Lee Morgan

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Lee Morgan
Lee Morgan.jpg
Background information
Birth nameEdward Lee Morgan[1]
Born(1938-07-10)July 10, 1938
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
DiedFebruary 19, 1972(1972-02-19) (aged 33)
New York City, New York, United States
GenresJazz, bebop, hard bop
Occupation(s)Trumpeter, composer
InstrumentsTrumpet, flugelhorn
Years active1956-1972
LabelsBlue Note Records, Vee-Jay Records
Associated actsArt Blakey, John Coltrane, Curtis Fuller, Dizzy Gillespie, Joe Henderson, Andrew Hill, Charles Earland, Art Farmer, Johnny Griffin, Jackie McLean, Hank Mobley, Wayne Shorter, Jimmy Smith, Larry Young, Wynton Kelly, Grachan Moncur III, Clifford Jordan, Benny Golson
 
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Lee Morgan
Lee Morgan.jpg
Background information
Birth nameEdward Lee Morgan[1]
Born(1938-07-10)July 10, 1938
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
DiedFebruary 19, 1972(1972-02-19) (aged 33)
New York City, New York, United States
GenresJazz, bebop, hard bop
Occupation(s)Trumpeter, composer
InstrumentsTrumpet, flugelhorn
Years active1956-1972
LabelsBlue Note Records, Vee-Jay Records
Associated actsArt Blakey, John Coltrane, Curtis Fuller, Dizzy Gillespie, Joe Henderson, Andrew Hill, Charles Earland, Art Farmer, Johnny Griffin, Jackie McLean, Hank Mobley, Wayne Shorter, Jimmy Smith, Larry Young, Wynton Kelly, Grachan Moncur III, Clifford Jordan, Benny Golson

Edward Lee Morgan (July 10, 1938, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – February 19, 1972, New York City) was an American hard bop trumpeter.[2][3]

Biography[edit]

Edward Lee Morgan was born in Philadelphia on July 10, 1938, the youngest of Otto Ricardo and Nettie Beatrice Morgan's four children. A leading trumpeter and composer, he recorded prolifically from 1956 until a day before his death in February 1972. Originally interested in the vibraphone, he soon showed a growing enthusiasm for the trumpet. Morgan also knew how to play the alto saxophone. On his thirteenth birthday, his sister Ernestine gave him his first trumpet. His primary stylistic influence was Clifford Brown, who gave the teenager a few lessons before he joined the Dizzy Gillespie Big Band at 18, and remained a member for a year and a half, until the economic situation forced Dizzy to disband the unit in 1958. He began recording for Blue Note Records in 1956, eventually recording 25 albums as a leader for the company, with more than 250 musicians. He also recorded on the Vee-Jay label and one album for Riverside Records on its short-lived Jazzland subsidiary.

He was a featured sideman on several early Hank Mobley records, as well as on John Coltrane's Blue Train (1957), on which he played a trumpet with an angled bell (given to him by Gillespie) and delivered one of his most celebrated solos on the title track.

Joining Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers in 1958 further developed his talent as a soloist and composer. He toured with Blakey for a few years, and was featured on numerous albums by the Messengers, including Moanin', which is one of the band's best-known recordings. When Benny Golson left the Jazz Messengers, Morgan persuaded Blakey to hire Wayne Shorter, a young tenor saxophonist, to fill the chair. This version of the Jazz Messengers, including pianist Bobby Timmons and bassist Jymie Merritt, recorded the classic The Freedom Rider album. The drug problems of Morgan and Timmons forced them to leave the band in 1961, and the trumpeter returned to Philadelphia, his hometown. According to Tom Perchard, a Morgan biographer, it was Blakey who introduced the trumpeter to heroin, which impeded his progression in his career.

Lee Morgan (1959)

On returning to New York in 1963, he recorded The Sidewinder (1963), which became his greatest commercial success. The title track cracked the pop charts in 1964, and served as the background theme for Chrysler television commercials during the World Series. The tune was used without Morgan's or Blue Note's consent, and intercession by the label's lawyers led to the commercial being withdrawn.[citation needed] Due to the crossover success of "The Sidewinder" in a rapidly changing pop music market, Blue Note encouraged its other artists to emulate the tune's "boogaloo" beat. Morgan himself repeated the formula several times with compositions such as "Cornbread" (from the eponymous album Cornbread) and "Yes I Can, No You Can't" on The Gigolo. According to drummer Billy Hart, Morgan said he had recorded "The Sidewinder" as filler for the album, and was bemused that it had turned into his biggest hit. He felt that his playing was much more advanced on Grachan Moncur III's essentially avant-garde Evolution album, recorded a month earlier, on November 21, 1963.

After this commercial success, Morgan continued to record prolifically, producing such works as Search for the New Land (1964), which reached the top 20 of the R&B charts. He also briefly rejoined the Jazz Messengers after his successor, Freddie Hubbard, joined another group. Together with John Gilmore, this lineup was filmed by the BBC for seminal jazz television program Jazz 625.

As the 60's progressed, he recorded some twenty additional albums as a leader, and continued to record as a sideman on the albums of other artists, including Wayne Shorter's Night Dreamer; Stanley Turrentine's Mr. Natural; Freddie Hubbard's The Night of the Cookers; Hank Mobley's Dippin', A Caddy for Daddy, A Slice of the Top, Straight No Filter; Jackie McLean's Jackknife and Consequence; Joe Henderson's Mode for Joe; McCoy Tyner's Tender Moments; Lonnie Smith's Think and Turning Point; Elvin Jones' The Prime Element; Jack Wilson's Easterly Winds; Reuben Wilson's Love Bug; Larry Young's Mother Ship; Lee Morgan and Clifford Jordan Live in Baltimore 1968; Andrew Hill's Grass Roots; as well as on several albums with Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers.

He became more politically involved in the last two years of his life, becoming one of the leaders of the Jazz and People's Movement. The group demonstrated during the taping of talk and variety shows during 1970-71 to protest the lack of jazz artists as guest performers and members of the programs' bands. His working band during those last years featured reed players Billy Harper or Bennie Maupin, pianist Harold Mabern, bassist Jymie Merritt and drummers Mickey Roker or Freddie Waits. Maupin, Mabern, Merritt and Roker are featured on the well-regarded 3-disc, Live at the Lighthouse, recorded during a two-week engagement at the Hermosa Beach club, California, in July 1970.

Death[edit]

Morgan was killed in the early hours of February 19, 1972, at Slug's Saloon, a jazz club in New York City's East Village where his band was performing.[4] Following an altercation between sets, Morgan's common-law wife Helen More (a.k.a. Morgan), shot him. The injuries were not immediately fatal, but the ambulance service was reluctant to go into the neighborhood where the club was located. They took so long to get there that Morgan bled to death. He was 33 years old.[4] Helen Morgan was arrested and spent some time in prison before being released on parole.[5] After her release, Helen Morgan returned to her native North Carolina and died there from a heart condition in March 1996.

Discography[edit]

TitleYearLabel
Lee Morgan Indeed!1956Blue Note
Introducing Lee Morgan1956Savoy
Lee Morgan Sextet1957Blue Note
Lee Morgan Vol. 31957Blue Note
City Lights1957Blue Note
The Cooker1957Blue Note
Candy1957Blue Note
Here's Lee Morgan1960Vee-Jay
The Young Lions1960Vee-Jay
Expoobident1960Vee-Jay
Lee-Way1960Blue Note
Take Twelve1962Jazzland Records
The Sidewinder1963Blue Note
Search for the New Land1964Blue Note
Tom Cat1964Blue Note
The Rumproller1965Blue Note
The Gigolo1965Blue Note
Cornbread1965Blue Note
Infinity1965Blue Note
Delightfulee Morgan1966Blue Note
Charisma1966Blue Note
The Rajah1966Blue Note
Standards1967Blue Note
Sonic Boom1967Blue Note
The Procrastinator1967Blue Note
The Sixth Sense1967Blue Note
Taru1968Blue Note
Caramba!1968Blue Note
Live at the Lighthouse1970Blue Note
The Last Session1971Blue Note

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ NNDB
  2. ^ Allmusic.com
  3. ^ McMillan, J.S., (2008). DelightfuLee: the life and music of Lee Morgan, University of Michigan Press, p.1
  4. ^ a b Tobler, John (19). NME Rock 'N' Roll Years (1st ed.). London: Reed International Books Ltd. p. 235. CN 5585.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  5. ^ Thomas, Larry Reni. The Lady Who Shot Lee Morgan (1996)[1]

External links[edit]