It is also known by the brand name of Xalatan manufactured by Pfizer. Annual sales are approximately $1.6 billion. The patent for latanoprost expired in March 2011, and at least one generic version (manufactured by Mylan Inc.) is now widely available in the U.S. The Veterans Health Administration, part of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, uses generic Latanoprost manufactured by Alcon Laboratories of Fort Worth, Texas distributed by Novartis generic brand Sandoz Pharmaceuticals.
Latanoprost was invented by Johan W. Stjernschantz and Bahram Resul, employees of the Pharmacia Corporation of Uppsala, Sweden.
In well-controlled clinical trials including patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (IOP ≥21 mm Hg), monotherapy with latanoprost reduced IOP levels by 22 to 39% over 1 to 12 months’ treatment. Latanoprost was significantly more effective than timolol 0.5% twice daily in 3 of 4 large (n = 163 to 267) randomised, double-blind trials. Latanoprost demonstrated a stable long-term IOP-lowering effect in 1- or 2-year continuations of these trials, with no sign of diminishing effect during prolonged treatment.
Meta analysis suggests that latanoprost is more effective than timolol in lowering IOP. However, it often causes iris pigmentation. While current evidence suggests that this pigmentation is benign, careful lifetime evaluation of patients is still justified.
Patients who had elevated IOP despite iridotomy and/or iridectomy (including patients of Asian descent), latanoprost was significantly more effective than timolol in two double-blind, monotherapy trials (8.2 and 8.8 mm Hg vs 5.2 and 5.7 mm Hg for latanoprost vs timolol at 12 and 2 weeks, respectively).
Method of administration
One drop in the affected eye(s) once daily in the evening; do not exceed the once daily dosage because it has been shown that more frequent administration may decrease the intraocular-pressure (IOP) lowering effect
Listed from most to least common:
>5% to 15%: Blurred vision, burning and stinging, conjunctival hyperemia, foreign body sensation, itching, increased pigmentation of the iris causing (heterochromia), punctate epithelial keratopathy
4%: Cold or upper respiratory tract infections, flu-like syndrome
1-4%: Dry eyes, excessive tearing, eye pain, lid crusting, lid edema, lid erythema (hyperemia), lid pain, photophobia (light intolerance)
1 % - 2%: Chest pain, allergic skin reactions, arthralgia, back pain, myalgia, thickening of the eyelashes.(used,also bimatoprost,in cosmetic industry as eyelash growth enhancers)
<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Asthma, herpes keratitis, iritis, keratitis, retinal artery embolus, retinal detachment, toxic epidermal necrolysis, uveitis, vitreous hemorrhage from diabetic retinopathy
Bacterial keratitis: Inadvertent contamination of multiple-dose ophthalmic solutions, has caused bacterial keratitis.
Ocular effects: May permanently change/increase brown pigmentation of the iris, the eyelid skin, and eyelashes. In addition, may increase the length and/or number of eyelashes (may vary between eyes); changes occur slowly and may not be noticeable for months or years. Long-term consequences and potential injury to eye are not known.
Ocular disease: Use with caution in patients with intraocular inflammation, aphakic patients, pseudophakic patients with a torn posterior lens capsule, or patients with risk factors for macular edema. Safety and efficacy have not been determined for use in patients with angle-closure-, inflammatory-, or neovascular glaucoma.
Contact lens wearers: Contains benzalkonium chloride which may be absorbed by contact lenses; remove contacts prior to administration and wait 15 minutes before reinserting
Hypersensitivity to latanoprost, benzalkonium chloride, or any component of the formulation
Bimatoprost: The concomitant use of Latanoprost and Bimatoprost may result in increased intraocular pressure. Risk D: Consider therapy modification
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Prostaglandins (Ophthalmic). Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may also enhance the therapeutic effects of Prostaglandins (Ophthalmic). Risk C: Monitor therapy
Prescription of Latanoprost is limited in human studies due to high incidence of abortion shown in animal experiments. Because of this, Latanoprost is classified as Risk factor C (Adverse events were observed in animal reproduction studies at maternally toxic doses)according to United States Food and Drug Administration's use-in-pregnancy ratings. Lactation Excretion in breast milk unknown/use caution. Breast-Feeding Considerations It is not known if latanoprost is excreted in breast milk. The manufacturer recommends that caution be exercised when administering latanoprost to nursing women.
Latanoprost is a substance exhibiting thermal and solar instability. Concentration of latanoprost will decrease by 10% when stored at 50 and 70 degrees Celsius every 8.25 and 1.32 days respectively. Reaction with ultraviolet radiation will cause rapid degradation of Latanoprost. It is therefor important to store Latanoprost ideally in temperature below room temperature and free from sunlight in order to attain acceptable drug quality. 
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^ abcPatel SS, Spencer CM (1996). "Latanoprost. A review of its pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy and tolerability in the management of primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension". Drugs Aging9 (5): 363–378. doi:10.2165/00002512-199609050-00007. PMID8922563.
^Aung T; Wong HT; Yip CC; et al. (2000). "Comparison of the intraocular pressure-lowering effect of latanoprost and timolol in patients with chronic angle closure glaucoma: a preliminary study.". Ophthalmology107 (6): 1178–83. doi:10.1016/s0161-6420(00)00073-7. PMID10857840.
^Amano S, Nakai Y, Ko A, Inoue K, Wakakura M (2008). "A case of keratoconus progression associated with the use of topical latanoprost". Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology52 (4): 334–6. doi:10.1007/s10384-008-0554-6. PMID18773275.
^De Santis, M., Lucchese, A., Carducci, B., Cavaliere, A., De Santis, L., & Merola, A. et al. (2004). Latanoprost exposure in pregnancy. American Journal Of Ophthalmology, 138(2), 305.pmid=15289149.1
^Morgan, P., Proniuk, S., Blanchard, J., & Noecker, R. (2001). Effect of temperature and light on the stability of latanoprost and its clinical relevance. Journal Of Glaucoma, 10(5), 401--405.