenan, Encyclopedia of American Indian Wars, 1492–1890, 1999, p. 234; Moore, The Northwest Under Three Flags, 1635–1796, 1900, p. 151.
  42. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg William Dean Howells, “Gnadenhütten,” Three Villages, Boston: James R. Osgood and Co., 1884., accessed 19 Mar 2010
  43. ^ Strong, John A. Algonquian Peoples of Long Island Heart of the Lakes Publishing (March 1997). ISBN 978-1-55787-148-0
  44. ^ Bragdon, Kathleen. The Columbia Guide to American Indians of the Northeast,Columbia University Press (2002). ISBN 978-0-231-11452-3.
  45. ^ "Removal Era", accessed September 8, 2010
  46. ^ "Delaware Town", Missouri State University, accessed September 8, 2010
  47. ^ Weslager, The Delaware Indians, pp. 375, 378–380
  48. ^ Sides, Hampton, Blood and Thunder: An Epic of the American West, Doubleday (2006), pp. 77–80, 94, 101, hardcover, 462 pages, ISBN 978-0-385-50777-6
  49. ^ Page lv of the introduction by Frank McNitt, Simpson, James H, edited and annotated by Frank McNitt, forward by Durwood Ball, Navaho Expedition: Journal of a Military Reconnaissance from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to the Navaho Country, Made in 1849, University of Oklahoma Press (1964), trade paperback (2003), 296 pages, ISBN 0.8061-3570-0
  50. ^ Sides, Blood and Thunder, p. 181
  51. ^ William E. Connelley, A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans, transcribed by Carolyn Ward, Kansas State Library, Genweb, 1998, accessed 12 March 2011.
  52. ^ "BIBLIOGRAPHY DELAWARE INDIANS IN KANSAS 1829–1867. Kansas State Historical Society,Accessed September 2, 2010
  53. ^ 9 Indian Claims Commission 346
  54. ^ 12 Indian Claims Commission 404
  55. ^ Pages 401 to 409. Weslager, The Delaware Indians
  56. ^ a b "Delaware Tribe regains federal recognition" NewsOk. 4 Aug 2009 (retrieved 5 August 2009)
  57. ^ a b c d Carol A. Lipscomb, "DELAWARE INDIANS," 'Handbook of Texas Online [1], accessed July 8, 2012. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
  58. ^ "Delaware Tribe of Indians’ federal recognition restored", Indian Country Today. 7 Aug 2009 (retrieved 11 August 2009)
  59. ^ Findlaw: THE DELAWARE NATION v. COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA 250
  60. ^ "New Jersey Tribes." 500 Nations. Retrieved 22 Jan 2012.
  61. ^ "List of Federal and State Recognized Tribes". National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved 04 May 2013. 
  62. ^ "Petitions for Federal Recognition." 500 Nations. Retrieved 22 Jan 2012.
  63. ^ Lenape Indian Tribe Delaware, Kent County. Lenapeindiantribeofdelaware.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  64. ^ State Recognition for Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape Tribe passes Assembly vote | NJ.com
  65. ^ Williams, Steven. Fantastic Archaeology: The Wild Side of North American Prehistory. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1991.
  66. ^ Vansina 54-55
  67. ^ S. H. Mitchell (1895)
  68. ^ Killbuck, Ohio History Central. July 1, 2005

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]