Lauren Bacall

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Lauren Bacall
Lauren bacall promo photo.jpg
Bacall in the 1940s
BornBetty Joan Perske
(1924-09-16) September 16, 1924 (age 89)
The Bronx, New York, U.S.[1]
OccupationActress, model
Years active1942–present

Humphrey Bogart (m. 1945; wid. 1957)

Jason Robards (m. 1961; div. 1969)
ChildrenStephen Bogart
Leslie Bogart
Sam Robards
RelativesShimon Peres (first cousin)
Jump to: navigation, search
Lauren Bacall
Lauren bacall promo photo.jpg
Bacall in the 1940s
BornBetty Joan Perske
(1924-09-16) September 16, 1924 (age 89)
The Bronx, New York, U.S.[1]
OccupationActress, model
Years active1942–present

Humphrey Bogart (m. 1945; wid. 1957)

Jason Robards (m. 1961; div. 1969)
ChildrenStephen Bogart
Leslie Bogart
Sam Robards
RelativesShimon Peres (first cousin)

Lauren Bacall (/ˌlɔrən bəˈkɔːl/, born Betty Joan Perske; September 16, 1924)[2] is an American film and stage actress and model, known for her distinctive husky voice and sultry looks.

She first emerged as a leading lady in the Humphrey Bogart film To Have and Have Not (1944) and continued on in the film noir genre, with appearances in Bogart movies The Big Sleep (1946), Dark Passage (1947), and Key Largo (1948), as well as comedic roles in How to Marry a Millionaire (1953) with Marilyn Monroe and Designing Woman (1957) with Gregory Peck. Bacall has worked on Broadway in musicals, gaining Tony Awards for Applause in 1970 and Woman of the Year in 1981. Her performance in the movie The Mirror Has Two Faces (1996) earned her a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award nomination.

In 1999, Bacall was ranked #20 of the 25 actresses on the AFI's 100 Years... 100 Stars list by the American Film Institute. In 2009, she was selected by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to receive an Academy Honorary Award "in recognition of her central place in the Golden Age of motion pictures."

Early life[edit]

Born Betty Joan Perske in the Bronx, New York City, she was the only child of Natalie Weinstein-Bacal, a secretary who later legally changed her surname to Bacall, and William Perske, who worked in sales.[3] Bacall's parents were Jewish; her mother immigrated from Romania through Ellis Island, and her father was born in New Jersey, to parents from Poland.[4][5] She is first cousin to Shimon Peres, current President of Israel[6][7] Her parents divorced when she was five, and she took the Romanian form of her mother's last name, Bacall.[8] Bacall no longer saw her father and formed a close bond with her mother, whom she took with her to California when she became a movie star.[9][10]


Howard Hawks and Bacall in 1943

Bacall took lessons at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts. During this time, she became a theatre usher and worked as a fashion model. As Betty Bacall, she made her acting debut, at age 17, on Broadway in 1942, as a walk-on in Johnny 2 X 4. According to her autobiography, she and a girlfriend won an opportunity in 1940 to meet her idol Bette Davis at Davis's hotel. Years later, Davis visited Bacall backstage to congratulate her on her performance in Applause, a musical based on the film All About Eve which had starred Davis. According to Bacall's autobiography, Davis told her "You know you're the only one who can play this role."

Bacall became a part-time fashion model. Howard Hawks' wife Nancy spotted her "in a very small picture in Vogue" (source: interview with Howard Hawks in Peter Bogdanovich's book Who the Devil Made It, p. 327) and urged Hawks to have her take a screen test for To Have and Have Not. Hawks had asked his secretary to find out more about her, but the secretary misunderstood and sent her a ticket to Hollywood (source: interview with Howard Hawks in Peter Bogdanovich's book Who the Devil Made It, p. 327) for the audition. He signed her up to a seven-year personal contract, brought her to Hollywood, gave her $100 a week, and began to manage her career. Hawks changed her name to Lauren Bacall. Nancy Hawks took Bacall under her wing.[11] She dressed the newcomer stylishly, and guided her in matters of elegance, manners and taste. Bacall's voice was trained to be lower, more masculine and sexier, which resulted in one of the most distinctive voices in Hollywood.[12] In the movie, Bacall takes on Nancy's nickname “Slim.”


Bacall in her first movie, To Have and Have Not; Hoagy Carmichael is in the background playing the piano

During screen tests for To Have and Have Not (1944), Bacall was nervous. To minimize her quivering, she pressed her chin against her chest and to face the camera, tilted her eyes upward.[13] This effect became known as "The Look", Bacall's trademark.[14]

On the set, Humphrey Bogart, who was married to Mayo Methot, initiated a relationship with Bacall several weeks into shooting and they began seeing each other.

On a visit to the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. on February 10, 1945, Bacall's press agent, chief of publicity at Warner Bros. Charlie Enfield, asked the 20-year-old Bacall to sit on the piano which was being played by Vice-President of the United States Harry S. Truman. The photos caused controversy and made worldwide headlines.

Bacall and Bogart in Dark Passage

After To Have and Have Not, Bacall was seen opposite Charles Boyer in the critically panned Confidential Agent (1945).[15] Bacall would state in her autobiography that her career never fully recovered from this film, and that studio boss Jack Warner did not care about quality. She then appeared with Bogart in the films noir The Big Sleep (1946) and Dark Passage (1947) and John Huston's melodramatic suspense film Key Largo (1948) with Bogart and Edward G. Robinson. She was cast with Gary Cooper in the period drama Bright Leaf (1950).


Bacall turned down scripts she did not find interesting and thereby earned a reputation for being difficult. Yet, for her leads in a string of films, she received favorable reviews. In Young Man with a Horn (1950), co-starring Kirk Douglas, Doris Day, and Hoagy Carmichael, Bacall played a two-faced femme fatale. This movie is often considered the first big-budget jazz film.[16]

During 1951-52, Bacall co-starred with Bogart in the syndicated action-adventure radio series Bold Venture.

In 1953, Bacall starred in the CinemaScope comedy How to Marry a Millionaire, a runaway hit that saw her teaming up with Marilyn Monroe and Betty Grable.[17] Billed third under Monroe and Grable, Bacall got positive notices for her turn as the witty gold-digger, Schatze Page.[18] According to her autobiography, Bacall refused the coveted invitation from Grauman's Chinese Theatre to press her hand- and footprints in the theatre's cemented forecourt at the Los Angeles premiere of the film.

Bacall, Bogart and Henry Fonda in the television version of The Petrified Forest

In 1955, a live television version of Bogart's own breakthrough, The Petrified Forest, was performed as a live installment of Producers' Showcase, a weekly dramatic anthology, featuring Bogart (now top-billed) as Duke Mantee, Henry Fonda as Alan, and Bacall as Gabrielle, the part originally played in the 1936 movie by Bette Davis. Jack Klugman, Richard Jaeckel, and Jack Warden played supporting roles. Bogart had no problem performing his role live since he had originally played the part on Broadway with the subsequent movie's star Leslie Howard, who had secured a film career for Bogart by insisting that Warner Bros. cast him in the movie instead of Edward G. Robinson; Bogart and Bacall named their daughter "Leslie Howard Bogart" in gratitude. In the late 1990s, Bacall donated the only known kinescope of the 1955 performance to The Museum Of Television & Radio (now the Paley Center for Media), where it remains archived for viewing in New York City and Los Angeles.

Written on the Wind, directed by Douglas Sirk in 1956, is now considered a classic tear-jerker.[19] Appearing with Rock Hudson, Dorothy Malone and Robert Stack, Bacall played a career woman whose life is unexpectedly turned around by a family of oil magnates. Bacall states in her autobiography that she did not think much of the role. While struggling at home with Bogart's severe illness (cancer of the esophagus), Bacall starred with Gregory Peck in the screwball comedy Designing Woman and gained rave reviews.[20] It was directed by Vincente Minnelli and released in New York City on May 16, 1957, four months after Bogart succumbed to cancer on January 14.

Bacall was seen in two more films in the 1950s; the Jean Negulesco-directed melodrama The Gift of Love (1958), in which her co star was Robert Stack, and the adventure film North West Frontier (1959), which was an immediate box office hit. [21]

1960s and 1970s[edit]

Bacall's movie career waned in the 1960s, and she was seen in only a handful of films. On Broadway she starred in Goodbye, Charlie (1959), Cactus Flower (1965), Applause (1970) and Woman of the Year (1981). She won Tony Awards for her performances in the latter two. The few movies Bacall shot during this period were all-star vehicles such as Sex and the Single Girl (1964) with Henry Fonda, Tony Curtis and Natalie Wood, Harper (1966) with Paul Newman, Shelley Winters, Julie Harris, Robert Wagner and Janet Leigh, and Murder on the Orient Express (1974), with Ingrid Bergman, Albert Finney and Sean Connery. In 1964, she appeared in two acclaimed episodes of Craig Stevens's CBS drama, Mr. Broadway: first in "Take a Walk Through a Cemetery", with then husband Jason Robards, Jr. and Jill St. John, and then as Barbara Lake in "Something to Sing About", with Martin Balsam as Nate Bannerman.

For her work in the Chicago theatre, Bacall won the Sarah Siddons Award in 1972 and again in 1984. In 1976, she co-starred with John Wayne in his last picture, The Shootist. The two became friends, despite significant political differences between them. They had previously been cast together in 1955's Blood Alley.

Later career[edit]

During the 1980s, Bacall appeared in the poorly received star vehicle The Fan (1981), as well as some star-studded features such as Robert Altman's Health (1980) and Michael Winner's Appointment with Death (1988). In 1990, she had a cameo in Rob Reiner's Misery.

In 1997, Bacall was nominated for a Best Supporting Actress Academy Award for her role in The Mirror Has Two Faces (1996), her first nomination after a career span of more than fifty years. She had already won a Golden Globe and was widely expected to win the Oscar, but it went instead to Juliette Binoche for The English Patient.

Bacall received the Kennedy Center Honors in 1997. In 1999, she was voted one of the 25 most significant female movie stars in history by the American Film Institute. Her movie career saw something of a renaissance and she attracted respectful notices for her performances in high-profile projects such as Dogville (2003) and Birth (2004), both with Nicole Kidman. She was also one of the leading actors in Paul Schrader's 2007 movie The Walker.

Her commercial ventures in the 2000s included being a spokesperson for the Tuesday Morning discount chain (commercials showed her in a limousine waiting for the store to open at the beginning of one of their sales events) and producing a jewelry line with the Weinman Brothers company. She previously was a celebrity spokesperson for High Point (coffee) and Fancy Feast cat food.

In March 2006, Bacall was seen at the 78th Annual Academy Awards introducing a film montage dedicated to film noir. She also made a cameo appearance as herself on The Sopranos, in the April 2006 episode, "Luxury Lounge", during which she was punched and robbed by a masked hoodlum played by Michael Imperioli.

In September 2006, Bacall was awarded the first Katharine Hepburn Medal, which recognizes "women whose lives, work and contributions embody the intelligence, drive and independence of the four-time-Oscar-winning actress", by Bryn Mawr College's Katharine Houghton Hepburn Center.[22] She gave an address at the memorial service of Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr at the Reform Club in London in June 2007.

By 2009, she had finished her role as Annemarie Cole opposite Josh Hutcherson, Hayden Panettiere and Alfred Molina in The Forger.[23]

Bacall was selected by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to receive an Honorary Academy Award. The award was presented at the inaugural Governors Awards on November 14, 2009.[24]

In July 2013, Bacall expressed interest to star in the film Trouble Is My Business.[25] In November, it was announced that she had joined the English dub voice cast for Studio Canal's animated film Ernest & Celestine[26] She will also guest star on the twelfth season of Family Guy episode "Mom's the Word".[27]

Personal life[edit]

Relationships and family[edit]

Lauren Bacall (1989)

On May 21, 1945, Bacall married actor Humphrey Bogart. Their wedding and honeymoon took place at Malabar Farm, Lucas, Ohio. It was the country home of Pulitzer Prize-winning author Louis Bromfield, a close friend of Bogart. The wedding was held in the Big House. Bacall was 20 and Bogart was 45. They remained married until Bogart's death from esophageal cancer in 1957. During the filming of The African Queen (1951), Bacall and Bogart became friends of Bogart's co-star Katharine Hepburn and her partner Spencer Tracy. Bacall also began to mix in non-acting circles, becoming friends with the historian Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. and the journalist Alistair Cooke. In 1952, she gave campaign speeches for Democratic Presidential contender Adlai Stevenson. Along with other Hollywood figures, Bacall was a staunch opponent of McCarthyism.

Shortly after Bogart's death in 1957, Bacall had a relationship with singer and actor Frank Sinatra. She told Robert Osborne, of Turner Classic Movies (TCM), in an interview, that she had ended the romance. However, in her autobiography, she wrote that Sinatra abruptly ended the relationship, having become angry that the story of his proposal to Bacall had reached the press. Bacall and her friend Swifty Lazar had run into the gossip columnist Louella Parsons, to whom Lazar had spilled the beans. Sinatra then cut Bacall off and went to Las Vegas.

Bacall was married to actor Jason Robards, Jr. from 1961 to 1969. According to Bacall's autobiography, she divorced Robards mainly because of his alcoholism.[28] In her autobiography Now, she recalls having a relationship with Len Cariou, her co-star in Applause.

Bacall had a son and daughter with Bogart and a son with Robards. Her children with Bogart are her son Stephen Humphrey Bogart (born January 6, 1949), a news producer, documentary film maker and author; and her daughter Leslie Bogart (born August 23, 1952), a yoga instructor. Sam Robards (born December 16, 1961), her son with Robards, is an actor.

Bacall is the only Academy Award winner to have been married to two other winners (Bogart, Robards).

Bacall has written two autobiographies, Lauren Bacall By Myself (1978) and Now (1994). In 2005, the first volume was updated with an extra chapter: "By Myself and Then Some".

Political views[edit]

Bacall sits atop the piano while Vice President Harry S Truman plays the piano at the National Press Club Canteen. (February 10, 1945)

Bacall is a staunch liberal Democrat. She has proclaimed her political views on numerous occasions.

In October 1947, Bacall and Bogart traveled to Washington, D.C., along with other Hollywood stars, in a group that called itself the Committee for the First Amendment (CFA). She subsequently appeared alongside Humphrey Bogart in a photograph printed at the end of an article he wrote, titled "I'm No Communist", in the May 1948 edition of Photoplay magazine,[29] written to counteract negative publicity resulting from his appearance before the House Un-American Activities Committee. Bogart and Bacall specifically distanced themselves from the Hollywood Ten and were quoted as saying: "We're about as much in favor of Communism as J. Edgar Hoover."

She campaigned for Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson in the 1952 Presidential election and for Robert Kennedy in his 1964 run for Senate.

In a 2005 interview with Larry King, Bacall described herself as "anti-Republican... A liberal. The L-word." She went on to say that "being a liberal is the best thing on earth you can be. You are welcoming to everyone when you're a liberal. You do not have a small mind."[30]


In 1980, Kathryn Harrold played Bacall in the TV movie Bogie, which was directed by Vincent Sherman and based on the novel by Joe Hyams. Kevin O'Connor played Bogart. The movie focused primarily upon the disintegration of Bogart's third marriage to Mayo Methot, played by Ann Wedgeworth, when Bogart met Bacall and began an affair with her.

Bacall is a character in the Charles Mee one-act play Hotel Cassiopeia.

Awards and nominations[edit]


In 1991, Bacall was honored with star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1724 Vine Street. In 1997, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs, California, Walk of Stars was dedicated to her.[35] In 1998, Bacall was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame.[36]

In popular culture[edit]

In music[edit]

In cartoons[edit]




1944To Have and Have NotMarie 'Slim' BrowningDebut as not only an actress but also a singer; though Andy Williams, as a teenager, had recorded the songs she sang in the film, his recordings were never used.
1945Confidential AgentRose CullenWith Charles Boyer and Peter Lorre
1946Big Sleep, TheThe Big SleepVivian Sternwood RutledgeWith Humphrey Bogart
1946Two Guys from MilwaukeeHerselfuncredited cameo
1947Dark PassageIrene JansenWith Humphrey Bogart
1948Key LargoNora TempleWith Humphrey Bogart, Edward G. Robinson and Lionel Barrymore
1950Young Man with a HornAmy NorthWith Kirk Douglas, Doris Day and Hoagy Carmichael
1950Bright LeafSonia KovacWith Gary Cooper and Patricia Neal
1953How to Marry a MillionaireSchatze PageWith Marilyn Monroe and Betty Grable
1954Woman's WorldElizabeth BurnsWith Clifton Webb, Van Heflin and Fred MacMurray
1955Cobweb, TheThe CobwebMeg Faversen RinehartWith Richard Widmark, Charles Boyer and Gloria Grahame
1955Blood AlleyCathy GraingerWith John Wayne
1956PatternsLobby lady near elevatorsuncredited
1956Written on the WindLucy Moore HadleyWith Rock Hudson and Dorothy Malone
1957Designing WomanMarilla Brown HagenGolden Laurel Award for Top Female Comedy Performance (third place)
1958The Gift of LoveJulie Beck
1959North West FrontierCatherine Wyatt
1964Shock TreatmentDr. Edwina BeighleyWith Stuart Whitman
1964Sex and the Single GirlSylvia BroderickWith Tony Curtis, Natalie Wood and Henry Fonda
1966HarperElaine SampsonWith Paul Newman
1973ApplauseMargo ChanningReprised the role in All About Eve that Bette Davis had originated in the original film.
1974Murder on the Orient ExpressMrs. Harriet Belinda Hubbard
1976Shootist, TheThe ShootistBond RogersNominated—BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role
1978Perfect GentlemanMrs. Lizzie Martin
1980HealthEsther BrillWith James Garner
1981Fan, TheThe FanSally RossWith James Garner
1988Appointment with DeathLady Westholme
1988Mr. NorthMrs. Cranston
1989John Huston: The Man, the Movies, the Maverickdocumentary
1989Tree of Hands, TheThe Tree of HandsMarsha Archdale
1989Dinner at EightCarlotta Vance
1990MiseryMarcia Sindell
1991A Star for Two
1991All I Want for ChristmasLillian Brooks
1993The PortraitFanny Church
1993Parallax Garden, TheThe Parallax Garden
1993Foreign Field, AA Foreign FieldLisa
1994Prêt-à-Porter: Ready to WearSlim ChryslerNational Board of Review Award for Best Cast
1995From the Mixed-Up Files of Mrs. Basil E. FrankweilerMrs. Basil E. Frankweiler
1996Mirror Has Two Faces, TheThe Mirror Has Two FacesHannah MorganGolden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture
San Diego Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actress
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated—BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role
Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actress - Motion Picture
1996My Fellow AmericansMargaret KramerWith Jack Lemmon and James Garner
1997Day and NightSonia
1999Get Brucedocumentary
1999Too Rich: The Secret Life of Doris DukeDoris Duke (elderly)
1999Madeline: Lost in ParisMadame Lacroquevoice
1999Venice Project, TheThe Venice ProjectCountess Camilla Volta
1999Presence of MindMado Remei
1999Conversation with Gregory Peck, AA Conversation with Gregory Peckdocumentary
2003Limit, TheThe Limit (aka. Gone Dark)May Markham
2003DogvilleMa Ginger
2004Howl's Moving CastleWitch of the Wastevoice
2006These Foolish ThingsDame Lydia
2007Walker, TheThe WalkerNatalie Van Miter
2008Scooby-Doo and the Goblin KingThe Grand Witchvoice
2010Wide Blue Yonder [45]May
2012The ForgerAnnemarie Sterling
2013Trouble Is My BusinessEvelyn Montemar (rumored)
2014Ernest & CelestineThe Grey One's voice

Short subjects[edit]

Stage appearances[edit]

Television work[edit]



See also[edit]


  1. ^ This was the 1980 award for hardcover Autobiography.
    From 1980 to 1983 in National Book Award history there were dual hardcover and paperback awards in most categories, and multiple nonfiction subcategories. Most of the paperback award-winners were reprints, including the 1980 Autobiography.


  1. ^ Tyrnauer, Matt (2011-03-10). "To Have and Have Not". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2011-10-15. 
  2. ^ "American Actress Lauren Bacall celebrated 88th Birthday today". MeetHollywoodStars. Retrieved 7 July 2013. 
  3. ^ Lauren Bacall Biography.
  4. ^ Bacall, Lauren (March 1, 2005). By Myself and Then Some. It Books. ISBN 0060755350. 
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Lazaroff, Tovah (2005-11-10). "Peres: Not such a bad record after all". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  7. ^ Weiner, Eric (2007-06-13). "Shimon Peres Wears Hats of Peacemaker, Schemer". National Public Radio. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  8. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey (1997), Bogart: A Life in Hollywood. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-77399-4. p. 164.
  9. ^ Cantrell, Susan (2009-07-19). "Lauren Bacall on Life, Acting, and Bogie". Carmel Magazine. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  10. ^ Wickware, Francis Sill (May 7, 1945). Profile of Lauren Bacall 18. LIFE Magazine. pp. 100–106. ISSN 0024-3019. 
  11. ^ A. . Sperber and Eric Lax (1997), Bogart. William Morrow & Co. ISBN 0-688-07539-8, ISBN 978-0-688-07539-2. Page 246.
  12. ^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 245.
  13. ^
  14. ^ The Official Website of Lauren Bacall – "The Look".
  15. ^ External reviews: Confidential Agent (1945). – IMDb.
  16. ^ Trivia: Young Man with a Horn (1950). – IMDB.
  17. ^ Box office – Business: How to Marry a Millionaire (1953). – IMDb.
  18. ^ Movie Reviews: How to Marry a Millionaire. – Rotten Tomatoes.
  19. ^ Written on the Wind (1956) –
  20. ^ Designing Woman @ Rotten
  21. ^ FOUR BRITISH FILMS IN 'TOP 6': BOULTING COMEDY HEADS BOX OFFICE LIST Our own Reporter. The Guardian (1959–2003) [London (UK)] 11 December 1959: 4.
  22. ^ Bryn Mawr College – Katharine Houghton Hepburn Center.
  23. ^ McNary, Dave (1 February 2009). "Hutcherson rounds out 'Carmel' cast". Variety. Retrieved 2013. 
  24. ^ "Bacall, Calley, Corman and Willis to Receive Academy’s Governors Awards". Press release – Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences. September 10, 2009.
  25. ^ "Trouble Is My Business". July 2013.
  26. ^ Keslassy, Elsa (November 8, 2013). "Ernest & Celestine: Toon Taps Lauren Bacall, Paul Giamatti, William H. Macy (Exclusive)". Variety. Retrieved 2013. 
  27. ^ Lauren Bacall to guest star on Family Guy
  28. ^ Bacall, Lauren. (2006). By Myself and Then Some. p. 377. HarperCollins, New York, New York. ISBN 978-0-06-112791-5.
  29. ^ Humphrey Bogart: "I'm no communist," Photoplay, March 1948.
  30. ^ Interview with Lauren Bacall.
  31. ^ "National Book Awards – 1980". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
  32. ^ "Lauren Bacall Receives George Eastman Award". The New York Times (The New York Times). 1990-11-10. Retrieved 2010-10-25. 
  33. ^ "Berlinale: 1997 Prize Winners". Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  34. ^ Mark Shanahan & Paysha Rhone (2008-09-19). "Bringing together big-screen royalty". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2008-09-19. 
  35. ^ Palm Springs Walk of Stars by date dedicated
  36. ^ Notes for Lauren Bacall
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^ Bacall To Arms (1946)
  44. ^ "Slick Hare 1947". TCM Classic Film Union. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  45. ^ [2]
  46. ^ Mitovich, Matt (April 24, 2009). "Wonder Pets Returns with One of Kitt's Final Performances". Retrieved November 5, 2009. 

External links[edit]