Lapland (Finland)

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Lapland
Lapin maakunta
Lapplands landskap
Region

Coat of arms
Coordinates: 67°N 026°E / 67°N 26°E / 67; 26Coordinates: 67°N 026°E / 67°N 26°E / 67; 26
CountryFinland
CapitalRovaniemi
Area
 • Total98,984 km2 (38,218 sq mi)
Population (2013-12-31)
 • Total182,555
 • Density1.8/km2 (4.8/sq mi)
Time zoneEET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3)
ISO 3166 codeFI-10
Websitelapinliitto.fi
Symbols
AnimalReindeer
BirdBluethroat
FishSalmon
FlowerGlobe-flower
 
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Lapland
Lapin maakunta
Lapplands landskap
Region

Coat of arms
Coordinates: 67°N 026°E / 67°N 26°E / 67; 26Coordinates: 67°N 026°E / 67°N 26°E / 67; 26
CountryFinland
CapitalRovaniemi
Area
 • Total98,984 km2 (38,218 sq mi)
Population (2013-12-31)
 • Total182,555
 • Density1.8/km2 (4.8/sq mi)
Time zoneEET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3)
ISO 3166 codeFI-10
Websitelapinliitto.fi
Symbols
AnimalReindeer
BirdBluethroat
FishSalmon
FlowerGlobe-flower

Lapland (Finnish: Lappi; Northern Sami: Lappi; Swedish: Lappland) is the largest and northernmost of the regions of Finland. The municipalities in the region cooperate in a Regional Council. Lapland borders the Region of North Ostrobothnia in the south. It also borders the Gulf of Bothnia, Norrbotten County in Sweden, Finnmark County and Troms County in Norway, and Murmansk Oblast in Russia.

History[edit]

The area of Lapland was split between two counties of the Swedish Realm from 1634 to 1809. The northern and western areas were part of Västerbotten County, while the southern areas were part of Ostrobothnia County (after 1755 Oulu County). The northern and western areas were transferred in 1809 to Oulu County, which became Oulu Province. Under the royalist constitution of Finland during the first half of 1918, Lapland was to become a Grand Principality and part of the inheritance of the proposed king of Finland. Lapland Province was separated from Oulu Province in 1938.

During the Interim Peace and beginning of the Continuation War the government of Finland allowed the German Army to station itself in Lapland as a part of Operation Barbarossa. After Finland made a separate peace with the Soviet Union in 1944, the Soviet Union demanded that Finland expel the German army from her soil. The result was the Lapland War, during which almost the whole civilian population of Lapland was evacuated. The Germans used scorched earth tactics in Lapland, before they withdrew to Norway. 40 to 47% of the dwellings in Lapland were destroyed, 417 km of railroads were destroyed and 9,500 km of roadways were mined, destroyed or were unusable, 675 bridges and 3,700 km of telephone lines were destroyed. 90% of Rovaniemi, the capital of Lapland, was burned to the ground, with only few a pre-war buildings surviving the destruction.

After the Second World War, Petsamo municipality and part of Salla municipality were ceded to the Soviet Union. The decades following the war were a period of rebuilding, industrialization and fast economic growth. Large hydroelectric plants and mines were established and cities, roads and bridges were rebuilt from the destruction of the war. In the late 20th century the economy of Lapland started to decline, mines and factories turned more unprofitable and the population started to decline rapidly across most of the region.

The provinces of Finland were abolished on January 1, 2010, but Lapland was reorganised as one of the new regions that replaced them.[1]

Economy[edit]

Economic facts and figures (2012)[2]
Jobs73,300
GDP (million euros)5,600
GDP (per capita)30,635€

(84% Finland average)

Private and public offices10,400
Private sector revenues (million euros)10,000
Exports (million euros)3,400
Private and public sector workers64,800
Unemployment15.3% [3]


Circle frame.svg

Lapland's economy (2012)

  Public sector (33%)
  Retail/Lodging/Restaurants (15%)
  Industry (14%)
  Business services (14%)
  Construction (7%)
  Traffic and transportation (6%)
  Primary production (6%)
  Household services (5%)

Population[edit]

Lapland is the home of about 3.4% of Finland's population, and is by far the least densely populated area in the country. The biggest towns in Lapland are Rovaniemi (the regional capital), Tornio, and Kemi. In 2011, Lapland had a population of 183,484 of whom 177,950 spoke Finnish, 1,526 spoke Sami, 387 spoke Swedish and 3,467 spoke some other languages as their mother language.[4] Of the Sami languages, Northern Sami, Inari Sami and Skolt Sami are spoken in the region.

Lapland's population has been in decline since 1990.

Population of Lapland
YearPopulation
1950169,211
1955189,176
1960208,788
1965221,162
1970197,429
1975195,131
1980196,288
1985200,571
1990201,652
1995200,579
2000189,288
2005184,935
2010183,484
2013182,555

Regional Council[edit]

The 21 municipalities of Lapland are organised into a single Region, where they cooperate in the Lapland Regional Council, Lapin liitto or Lapplands förbund.

Politics[edit]

Results of the Finnish parliamentary election, 2011 in Lapland:

Sami Domicile Area[edit]

The northernmost municipalities of Lapland where the Sami people are the most numerous, form the Sami Domicile Area. Sami organization exists in parallel with the provincial one.

Municipalities[edit]

Municipalities by population (cities marked as bold)
MunicipalityPopulation (2013)Area (km²)Density (pop. per km²)
Rovaniemi.vaakuna.svg
Rovaniemi61,2458,016.848.02
Tornio.vaakuna.svg
Tornio22,3821,348.8518.84
Kemi.vaakuna.svg
Kemi22,121747.51232.23
Sodankyla.vaakuna.svg
Sodankylä8,88512,415.480.76
Keminmaa.vaakuna.svg
Keminmaa8,569647.2313.69
Kemijarvi.vaakuna.svg
Kemijärvi7,9843,930.912.29
Inari.vaakuna.svg
Inari6,78817,333.540.45
Kittilä.vaakuna.svg
Kittilä6,4688,262.940.79
Ylitornio.vaakuna.svg
Ylitornio4,4872,212.382.22
Ranua.vaakuna.svg
Ranua4,1523,694.801.21
Kolari.vaakuna.svg
Kolari3,8872,617.771.51
Salla.vaakuna.svg
Salla3,8865,873.080.68
Pellon vaakuna.svg
Pello3,7421,863.682.17
Posio.vaakuna.svg
Posio3,6473,544.811.20
Simo.vaakuna.svg
Simo3,3592,086.392.34
Tervola.vaakuna.svg
Tervola3,3071,592.042.12
Muonio.vaakuna.svg
Muonio2,3822,037.801.25
Enontekiö.vaakuna.svg
Enontekiö1,8928,391.350.24
Utsjoki.vaakuna.svg
Utsjoki1,2785,372.010.25
Savukoski.vaakuna.svg
Savukoski1,1266,495.950.17
Pelkosenniemi.vaakuna.svg
Pelkosenniemi9681,881.570.53
Total182,555100,366.931.97


Heraldry[edit]

The Regional Council of Lapland uses the Finnish variation of the coat of arms for Laponia. The coat of arms for the Province of Lapland was composed out of the coats of arms of Laponia and Ostrobothnia.

Lapland impact on Finnish numismatics[edit]

Most of the gold used to mint Finnish gold coins comes from Lapland. Lapland itself has been the main motif for a recent commemorative coin, the Finish First Finnish gold euro commemorative coin, minted in 2002. On the reverse side, the midnight sun above a lake in Lapland can be observed.

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "New regional administration model abolishes provinces in 2010". Helsingin Sanomat International Edition. Sanoma Corporation. 31 December 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  2. ^ "Lapin suhdannekatsaus 2013". Lapin liitto. 19 August 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2013. 
  3. ^ http://yle.fi/uutiset/tyottomyyden_musta_siipi_varjostaa_lappia/6953635
  4. ^ Statistics Finland – Statistical databases

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

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