Larry Norman

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Larry Norman
Larry Norman.jpg
Larry Norman in Ohio, October 2001
Background information
Birth nameLarry David Norman
Born(1947-04-08)April 8, 1947
Corpus Christi, Texas, United States
OriginSan Jose, California, US
DiedFebruary 24, 2008(2008-02-24) (aged 60)
Salem, Oregon,
United States
GenresRock, folk rock, Jesus music
Years active1966–2007
LabelsCapitol, MGM/Verve, Solid Rock, Phydeaux
Websitelarrynorman.com
 
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Larry Norman
Larry Norman.jpg
Larry Norman in Ohio, October 2001
Background information
Birth nameLarry David Norman
Born(1947-04-08)April 8, 1947
Corpus Christi, Texas, United States
OriginSan Jose, California, US
DiedFebruary 24, 2008(2008-02-24) (aged 60)
Salem, Oregon,
United States
GenresRock, folk rock, Jesus music
Years active1966–2007
LabelsCapitol, MGM/Verve, Solid Rock, Phydeaux
Websitelarrynorman.com

Larry David Norman (April 8, 1947 – February 24, 2008[1][2]) was an American musician, singer, songwriter, record label owner, and record producer. He was considered to be one of the pioneers of Christian rock music,[3][4] and released more than 100 albums.

Early life[edit]

Larry Norman was born in Corpus Christi, Texas,[5] the oldest son of Joe Hendrex "Joe Billy" Norman (December 9, 1923 – April 28, 1999),[6] and his wife, Margaret Evelyn "Marge" Stout (born in 1925 in Nebraska).[7][8] Joe Norman had served as a sergeant in the US Army Air Corps during World War II[9] and worked at the Southern Pacific Railroad[10] while studying to become a teacher.[11] After Norman's birth, the family joined the Southern Baptist church.[12] In 1950 the family moved to San Francisco, where they attended a Black American Pentecostal church and then a Baptist church, where Norman became a Christian at the age of five.[13][14][15][16][17][18] In 1959, Norman performed on the syndicated television show The Original Amateur Hour.[19]

In 1960, Norman's father began teaching in San José, California; the family lived in nearby Campbell.[20] Norman graduated from Campbell High School in 1965[21][22][23] and won an academic scholarship to major in English at San Jose State College.[24] After one semester, Norman "flunked out of college and lost [his] scholarship".[25]

Although Norman was able to play a variety of musical instruments, he never learned to read or write music.[26]

Career[edit]

Early bands[edit]

While still in high school, Norman formed a group called The Back Country Seven, which included his sister Nancy Jo and friend Gene M. Mason.[20] After graduating, Norman continued performing and opened at local concerts for The Doors and Jimi Hendrix.[4][27]

In 1966 Norman opened a concert for People! at the Asilomar Conference Grounds in Pacific Grove, California. He later became the band's principal songwriter, sharing lead vocals with his Back Country Seven bandmate Gene M. Mason.[28] People! performed about 200 concerts a year,[29] appearing with Van Morrison and Them, The Animals, The Dave Clark Five, Paul Revere & the Raiders, The Doors, The Who, Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, Moby Grape, and San Jose bands Syndicate of Sound and Count Five.[18][30][31][32] The band's cover of The Zombies' "I Love You" became a hit single, selling over one million copies and reaching No. 1 in several markets.[33] Norman left People! before Capitol released the band's first album in the summer of 1967, but reunited with Mason for concerts in 1980 and 2006.[30] According to rock historian Walter Rasmussen, Pete Townshend once said that The Who's 1969 album Tommy was inspired by the rock opera "Epic" by People!;[34][35] however, Townshend has since denied the connection.[29][36]

Hollywood street ministry[edit]

Soon after Norman left People!, he had "a powerful spiritual encounter that threw him into a frenzy of indecision about his life [and] for the first time in his life, he received what he understood to be the Holy Spirit".[37]

In July 1968, following a job offer to write musicals for Capitol Records, Norman moved to Los Angeles, where he "spent time sharing the gospel on the streets".[38][39] As he described in 2006: "I walked up and down Hollywood Boulevard several times a day...witnessing to businessmen and hippies, and to whomever the Spirit led me. I spent all of my Capitol Records' royalties starting a halfway house and buying clothes and food for new converts."[18][40][41] He was initially associated with the First Presbyterian Church of Hollywood,[42] and its Salt Company coffee shop outreach ministry,[40][43] where he explored and pioneered the rock-gospel genre.[41][44]

Musical theater[edit]

In 1968 Norman wrote several songs for the rock musicals Alison and Birthday for Shakespeare, both of which were performed in Los Angeles.[45][46][47][48][49][50]

The next year, Norman and his friend Teddy Neeley auditioned for the Los Angeles production of the rock musical Hair and were offered the roles of George Berger and Claude Bukowski, respectively; Neeley accepted, but Norman rejected the role of George, despite his own financial struggles, because "of its glorification of drugs and free sex as the answers to today's problems".[51][52] Also in 1969, Norman wrote a musical called Love on Haight Street and a rock opera called Lion's Breath, which led Capitol to re-sign Norman to record an album, with the promise of complete creative control.[53][54][55]

Recording career[edit]

The Simpsons parody comic of Larry Norman

In 1969, Capitol Records released Norman's first solo album, Upon This Rock, now considered to be "the first full-blown Christian rock album".[51][56] Norman was denounced by various television evangelists,[57][58][59] and Capitol deemed the album a "commercial flop" and dropped Norman from the label.[60] However, his music gained a large following in the emerging countercultural movements.[61] Sales of the album rose following its distribution in Christian bookstores.[62]

By the early 1970s, Norman was performing frequently for large audiences, and appeared at several Christian music festivals,[43][60][63][64][65][66][67] including Explo '72, a six-day Dallas, Texas, event which has been called the "Jesus Woodstock."[68] Norman established a half-way house where he "housed and fed various groups of people, supervised their Bible studies and drove them to church on Fridays and Sundays".[69] He earned $80 per month from Capitol for polishing and refining songs for Capitol artists.[69] In 1970, Norman established the "underground experimental" label One Way Records.

In 1971, Norman first visited England, where he lived and worked for several years.[15] He recorded two studio albums, Only Visiting This Planet and So Long Ago the Garden, in George Martin's London AIR Studios.[70] Released in 1972, Visiting "was meant to reach the flower children disillusioned by the government and the church" with its "abrasive, urban reality of the gospel", and has often been ranked as Norman's best album.[38] The release of Garden in November 1973 was met with controversy in the Christian press, due to the album's cover art and some songs in which Norman took the persona of a backslider.[56][71][72] [73]

In 1974, Norman founded Solid Rock Records to produce records for Christian artists "who didn't want to be consumed by the business of making vinyl pancakes but who wanted to make something 'non-commercial' to the world".[72][74][75][76] Norman produced music on the label for artists including Randy Stonehill, Mark Heard, Tom Howard,[77] and David Edwards.[78] Norman also produced artists who were signed to other labels, including Malcolm and Alwyn, Bobby Emmons and the Crosstones, Lyrix, and James Sundquist.[79][80] Norman signed a deal with ABC Records to distribute Solid Rock's releases, but was later moved to ABC subsidiary Word Records.[16][81] In the same year, Norman founded the Christian artist booking agency Street Level Artists Agency.[72][82][83][84]

In Another Land, the third album in Norman's trilogy and the best-selling album of his career, was released in 1976 by Solid Rock and distributed through Word.[85][86] Soon afterward, Norman recorded the blues-rock concept album Something New under the Son, but it would not be released until 1981.[56][87][88][89] Following clashes with Word over Something New and several other projects, Norman started Street Level Records in 1978, as an alternative label to release his albums.[90]

In 1978, Norman was injured during a plane landing at Los Angeles International Airport.[16][90] Norman claimed to have suffered mild brain damage due to being hit by parts of the cabin's roof, and that this damage left him unable to complete projects and focus artistically.[16][84][91] William Ayers wrote in 1991: "As family, friends and fans watched, his life spiraled downward. He was unable to record a bonafide album from the time of his airplane accident in 1978 until ... he attempted to release the badly produced Home At Last [recorded in 1986]. He never expected to be healed."[92]

In September 1979, Norman performed his "The Great American Novel", "a Dylanesque protest song", for U.S. president Jimmy Carter and about 1,000 guests at the Old Fashioned Gospel Singin' concert held on the south lawn of the White House.[93]

Following a prolonged dispute with Solid Rock artist Daniel Amos, which ended in estrangement,[94][95] Solid Rock's business manager and several Solid Rock musicians organized an intervention with Norman in June 1980, which led him to begin closing the company.[84][96][97][98][99] Religious history professor Randall Ballmer attributed the company's demise to "idealism, marital difficulties, and financial naivete -- as well as changing musical tastes."[100]

In late 1980, Norman moved to England and, with his father, founded Phydeaux Records, a company designed to compete with the bootleg market by selling rarities from Norman's own archives.[90][91][101][102][103][104] He signed a distribution deal with British label Chapel Lane and released several albums before returning to the United States in 1985.[101][105][106][107][108][109][110][111] Norman then began work on an anthology project celebrating his career in Christian music, beginning with the album White Blossoms from Black Roots: The History and the Chronology: Volume One;[112][113] however, the project collapsed when the head of the distribution company was arrested for check forgery and the company's merchandise was seized by the FBI.[112][114]

Norman signed to Benson Records in 1986 and recorded the album Home At Last, although the album was not released until 1989 due to legal problems.[115][116] Despite extensive promotion, the album was negatively reviewed, and Norman himself later dismissed the album as "just a collection of tapes I had", although he said separately that he was "extremely happy" with the level of support he'd received from Benson.[91][117][118] In 1989, Norman received the Christian Artists' Society Lifetime Achievement Award.[92][119]

While visiting another musician at the close of a February 1991 tour, Norman received prayer for his long-term health problems from a pastor of London's Elim Way Fellowship.[15][120] Norman maintained that through this prayer God repaired the damage to his brain and he was able to function again.[15][16] That year, he collaborated with his brother Charles on the album Stranded in Babylon, hailed by both critics and fans as one of his best.[16][121][122][123][124] They would reunite for the 2001 album Tourniquet.[125][126]

Norman continued to perform and release albums throughout his later years in order to raise funds for medical expenses stemming from heart problems.[127][128] He gave his last official concert on August 4, 2007, in New York City.

Relationship with the church and CCM industry[edit]

Throughout his career, Norman had a contentious relationship with the wider Christian church and with the Christian music industry. He wrote in September 2007, "I love God and I follow Jesus but I just don't have much affinity for the organized folderol of the churches in the Western World."[129] Norman's music addressed a wide range of social issues, such as politics, free love, the occult, the passive commercialism of wartime journalists, and religious hypocrisy, that were outside the scope of his contemporaries.[130] Defending the confrontational approach of his music, Norman said, "My primary emphasis is not to entertain. But if your art is boring, people will reject your message as well as your art."[131] In the 1980s, he complained that Christian music generally meant "sloppy thinking, dishonest metaphors and bad poetry," and that he had "never been able to get over the shock of how bad the lyrics are."[132]

Norman disapproved of Christian musicians who were unwilling to play in secular venues or to "preach" between songs.[133] He also criticized what he saw as the "commercialization of Christian music in America",[132] including the role of copyrights and licensing.[39]

Influence[edit]

In 2008, Christian rock historian John J. Thompson wrote, "It is certainly no overstatement to say that Larry Norman is to Christian music what John Lennon is to rock & roll or Bob Dylan is to folk music."[134] Thompson credited Norman for his impact on the genre as a musician, a producer, and a businessman.[56] Christian artists who have cited Norman as an influence include Paul Colman,[135] Steve Camp,[136] Carolyn Arends,[137] Bob Hartman,[138] TobyMac,[139] Mark Salomon,[140] Martyn Joseph,[63] and Steve Scott.[141] Black Francis of the Pixies is also a fan of Norman's work.[3][142][143][144] Over 300 artists have covered songs by Norman.[145]

Awards and honors[edit]

Family[edit]

Norman married actress and model Pamela Fay Ahlquist in December 1971.[152][153] They separated in 1978 and divorced in September 1980.[154][155]

In April 1982, Norman married Sarah Mae Finch.[132][156] Finch had previously been married to Randy Stonehill from 1975 to 1980.[157] The two had first met at a religious retreat in 1969.[40][158] Their only child, Michael David Fariah Finch Norman, was born in August 1985.[16][159][160][161] The couple divorced in 1995.[162]

In 2008, the Christian magazine World reported that Norman had allegedly fathered a son with an Australian woman during a 1988 tour.[163][164]

Coronary issues and death[edit]

In February 1992, Norman suffered a nine-hour heart attack that resulted in permanent heart damage, leading to frequent hospitalizations in the years that followed.[18][160] By early 1995, Norman had been hospitalized thirteen times and had a defibrillator implant, which enabled him to perform occasional small concerts.[15][127]

After a lengthy illness, Norman died on February 24, 2008, at the age of 60 at his home in Salem, Oregon.[165][166][167] The previous day he had posted on his website:

I feel like a prize in a box of Cracker Jacks with God's hand reaching down to pick me up. I have been under medical care for months. My wounds are getting bigger. I have trouble breathing. I am ready to fly home. I won't be here much longer. I can't do anything about it. My heart is too weak. I want to say goodbye to everyone...I want to say I love you. I'd like to push back the darkness with my bravest effort...Goodbye, farewell, we will meet again.[168]

Following a public memorial on March 1 at the Church on the Hill in Turner, Oregon, Norman was buried in Salem's City View Cemetery. His tombstone reads: "Larry Norman / Evangelist Without Portfolio / 1947–2008 / Bloodstained Israelite".[166][169]

Fallen Angel documentary[edit]

Fallen Angel: The Outlaw Larry Norman: A Bible Story is a controversial 2008 documentary on Norman's life by filmmaker David Di Sabatino. Fallen Angel includes interviews with several people who had worked with or been close to Norman thirty years earlier, including his first wife and Randy Stonehill, who recorded the film's official soundtrack, Paradise Sky.[170][171][172]

Norman and his second wife had refused to participate or cooperate in the project.[170][173] A cease and desist notice initiated by Norman's family temporarily prevented the film's public screening, and prompted Di Sabatino to file his own lawsuit against Solid Rock in March 2009.[174][175][176] Four months later, the case was settled out of court, allowing the film to be shown.[175][176][177] While interviewing Stonehill, Cross Rhythms' Mike Rimmer said the film portrayed Norman as "Machiavellian, particularly in his dealings with his artists."[173]

In 2010, Norman's friend and authorized biographer Allen Flemming created the website "Failed Angle: The Truth Behind Fallen Angel", which uses material such as letters, tape recordings, and legal documents to dispute some of the claims made in the film.[178]

Select discography[edit]

Since the 1960s, Norman's work has appeared on over 100 albums, compilations, and concert bootlegs. These recordings have been released under various labels and with various artists. Some of his principal albums are:

Autobiography[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dennis Hevesi, "Larry Norman, Singer of Christian Rock Music, Dies at 60." The New York Times March 4, 2008. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
  2. ^ Turner, Steve (February 27, 2008). "Obituary: Larry Norman". The Guardian. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Sanford, David. "Farewell, Larry Norman." Christianity Today. June 27, 2005. Retrieved December 26, 2007.
  4. ^ a b "This World is not My Home". Wittenburg Door. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
  5. ^ Texas Birth Index, 1903–1997 Record for Larry David Norman, 1947 Births, page 2372. Roll Number: 1947_0009; http://files.usgwarchives.net/tx/nueces/vitals/births/1947/nueb0747.txt
  6. ^ Social Security Death Index: Born: December 9, 1923, Died: April 28, 1999; Name: Joe Hendrex Norman Service Info.: SGT US ARMY AIR CORPS WORLD WAR II Birth Date: December 10, 1923, Death Date: April 28, 1999
  7. ^ Larry Norman, The Long Road Home (Salem, OR: Solid Rock, 2007); Dennis Hevesi, "Larry Norman, Singer of Christian Rock Music, Dies at 60." The New York Times March 4, 2008. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
  8. ^ Quillen, Shay. "Obituary: Father of Christian Rock: Musician Larry Norman, 60." Mercury News February 26, 2008. Retrieved February 15, 2009.
  9. ^ Joe H Norman enlisted on October 24, 1942, at San Antonio, Texas. See National Archives and Records Administration. US World War II Army Enlistment Records, 1938–1946 ; Source Information: National Cemetery Administration. US Veterans Gravesites, ca.1775–2006
  10. ^ "Larry Norman Down Under But Not Out", On Being (1985/1986):4.
  11. ^ Classmates, the letter "N". Lhs68.net. Retrieved on August 13, 2010.
  12. ^ Larry Norman, liner notes, The Cottage Tapes – Book One (1999):8; but cf. "Larry Norman Down Under But Not Out", On Being (1985/1986):4, which suggests it was soon before his birth.
  13. ^ Richard D. Barnet, Bruce Nemerov, and Mayo R. Taylor, The Story Behind the Song: 150 Songs that Chronicle the 20th Century (Greenwood Press, 2004):206.
  14. ^ Allen Flemming, "ON THE SECOND ANNIVERSARY OF LARRY NORMAN IN ANOTHER LAND", (February 2010), [1] (accessed May 2, 2010)
  15. ^ a b c d e Mike Rimmer, "A Legend Quizzed", Cross Rhythms (August 27, 2005)
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Rimmer, Mike (February 26, 2008). "Larry Norman – 1947–2008". Cross Rhythms. 
  17. ^ Larry Norman, "Foreword" to Contemporary Christian Music, (1979), http://dagsrule.com/stuff/larry/foreword79.html
  18. ^ a b c d Norman, Larry (October 11, 2006). "Larry Norman: The Growth Of The Christian Music Industry". Cross Rhythms. 
  19. ^ "Larry Norman Down Under But Not Out", On Being (1985/1986).
  20. ^ a b Tokunaga, Paul (February 26, 2008). ""Remembering Larry Norman" (February 26, 2008)". Behindthebooks.ivpress.com. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  21. ^ Paul Tokunaga, "Remembering Larry Norman" (February 26, 2008), http://behindthebooks.ivpress.com/2008/02/remembering_larry_norman.php. See also http://namesdatabase.com/people/NORMAN/LARRY%20DAVID/10253862; http://namesdatabase.com/schools/US/CA/Campbell/Campbell%20High%20School
  22. ^ Larry Norman, letter to his grandmother (May 2, 1965), http://www.failedangle.com/site/people/lenaletter.pdf[dead link]
  23. ^ "A Biography/Timeline of Terry Scott Taylor." February 19, 1999. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
  24. ^ "Larry Norman Down Under But Not Out", On Being (1985/1986):6.
  25. ^ Larry Norman, "I've Got to Learn to Live Without You", Linear Notes, Rebel Poet, Jukebox Balladeer: The Anthology (September 2007); Randall Herbert Balmer, ed. "Larry (David) Norman". Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism. (Westminster John Knox Press, 2002):411; "Larry Norman." The Times March 7, 2008. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
  26. ^ Larry Norman, "A Special Solid Rock Interview", in The Blue Book (1986):10, released in 1989 with Home At Last album.
  27. ^ Alfonso, Barry "Larry Norman Biography." Musicianguide.com. Retrieved December 27, 2007.
  28. ^ "Capitol Records: Biography: People" (May 1968):3; http://www.meetjesushere.com/images/Pictures/PeopleBio4.jpg
  29. ^ a b Larry Norman, "Linear Notes", I Love You Korea, p.2.
  30. ^ a b Tony Cummings, "People!: Drummer and songwriter Denny Fridkin recounts his life in music", Cross Rhythms (August 26, 2007), http://www.crossrhythms.co.uk/articles/music/People_Drummer_and_songwriter_Denny_Fridkin_recounts_his_life_in_music/28810/p1/
  31. ^ Cusic 2009, p. 311.
  32. ^ John Riolo, "Wayback Wednesday – The People", http://mog.com/DashboardDJ856/blog/1928285
  33. ^ "Billboard Hot 100", Billboard (June 22, 1968):68; Joel Whitburn, Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Singles 1955–2006, 11th ed. (Record Research, 2008):650; "Cash Box Top 100 Singles" (June 29, 1968), http://cashboxmagazine.com/archives/60s_files/19680629.html;
  34. ^ Powell 2002, p. 633-634.
  35. ^ Wally Rasmussen, liner notes, "About the Author", Larry Norman: White Blossoms From Black Roots (SRD-030) (1988):4.
  36. ^ Larry Norman – So Long Ago the Garden newmusicplease.com August 28, 2006 Retrieved December 27, 2007
  37. ^ Stowe 2011, p. 36-37.
  38. ^ a b CBNmusic, "Larry Norman", http://www.cbn.com/cbnmusic/artists/norman_larry.aspx
  39. ^ a b Philip Cooney, "Here I am, talking about Jesus just the same: Larry Norman at 60", The Briefing: An International Evangelical Monthly (January 30, 2008), http://www.matthiasmedia.com.au/briefing/longing/5087/
  40. ^ a b c Larry Norman, "The Jesus Movement – Singing A New Song", The Liberator, http://www.one-way.org/lovesong/norman.htm
  41. ^ a b Glenn D. Kittle, The Jesus Kids and their Leaders (Warner Paperback Library, 1972):121.
  42. ^ Betty Luddick, "Jeane Dixon's Crystal Ball Gets a Workout", Los Angeles Times (July 11, 1972):G1.
  43. ^ a b "Can You Dig It?", Hollywood Free Paper 1:2 (October 21, 1969), http://www.hollywoodfreepaper.org/archive.php?id=3
  44. ^ Don Williams, Call to the Streets: The Story of Don Williams (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Publishing House, 1972):23.
  45. ^ Elliot Tiegel, "Cap. in New B'way Try via Beechwood", Billboard (November 23, 1968):8.
  46. ^ http://repertoire.bmi.com/writer.asp?fromrow=1&torow=25&keyname=NORMAN%20LARRY%20DAVID&querytype=WriterID&keyid=251231&page=1&blnWriter=True&blnPublisher=True&blnArtist=True&affiliation=BMI&cae=214063413.
  47. ^ Norman 1972, p. 9.
  48. ^ 11 songs from Birthday for Shakespeare are included on Norman's 2007 album Motorola Corolla 2
  49. ^ Ewan Jones, "Larry Norman – Motorola Corolla 2", Cross Rhythms (August 30, 2008), http://www.crossrhythms.co.uk/products/Larry_Norman/Motorola_Corolla_2/46235/
  50. ^ Norman 1972, p. 10.
  51. ^ a b "Linear Notes", Bootleg, http://www.meetjesushere.com/images/btlginsa.jpg
  52. ^ "Ted Neeley biography notes". Cindy Verbelun. Retrieved June 7, 2011. 
  53. ^ Paul Shaw, "About the Artist", So Long Ago the Garden (30th Anniversary Edition 1973–2003), SRD-006.
  54. ^ Robert Termorshuizen, "The Mystery Records", http://www.meetjesushere.com/the_mystery_records.htm
  55. ^ "About the Artist", Only Visiting This Planet (2004).
  56. ^ a b c d Thompson 2000, p. 49-52.
  57. ^ Jason Bivins, Religion of Fear: The Politics of Horror in Conservative Evangelicalism (Oxford University Press, 2008):125.
  58. ^ Eileen Luhr, Witnessing Suburbia: Conservatives and Christian Youth Culture (University of California Press, 2009):47, 51–52
  59. ^ Mathieu Deflem. "Rap, Rock, and Censorship by Mathieu Deflem". Cas.sc.edu. Retrieved March 12, 2011. 
  60. ^ a b Mike Callahan, David Edwards, and Patrice Eyries, "Solid Rock Album Discography" (January 10, 2009), http://www.bsnpubs.com/word/solidrock/solidrock.html
  61. ^ High Fidelity 20:7–12 (1970):112.
  62. ^ Kenneth G. Bielen, The Lyrics of Civility: Biblical Images and Popular Music Lyrics in American Culture (Routledge, 1999):114.
  63. ^ a b "LARRY NORMAN 1947–2008", http://www.larrynorman.uk.com/tributes.htm
  64. ^ "Duane's Interview with Josh Tinley", (December 13, 2007), http://www.hollywoodfreepaper.org/interview.php?id=3
  65. ^ Duane Pederson, "Reflections on the Jesus Movement", http://www.hollywoodfreepaper.org/article.php?id=4;
  66. ^ Greg Robison, Christian Rock Festivals (New York: Rosen, 2009).
  67. ^ "Spiritual Revolution Day", Hollywood Free Paper 3:3 (February 2, 1971), http://www.hollywoodfreepaper.org/archive.php?id=33; William McPherson, comp., Ideology & Change: Radicalism and Fundamentalism in America (National Press Books, 1973).
  68. ^ "The Jesus Woodstock", Time (June 26, 1972 ), http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,906107,00.html
  69. ^ a b Larry Norman, "The White Cottage", liner notes, And the Rampions Run Wild: The Cottage Tapes – Book Two (2000 CD).
  70. ^ "Larry in the UK", http://www.larrynorman.uk.com/inuk.html
  71. ^ Steve Turner, "Paradise: Home-made and Heaven", ThirdWay (March 10, 1977):9.
  72. ^ a b c "Larry Norman's Snakeskin Boots", http://talesfromthelaboratory.typepad.com/tales_from_the_microbial_/2007/09/larry-normans-s.html
  73. ^ Andrew Beaujon, "God Only Knows", Spin (May 2008):120.
  74. ^ Howard and Streck 2004, p. 163.
  75. ^ http://www.larrynorman.uk.com/store2.htm
  76. ^ http://christianmusic.about.com/od/musicnews/a/larrynormanobit.htm
  77. ^ Mike Rimmer, "Tom Howard: From Jesus Music Pioneer to Behind-the-Scenes Virtuoso", Cross Rhythms (November 28, 2008), [2].
  78. ^ Mark Allan Powell, "David Edwards", Encyclopedia of Contemporary Christian Music (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2002):292.
  79. ^ "Folk Concert", Tri City Herald [Pasco, Kennewick, Richland, WA] (September 16, 1977):14.
  80. ^ "About James Sundquist", http://superstore.wnd.com/store/item.asp?ITEM_ID=3281; Bryan Ness, "James Sundquist (and Noel Paul Stookey) – Freedom Flight (1977)" (April 4, 2010), http://nessessarymusic.blogspot.com/2010/04/james-sundquist-and-noel-paul-stookey.html; "Lamb & Lion Discography", http://www.bsnpubs.com/word/lambandlion/lamblion.html; http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_aGSj8CksbS8/S7hC6os0nyI/AAAAAAAAAN4/2FPiAw-zNv0/s1600/back.jpg; "Billboard's Recommended LPs", Billboard (June 4, 1977):78; "James Sundquist Biography", http://rock-to-salt.cephasministry.com/biography.html
  81. ^ "The Gospel Music Hall of Fame Biography", http://www.larrynorman.uk.com/bio.htm
  82. ^ Larry Norman, "New Music Interview 1980 Part 2", http://dagsrule.com/stuff/larry/intvw80b.html
  83. ^ Agency[dead link]. Streetlevelagency.com. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
  84. ^ a b c Mike Rimmer, "Larry Norman: The David Di Sabatino's Fallen Angel documentary", Cross Rhythms (March 28, 2010), http://www.crossrhythms.co.uk/articles/music/Larry_Norman_The_David_Di_Sabatinos_Fallen_Angel_documentary/39066/
  85. ^ "New Music Interview 1980 Part 3", http://dagsrule.com/stuff/larry/intvw80c.html
  86. ^ Robert Termorshuizen, "Notes", http://www.meetjesushere.com/in_another_land.htm
  87. ^ Some sources indicate the album was recorded in 1977. See "Solid Rock/Phydeaux: Music for the Minority" (1981); the original cover has "1977" written on it.
  88. ^ "Larry Norman (Part 1)", A Moment In Time and Footprints In The Sand CD booklets, http://www.onlyvisiting.com/larry/about/story1.html.
  89. ^ Robert Termorshuizen, "Something New Under The Son (1981)", http://www.meetjesushere.com/SNUTS.htm
  90. ^ a b c Larry Norman, "VOG Interview 1995", Voice Of Grey (1995), [3]; for unedited version, see [4].
  91. ^ a b c Larry Norman, "A Special Solid Rock Interview", in Norman 1989, p. 10.
  92. ^ a b c Ayers, William Ayers. "Historical Chrono-Spective." 1991 CD booklet of the European version of Stranded In Babylon.
  93. ^ "White House Hosts Gospel Sing", Logansport Pharos-Tribune (September 10, 1979):20;
  94. ^ Brian Quincy Newcomb, "Terry S. Taylor: The HRS INTERVIEW", PART I, HRS (1991), http://www.danielamos.com/articles/terrytay1.html
  95. ^ "Timeline:1978", http://www.danielamos.com/timeline78.html
  96. ^ John Cody, "Angel Tells Tragic Tale of Larry Norman", BC Christian News, http://www.canadianchristianity.com/bc/bccn/0709/20angel.html
  97. ^ David Di Sabatino, Fallen Angel, (Jester Media, 2009).
  98. ^ Larry Norman indicated the meeting was on June 17, 1980. See http://www.weebly.com/uploads/7/0/9/5/7095730/philip_manganos_coup_detat.mp3
  99. ^ "Timeline: 1980", http://www.danielamos.com/timeline80.html
  100. ^ Randall Herbert Balmer, ed. "Larry (David) Norman". Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism. (Westminster John Knox Press, 2002):411
  101. ^ a b Front cover of the 1985 Back to America EP, http://www.meetjesushere.com/images/LPs/ST001aV1.jpg
  102. ^ "Larry Norman (Part 2)", http://www.onlyvisiting.com/larry/about/story2.html
  103. ^ Larry Norman, "The Germans", (June 18, 2007).
  104. ^ http://www.meetjesushere.com/The_Israel_Tapes.htm
  105. ^ "Larry Norman UK". Larry Norman UK. Retrieved March 12, 2011. 
  106. ^ Robert Termorshuizen, "Larry Norman And His Friends On Tour (1981)", http://www.meetjesushere.com/Friends_On_Tour.htm
  107. ^ Larry Norman, The Story of The Tune, http://www.meetjesushere.com/Tune.htm
  108. ^ "Cover Notes", "THE STORY OF THE TUNE", http://www.onlyvisiting.com/music/discography/Tune/tune.cover.html
  109. ^ Robert Termorshuizen, "Come As A Child (1983)", http://www.meetjesushere.com/Come_As_A_Child.htm
  110. ^ "Notes", on "Stop This Flight (1985)", http://www.meetjesushere.com/STF.htm
  111. ^ Robert Termorshuizen, "Quiet Night (1984)", http://www.meetjesushere.com/QuietNight.htm
  112. ^ a b Linear Notes, White Blossoms From Black Roots (1997).
  113. ^ "Describing the 'Essential' Series", Solid Rock News, http://www.larrynorman.com/news/3.html
  114. ^ Robert Termorshuizen, "White Blossoms From Black Roots (1989)", http://www.meetjesushere.com/White_Blossoms.htm
  115. ^ Moira McCormack, "Benson Records: Economy and Specialization Fuel Strong Return to Major Label Status", Billboard (October 11, 1986):G-10.
  116. ^ Norman 1989, p. 20.
  117. ^ Matthew Dickerson, "Home At Last", in Norman 1989, p. 16.
  118. ^ "Cross Rhythms Interview 1993", Cross Rhythms (1993), http://dagsrule.com/stuff/larry/intvw93.html
  119. ^ a b "Christian Artists' Conference, Estes Park, 1989", in Larry Norman, Blue Book, 15.
  120. ^ History | River Church. Riverchurch.publishpath.com (September 10, 2008). Retrieved August 13, 2010.
  121. ^ Robert Termorshuizen, "Stranded In Babylon (1991)", http://www.meetjesushere.com/stranded_in_babylon.htm
  122. ^ Rupert Loydell, "Larry Norman – Stranded In Babylon", CR Mag 11 (July 1, 1992), http://www.crossrhythms.co.uk/products/Larry_Norman/Stranded_In_Babylon/5267/
  123. ^ Jevon, "Stranded in Babylon", (November 18, 2000), http://www.banophernalia.com/reviews/music/artists_norman.htm#larry1999
  124. ^ "The Classic Larry Norman CD Releases", page 2, http://www.larrynorman.uk.com/store2.htm
  125. ^ "Larry Norman Tourniquet pre=release review copy album front and back". The Albino Brothers. Retrieved June 7, 2011. 
  126. ^ Robert Termorshuizen, "Tourniquet (2001)", http://www.meetjesushere.com/tourniquet.htm
  127. ^ a b "Totally Unplugged", PHYDEAUX NEWSLETTER No. 1 in 1995, http://www.onlyvisiting.com/distributors/phydeaux/newsletters/phydeaux_1.html
  128. ^ Tony Cummings, "Agitator", CR Mag 74 (May 1, 2003), http://www.crossrhythms.co.uk/products/Larry_Norman/Agitator_The_Essential/7087/
  129. ^ Larry Norman, "Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music?", Linear Notes, Rebel Poet, Jukebox Balladeer: The Anthology (September 2007).
  130. ^ Hagestadt, André The genesis of Christian rock: Larry Norman interview[dead link] KXL.com January 10, 2003 Retrieved December 27, 2007
  131. ^ Larry Norman, quoted in Marlene D. LeFever, Creative Teaching Methods (David C. Cook, 1996):21.
  132. ^ a b c Larry Norman, "Strait Interview 1984", http://dagsrule.com/stuff/larry/intvw84.html
  133. ^ Michael Spencer, "So Long Ago, When CCM Wasn't Awful: What was Larry Norman doing making such great music?", The Internet Monk, http://www.internetmonk.com/articles/L/larry.html
  134. ^ John J. Thompson, "Larry Norman: A Tribute", CCM (April 2008), http://www.ccmmagazine.com/news/stories/11571167/larry%20norman/
  135. ^ "Paul's Bio", http://www.paulcolman.com/about.htm
  136. ^ Steve Camp, "Larry Norman: At Home with the Lord", (February 25, 2008), http://stevenjcamp.blogspot.com/2008/02/larry-norman-home-with-lord-for-me-to.html
  137. ^ Carolyn Arends, "Bananas with Larry Norman" (April 4, 2008), http://www.conversantlife.com/music/bananas-with-larry-norman#continue
  138. ^ Tori Taff, 100 Greatest Songs of Christian Music: The Stories Behind the Music That Changed Our Lives Forever, (Integrity Publishers, 2006):#75.
  139. ^ "Larry Norman (1947–2008)", Billboard (March 8, 2008):8.
  140. ^ Mark Salomon, Simplicity (Relevant Media Group, 2005):42–43.
  141. ^ Gord Evans, ed., Crying for a Vision and Other Essays: The Collected Steve Scott Vol. One(AuthorHouse, 2007):103–104.; Steve Scott in Gord Evans, "Larry Norman and Steve Scott", (March 5, 2008), http://larrynorman.activeboard.com/index.spark?aBID=119764&p=3&topicID=15786580
  142. ^ Frank 2006, p. 83-84.
  143. ^ Frank 2006, p. 84.
  144. ^ Frank 2006, p. 99-100.
  145. ^ Larry Norman: The Gospel Music Hall of Fame Biography, reproduced by KNET radio.
  146. ^ Marc Eliot and Mike Appel, Down Thunder Road: The Making of Bruce Springsteen (Simon & Schuster, 1993):101.
  147. ^ Deborah Evans Price, "NewsLine", Billboard (September 15, 2001):92; "Elvis, Albertina and Larry Among Chosen People In Gospel Music Hall of Fame", (September 16, 2001), http://www.bmi.com/news/entry/233017; Charles Kevin Robertson, Religion as Entertainment (P. Lang, 2002)
  148. ^ Michael Ciani, "CCM Hall of Fame: Larry Norman", CCM (January 2004):66; "Welcome to the CCM "Hall of Fame"!", CCM (September 2006), http://www.ccmmagazine.com/news/stories/11534452/archive2/larry%20norman/
  149. ^ Quillen, Shay. "Local legends on stage." San Jose Mercury News October 17, 2007. Retrieved December 27, 2007.
  150. ^ Richard Longoria, "Dove Awards", Religious News Today (April 24, 2008), http://www.kiiitv.com/news/religion/18150514.html; "Larry Norman Tribute on 2008 Dove Awards", [5]
  151. ^ "Larry Norman honored on Grammy Awards" (February 8, 2009), http://www.larrynorman.com/news.html
  152. ^ Minnesota Marriage Collection, 1958–2001, Groom Index 1970 through 1975, page J01.
  153. ^ "Model Doubles as Charm School, Bible Teacher", Spartanburg Herald (May 17, 1978):C2.
  154. ^ Brian Quincy Newcomb, "Larry Norman: The Long Journey Home", June 1989. http://webspace.webring.com/people/cu/um_6524/lnorman20yrs.html
  155. ^ California Divorce Index, 1966–1984, Divorce Index, page 16574
  156. ^ California Marriage Index, Brides 1980–1985, page 5,413. Another source indicates Finch and Norman were married on April 29, 1982. See http://www.failedangle.com/site/randy/randy.html However, another source indicates this was in April 1984. See Martin Wroe, "The Norman Wisdom", Straight Magazine (October 1984), http://www.larrynorman.uk.com/word31.htm
  157. ^ Devlin Donaldson, "RANDY STONEHILL: Life Between The Glory & The Flame" CCM (October 1981); as reprinted In The Heart Of The Matter: The Best Of CCM Interviews Vol. 1;http://nifty-music.com/stonehill/ccm1081.html
  158. ^ Larry Norman, (01:12) on "Larry Norman Telling Story About Randy and Sarah pt 1", (1987), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4RwI2AxbrZk
  159. ^ "THE EDITED IRC INTERVIEW" (April 6, 1996), http://www.onlyvisiting.com/larry/interviews/internet/questions.html
  160. ^ a b Larry Norman in Michael Cash and Steve Mason, "Is Larry Norman Through?", VOG (1995), http://www.onlyvisiting.com/larry/interviews/VOG/larry.html
  161. ^ Ancestry.com. California Birth Index, 1905–1995.
  162. ^ Cusic 2009, p. 313.
  163. ^ Orteza, Arsenio Larry Norman's tragic post-mortem World Magazine, July 12, 2008 Retrieved July 17, 2008
  164. ^ jenksaustralia, "I am the son of Larry Norman", (August 6, 2008)
  165. ^ "Larry Norman in the hospital greeting, February 2008", http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zPbRebcmwJw&feature=related
  166. ^ a b Larry Norman: The Original Jesus Rocker Goes to Jesus. Wittenburg Door (February 28, 2008). Retrieved August 13, 2010.
  167. ^ Norman, Charles (February 24, 2008). "LARRY NORMAN 4/8/47 – February 24, 2008". LarryNorman.com. Retrieved February 25, 2008. 
  168. ^ Statesman-Journal Larry Norman, 'father of Christian rock music,' passes away in Salem at age 60 February 25, 2008. Retrieved March 26, 2008
  169. ^ "Retrieved 26 March 2009". Findagrave.com. Retrieved March 12, 2011. 
  170. ^ a b Coker, Matt. "David Di Sabatino Is Drawn to Charismatic Christians. But Nothing Prepared Him for Larry Norman". Orange County Weekly. 
  171. ^ Bert Saraco, "Review of Paradise Sky", http://www.tollbooth.org/2009/reviews/stonehill.html
  172. ^ "Randy Stonehill Records 'Paradise Sky' CD, the Soundtrack to Larry Norman Documentary", Cross Rhythms (January 7, 2009), http://www.crossrhythms.co.uk/articles/news/Randy_And_Larry/34741/p1/
  173. ^ a b Randy Stonehill in Mike Rimmer, "Randy Stonehill: The Jesus Music Veteran on the Fallen Angel Movie and his Latest Music", Cross Rhythms (November 1, 2009):1, http://www.crossrhythms.co.uk/articles/music/Randy_Stonehill_The_Jesus_music_veteran_on_the_Fallen_Angel_movie_and_his_latest_music/37818/p1/
  174. ^ Bob Smietana, "Director Cancels Screening After Legal Challenge", The Tennessean (April 19, 2009), http://allaboutgod.ning.com/group/Christianmusic/forum/topics/christian-rockers-family
  175. ^ a b "David Di Sabatino v. Rock Solid Productions Inc", Case Number:8:2009cv00357, http://dockets.justia.com/docket/court-cacdce/case_no-8:2009cv00357/case_id-440025/
  176. ^ a b Allen Flemming, "The Letter of the Law", http://www.failedangle.com/site/sabbo/sabbo.html
  177. ^ Bob Smietana, "Belcourt shows film tonight about Christian rock pioneer Larry Norman", The Tennessean (April 20, 2010), http://www.tennessean.com/print/article/20100420/NEWS06/4160352/Belcourt-shows-film-tonight-about-Christian-rock-pioneer-Larry-Norman
  178. ^ Failed Angle. Failed Angle. Retrieved August 13, 2010.

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