Languages of the Philippines

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Languages of the Philippines
Map of the dominant ethnolinguistic groups of the Philippines.
Official languagesFilipino (Tagalog), English
Regional languagesBicol, Sama-Bajaw, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Surigaonon, Tausug, Waray-Waray & Zamboangueño
Main foreign languagesSpanish, Japanese, Chinese, Arabic, Hindi, Korean, Malay
Sign languagesPhilippine Sign Language
Common keyboard layouts
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Languages of the Philippines
Map of the dominant ethnolinguistic groups of the Philippines.
Official languagesFilipino (Tagalog), English
Regional languagesBicol, Sama-Bajaw, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Surigaonon, Tausug, Waray-Waray & Zamboangueño
Main foreign languagesSpanish, Japanese, Chinese, Arabic, Hindi, Korean, Malay
Sign languagesPhilippine Sign Language
Common keyboard layouts
KB United States-NoAltGr.svg
Language map of the 12 recognized auxiliary languages based on Ethnologue maps.

There are some 25 languages in the Philippines, depending on the method of classification.[1] Four others are no longer spoken. Almost all are classified as Malayo-Polynesian languages, while one, Chavacano, is a Creole derived from a Romance language. Two are official, while (as of 2010) twelve are official auxiliary languages.[2]

National and official languages[edit]

Spanish was the national and official language of the country for more than three centuries under Spanish colonial rule, and became the lingua franca of the Philippines in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1863 a Spanish decree introduced universal education, creating free public schooling in Spanish.[3] It was also the language of the Philippine Revolution, and the 1899 Malolos Constitution effectively proclaimed it as the official language of the First Philippine Republic.[4] National hero José Rizal wrote most of his works in Spanish. Luciano de la Rosa established that Spanish was spoken by a total of 60% of the population in the early 20th century as a first, second or third language. Following the American occupation of the Philippines and the imposition of English, the use of Spanish declined gradually, especially after the 1940s.

Under the U.S. occupation and civil regime, English began to be taught in schools. By 1901, public education used English as the medium of instruction. Around 600 educators (called "Thomasites") who arrived in that year aboard the USAT Thomas replaced the soldiers who also functioned as teachers. The 1935 Constitution added English as an official language alongside Spanish. A provision in this constitution also called for Congress to "take steps toward the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages." On November 12, 1937, the First National Assembly created the National Language Institute. President Manuel L. Quezón appointed native Waray-Waray speaker Jaime C. De Veyra to chair a committee of speakers of other regional languages. Their aim was to select a national language among the other regional languages. Ultimately, Tagalog was chosen as the base language December 30, 1937.[5]

In 1939, President Manuel L. Quezón renamed the Tagalog language as Wikang Pambansa ("national language" in English translation).[6] The language was further renamed in 1959 as Pilipino by Secretary of Education Jose Romero. The 1973 constitution declared the Pilipino language to be co-official, along with English, and mandated the development of a national language, to be known as Filipino. In addition, Spanish regained its official status when President Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 155, s. 1973.[7]

The present constitution, ratified in 1987, designates Filipino and English as joint official languages. Filipino also had the distinction of being a national language that was to be "developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages." Although not explicitly stated in the constitution, Filipino is in practice almost completely composed of the Tagalog language as spoken in the capital, Manila; however, organizations such as the University of the Philippines began publishing dictionaries such as the UP Diksyonaryong Filipino in which words from various Philippine languages were also included. The constitution also made mention of Spanish and Arabic, both of which are to be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.

Filipino is an official language of education and also the major language of the broadcast media and cinema, but less important than English as a language of publication (except in some domains, like comic books, which are meant to speak directly to the Filipino psyche) and less important for academic-scientific-technological discourse. Filipino is used as a lingua franca in all regions of the Philippines as well as within overseas Filipino communities, and is the dominant language of the armed forces (except perhaps for the small part of the commissioned officer corps from wealthy or upper-middle-class families) and of a large part of the civil service, most of whom are non-Tagalogs.

There are different forms of diglossia that exist in the case of regional languages. Locals may use their mother tongue or the regional lingua franca to communicate amongst themselves, but sometimes switch to foreign languages when addressing outsiders. Another is the prevalence of code-switching to English when speaking in both their first language and Tagalog.

The Constitution of the Philippines provides for the use of the vernacular languages as official auxiliary languages in provinces where Filipino is not the lingua franca. This is however not implemented as Filipinos at large are polyglots. In the case where the vernacular language is a regional language, Filipinos would speak in Filipino when speaking in formal situations while the regional languages are spoken in non-formal settings. This is evident in major urban areas outside Metro Manila like Camarines Norte in the Bikol-speaking area, and Davao in the Cebuano-speaking area. Although the case of Ilocano and Cebuano are becoming more of bilingualism than diglossia due to the publication of materials written in these languages.

The diglossia is more evident in the case of other languages such as Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Bikol, Waray, Hiligaynon, Sambal, and Maranao, where the written variant of the language is becoming less and less popular to give way to the use of Filipino. Although Philippine laws consider some of these languages as "major languages" there is little, if any, support coming from the government to preserve these languages. This may be bound to change, however, given current policy trends.[8]

There still exists another type of diglossia, which is between the regional languages and the minority languages. Here, we label the regional languages as acrolects while the minority languages as the basilect. In this case, the minority language is spoken only in very intimate circles, like the family or the tribe one belongs to. Outside this circle, one would speak in the prevalent regional language, while maintaining an adequate command of Filipino for formal situations. Unlike the case of the regional languages, these minority languages are always in danger of becoming extinct because of speakers favoring the more prevalent regional language. Moreover, most of the users of these languages are illiterate[specify] and as expected, there is a chance that these languages will no longer be revived due to lack of written records.

Indigenous languages[edit]

The languages that have the largest number of speakers in a particular region. Note that on regions marked with black diamonds, the language with the most number of speakers denotes a minority of the population.

According to Ethnologue, a total of 175 native languages are spoken in the country, on the other hand four languages have been classified as extinct: Dicamay Agta, Katabaga, Tayabas Ayta and Villaviciosa Agta.[9] Except for English, Spanish, Hokkien (Lan-nang), Cantonese, Mandarin, and Chavacano, all of the languages belong to the Malayo-Polynesian language family.

Language familyNo. of Languages
Philippine languages
Central Luzon10
Greater Central Philippines89
North Mangyan3
Northern Luzon54
Greater Barito languages
Spanish-based creole1

There are 13 indigenous languages with at least one million native speakers: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilokano, Hiligaynon, Waray-Waray, Kapampangan, Bikol, Albay Bikol,[10] Pangasinan, Maranao, Maguindanao, Kinaray-a, and Tausug. One or more of these is spoken natively by more than 90% of the population.

A Philippine language family identified by Robert Blust includes languages of north Sulawesi and the Yami language of Taiwan, but excludes the Sama–Bajaw languages of the Sulu Archipelago as well as a couple of North Bornean languages spoken in southern Palawan.

Eskayan is an artificial auxiliary language created as the embodiment of a Bohol nation in the aftermath of the Philippine–American War. It is used by about 500 people.

Mutual intelligibility[edit]

Philippine languages are often referred to by Filipinos as dialects, partly as a relic of the inaccurate vocabulary used in literature during the American period (1898–1946).[6] While there are indeed many hundreds of dialects in the Philippines, they represent variations of no fewer than 120 distinct languages, and many of these languages maintain greater differences than those between established European languages like French and Spanish.

The vast differences between the languages can be seen in the following translations of the Philippine national proverb:

EnglishHe (She) who does not know how to look back at his (her) origin will not arrive at his destination.
AklanonRo uwa' gatan-aw sa anang ginhalinan hay indi makaabut sa anang ginapaeangpan.
Asi (Bantoanon)Kag tawong waya giruromroma it ida ginghalinan, indi makaabot sa ida apagtuan.
ButuanonKadtong dili kahibalo molingi sa iyang ginikanan, dili makaabot sa iyang gipadul-ngan.
Albay BikolKan idi tatao magkiling sa inalian,idi makaabot sa papaidtuhan
BicolanoAn diri maaram mag-imud sa pinaghalian, diri makaabot sa pakakadtu-an.
Bikol (Buhi)Yu di nikiling sa pinagalinan, di makaantos sa pupuntahan.
Bikol CentralAn dai tataong magsalingoy sa saiyang ginikanan, dai makakaabot sa padudumanan.
Bikol (Daraga)Su indi tataw makarumdom nung ginitan, indi makaabot sa adunan.
Bikol (Oasnon)Kan na taw na idi tataw mag linguy sa sanyang inalian, idi man maka abot sa sanyang paidtunan.
Iriga BicolanoA diri maglili sa pinaggalinan, diri makaaabot sa pigiyanan.
MasbateñoAn dili maaram maglingi sa ginhalian, kay dili makaabot sa kakadtuhan.
CapiznonAng indi kabalo magbalikid sa iya ginhalinan, indi makalab-ot sa iya palakadtuan.
CuyononAng ara agabalikid sa anang ing-alinan, indi enged maka-abot sa anang papakonan.
CebuanoKadtong dili kahibalo molingi sa iyang giagian, dili makaabot sa iyang padulngan.
Caviteño ChabacanoQuien no ta bira cara na su origen no de incarsa na su destinacion.
Ternateño ChabacanoAy nung sabi mira i donde ya bini no di yega na destinasyon.
Zamboangueño ChavacanoEl Quien no sabe vira el cara na su origen, nunca llega na su destinación.
IbanagI tolay nga ari mallipay ta naggafuananna, ari makadde ta angayanna.
ItawisYa tolay nga mari mallipay tsa naggafuananna, mari makakandet tsa angayanna.
IlokanoTi tao nga saan na ammo tumaliaw iti naggapuanna ket saan nga makadanon iti papananna.
Hiligaynon (Ilonggo)Ang indi makahibalo magbalikid sang iya ginhalinan, indi makaabot sa iya padulungan.
Jama MapunSoysoy niya' pandoy ngantele' patulakan ne, niya' ta'abut katakkahan ne.
KapampanganIng e byasang malikid king kayang penibatan, e ya miras king kayang pupuntalan.
Kinaray-aAng indi kamaan magbalikid sa ana ginhalinan, indi makaabot sa ana paaragtunan.
Manobo (Obo)Iddos minuvu no konnod kotuig nod loingoy to id pomonan din, konna mandad od poko-uma riyon tod undiyonnan din.
MaranaoSo tao a di matao domingil ko poonan iyan na di niyan kakwa so singanin iyan.
MalayOrang yang melupakan asal-usulnya tak mungkin mencapai tujuannya.
PangasinanSay toon agga onlingao ed pinanlapuan to, agga makasabi'd laen to.
Romblomanon (Ini)Ang tawo nga bukon tigo mag lingig sa iya guinghalinan hay indi makasampot sa iya ning pagakadtoan.
Sambal (Botolan)Hay ahe nin nanlek ha pinag-ibatan, ay ahe makarateng ha lalakwen.
SambalHay kay tanda mamanomtom ha pinangibatan, kay immabot sa kakaon.
SangilTao mata taya mabiling su pubuakengnge taya dumanta su kadam tangi.
SinamaYa Aa ga-i tau pa beleng ni awwal na, ga-i du sab makasong ni maksud na.
EspañolEl que no sabe mirar atrás, de donde viene, nunca llegará a su destino.
SurigaononAdon dili mahibayo molingi sa ija ing-gikanan, dili gajod makaabot sa ija pasingdan.
SorsoganonAn diri mag-imud sa pinaghalian diri makaabot sa kakadtuan.
Tayabas TagalogAng hindi maalam lumingon sa pinaroonan ay hindi makakarating sa paroroonan.
Tagalog/FilipinoAng hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paroroonan.
TausugIn di' maingat lumingi' pa bakas liyabayan niya, di' makasampay pa kadtuun niya.
Waray-Waray (Leyte)An diri maaram lumingi ha tinikangan, diri maulpot ha kakadtoan.
Waray-Waray (Northern Samar)An diri maaram lumingi sa tinikangan, diri maulpot sa kakadtoan.
YakanMang gey matau mamayam si bakas palaihan nen, gey tekka si papilihan nen.

Dialectal variation[edit]

The amount of dialectal variation varies from language to language. Languages like Tagalog and Kapampangan are known to have very moderate dialectal variation.

In the languages of the Bicol Region, however, there is great dialectal variation. There are towns which have their own dialects. Below is the sentence "Were you there at the market for a long time?" translated into certain varieties of Bikol. The translation is followed by dialect and language, and town in Bicol where they are spoken. The final translation is in Tagalog.

Philippine-language comparison chart[edit]

Below is a chart of Philippine languages. While there has been misunderstandings on which ones should be classified as language and which ones should be classified as dialect, the chart confirms that most have similarities, yet are not mutually comprehensible. These languages are arranged according to the regions they are natively spoken (from north to south, then east to west).

Englishonetwothreefourpersonhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (inclusive)whatand
Tagalogisadalawatatloapattaobahayasoniyogarawbagotayo, kamíanoat
Standard Bikolsaroduwatuloapattawoharongayamniyogaldawba-gokitaano
Iriga Bicolanousaddarawatuloupattawobaloyayamniyogaldowbagongaminono
Bikol-Polangueñosadduwatuloupattawbalõyayamnuyogaldõwbâgokita, satounodangan, mî, saka
Masbateñousadduhatuloupattawobalayidobuko, lubialdawbag-okita, kami, amonnanokag
Romblomanonisaduhatuyoupattawobayayayamniyogadlawbag-okita, atonanokag
Bantoanonusaruhatuyoupattawobayayironidogadlawbag-okita, atoni-oag
Onhanisyadarwatatloapattawobalayayamniyogadlawbag-okita, tatonanoag
Kinaray-asaradarwatatloapattahobalayayamniyogadlawbag-okita, tatenano, iwankag
Waray-Warayusaduhatuloupattawobalayayamlubiadlawbag-okitaanongan, ug
ChavacanounodostrescuatrogentecasaperrococodianuevoZamboangueño: nosotros/kame, Bahra: mijotros/motros, Caviteño: nisoscosá/ quéy/e

There is a language spoken by the Tao people (also known as Yami) of Orchid Island of Taiwan which is not included in the language of the Philippines. Their language, Tao (or Yami) is part of the Batanic languages which includes Ivatan, Babuyan, and Itbayat of the Batanes.

Taoásadóa (raroa)tílo (tatlo)ápattaovahaygarangataarawvayotatavela

List of speakers per language[edit]

Below are population estimates from the 2000 Philippine census by National Statistics Office of the Philippines on the number of Filipinos who speak the following 18 languages as a native language.

Name of Philippine languageNumber of native speakers[11]
Northern Bicol[12]2,500,000
Southern Bicol[13]1,200,000

Major foreign languages[edit]

Chinese/Hokkien (Lan-nang)[edit]

Main article: Lan-nang

Diplomatic ties with the Ming dynasties among some established states or kingdoms in Luzon and direct interactions and trade overall within the archipelago as a whole go perhaps as far back as early 10th century. Mandarin Chinese is the medium of instruction in Chinese schools and lingua franca of the mainland and overseas Chinese. The Lan-nang variant of the Hokkien (Min Nan) is the language of the majority the Chinese in the Philippines, who immigrated from the Fujian (pronounced locally as Fukien or Hokkien) province in China. Other Chinese spoken languages, Hakka and Cantonese, is spoken among the Chinese in the Philippines who are descendants of people from Guangdong province in China.

As with Spanish, many native languages have co-opted numerous loanwords from Chinese languages, in particular words that refer to cuisine, household objects, and Philippine kinship terminology.


The first significant exposure of Filipinos to the English language occurred in 1762 when the British invaded Manila, but this was a brief episode that had no lasting influence. English later became more important and widespread during the American Occupation between 1898 and 1946, and remains an official language of the Philippines.

English is dominant in business, government, the legal system, medicine, the sciences and as a medium of instruction. Filipinos prefer textbooks for subjects like calculus, physics, chemistry, biology, etc., written in English rather than Filipino. By way of contrast, native languages are often heard in colloquial and domestic settings, spoken mostly with family and friends. The use of English may be thought to carry an air of formality, given its use in school, government and various ceremonies.[citation needed] A percentage of the media such as cable television and newspapers are also in English; major television networks such as ABS-CBN and GMA 7) and all AM radio stations broadcast primarily in Filipino. English proficiency sustains a significant call center industry for American companies.

A large influx of English words has been assimilated into Tagalog and the other native languages called Taglish or Bislish. There is a debate, however, on whether there is diglossia or bilingualism, or even semilingualism,[14][15] between Filipino and English. Filipino is also used both in formal and informal situations. Though the masses would prefer to speak in Filipino, government officials tend to speak in English when performing government functions.[according to whom?] There is still resistance to the use of Filipino in courts and the drafting of national statutes.

On August 22, 2007, three Malolos City regional trial courts in Bulacan decided to use Filipino, instead of English, in order to promote the national language. Twelve stenographers from Branches 6, 80 and 81, as model courts, had undergone training at Marcelo H. del Pilar College of Law of Bulacan State University College of Law following a directive from the Supreme Court of the Philippines. De la Rama said it was the dream of former Chief Justice Reynato Puno to implement the program in other areas such as Laguna, Cavite, Quezón, Nueva Écija, Batangas, Rizal, and Metro Manila.[16]

Advocates of English[who?] say that it is the wave of the future, with science, world trade and the Internet becoming more important every decade. However, Philippine-language advocates[who?] respond that although the growing influence of English may be unstoppable, English is an exogenous language that is difficult for the mass of Filipinos to acquire fluently, while tens of millions are acquiring the lingua franca and using it extensively on a daily basis. English will remain a second language in the country, while the endogenous Austronesian languages will come to play a more important role in both speech and writing.[dubious ] National census results show that there are very few native speakers of English in the Philippines, a few percent from a small stratum of wealthy and highly educated families, and this is not increasing very rapidly.[citation needed] On the other hand, Filipino, Cebuano, and Ilocano continue to grow vigorously, as lingua francas, second languages, and as first languages as well.[citation needed]


Arabic is used by some Filipino Muslims in both a liturgical and instructional capacity since the arrival of Islam in the 14th century. Along with Malay, Arabic was the lingua franca of the Malay Archipelago among Muslim traders and the Malay aristocracy.

The 1987 Constitution mandates that Arabic (along with Spanish) is to be promoted on a voluntary basis. Arabic is currently taught for free and is promoted in some Islamic centres. It is used primarily in religious activities and education (such as in a madrasa or Islamic school) and rarely for official events or daily conversation. In this respect, its function and use is somewhat like the traditional roles of Latin and Spanish in Filipino Catholicism vis-à-vis other currently spoken languages.


The Japanese first came to the Philippines around the 11th century CE, the first country they emigrated to, as well as in waves from the 15th century, 17th century, late 19th century, 1900s, 1930s, and the 1940s.[17][18][19][20] There is a small Japanese community and a school for Japanese in Metro Manila due to the number of Japanese companies. Also there is a large community of Japanese and Japanese descendants in Laguna province, Baguio City, and in the Davao Region. Davao City is a home to a large population of Japanese descendants. Japanese laborers were hired by American companies like the National Fiber Company (NAFCO) in the first decades of the 20th century to work in abaca plantations. Japanese were known for their hard work and industry. During World War II, Japanese schools were present in Davao City.

Malay / Indonesian[edit]

Malay is spoken as a lingua franca in the southernmost parts of the Philippines, from Zamboanga down to Tawi-Tawi among a minority of the Tausug, Bajau, and Yakan peoples. It is also spoken as a daily language by Malays and Indonesians who have settled, or do business in the Philippines. It is also spoken in southern Palawan to some extent. It is not spoken among the Maranao and Maguindanao people. Malaysia, Indonesia, and the southern Philippines are largely Islamic and the liturgical language of Islam is Arabic, but the vast majority of Muslims in the Philippines have little practical knowledge of Arabic beyond limited religious terminology.

Old Malay and Indonesian cultures and civilizations in ancient Sumatra and Java influenced the history, lifestyles, and culture of Philippine peoples. The Malay language, along with Philippine languages belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian language family, has also had an immense influence on many if not most of the languages spoken in the Philippines. Roughly a third of all commonly used verbs and nouns used in the Philippines are of Old Malay origin. This is because Old Malay used to be the lingua franca throughout the archipelago, a good example of this is Magellan's translator Enrique using Malay to converse with the native Sugbuanon(Cebuano) during this time period.

An example of Old Malay and Javanese languages spoken in Philippine history can be seen in the language of the 10th-century Laguna Copperplate Inscription.

When the Spanish had first arrived in the Philippines in the 16th century, Old Malay was spoken among the aristocracy.

It is believed that Ferdinand Magellan’s Moluccan slave Enrique could converse with local leaders in Cebu island, confirming to Magellan his arrival in Southeast Asia.

Today, Indonesian is taught as a foreign language in the Department of Linguistics and Asian Languages in the University of the Philippines. Also, the Indonesian School in Davao City teaches the language to preserve the culture of Indonesian immigrants there. The Indonesian Embassy in Manila also offers occasional classes for Filipinos and foreigners.


Spanish was introduced in the islands after 1565, when the Spanish Conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi set sail from Mexico and founded the first Spanish settlement on Cebú.

In 1593, the first printing press in the Philippines was founded and it released the first (albeit polyglot) book, the Doctrina Christiana that same year. In the 17th century, Spanish religious orders founded the first universities in the Philippines, some of which are considered the oldest in Asia. During colonial rule through Mexico City, Spanish was the language of education, trade, politics and religion, and by the 19th century, became the country's lingua franca although it was mainly used by the educated Filipinos.[21] In 1863, a Spanish decree introduced a system of public education, creating free public schooling in Spanish. In the 1890s, the Philippines had a prominent group of Spanish-speaking scholars called the Ilustrados, such as José Rizal. Some of these scholars participated in the Philippine Revolution and later in the struggle against American occupation. Both the Malolos Constitution and the Lupang Hinirang (national anthem) were written in Spanish.

Under U.S. rule, the English language began to be promoted instead of Spanish. The use of Spanish began to decline some years after Spain was forced to pass the islands to the United States as a result of the introduction of English into the public schools as a language of instruction.[3] The 1950 census stated that Filipinos who spoke Spanish as a first or second language made up only 6% of the population. In 1990, the census reported that the number had dwindled to just 2,500.

Spanish briefly lost its status as an official language in the 1973 constitution but regained official status two months later when President Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 155.[22] With the promulgation of the 1987 constitution, Spanish lost its official status and it was dropped as a college requirement during Corazón Aquino's administration. Former president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, a third-language Spanish speaker, introduced legislation to re-establish the instruction of Spanish in 2009 in the state education system. Today, the language is still spoken by Filipino-Spanish mestizos and Spanish families who are mainly concentrated in Metro Manila, Iloílo and Cebú. It remains a required subject in some academic institutions, such as the University of Santo Tomás in Manila and the University of San Carlos in Cebú.

Many historical documents, land titles, and literature are written in Spanish and are still not translated into Filipino languages, despite the fact that some such as land titles have legal value. Spanish, through colonization has contributed the largest number of loanwords and expressions in Tagalog, Cebuano, and other Philippine languages.

Spanish creoles[edit]

Main article: Chavacano language

There are several Spanish-based creole languages in the Philippines, collectively called Chavacano. These may be split into two major geographical groups:

South Asian languages[edit]

Since pre-Spanish times, there have been small Indian communities in the Philippines. Indians tend to be able to speak Tagalog and the other native languages, and are often fluent in English. Among themselves, Sindhi and Punjabi are used. Urdu is spoken among the Pakistani community. Only few South Asians, such as Pakistani, as well as the recent newcomers like speakers of Marathi, Nepali, and Tamil retain their own respective languages.[17][23][24][25][26][27]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ McFarland, C. D. (1993). "Subgrouping and Number of Philippine Languages". Pasig City, Philippines: Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports. 
  2. ^ The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein... Article XIV Section 7.
  3. ^ a b US Country Studies: Education in the Philippines
  4. ^ Article 93 of the Malolos Constitution reads, "Art. 93. The use of languages spoken in the Philippines shall be optional. This use cannot be regulated except by virtue of law, and solely for acts of public authority and in the courts. For these acts the Spanish language will be used in the meantime."
  5. ^ Manuel L. Quezon (December 1937). "Speech of His Excellency, Manuel L. Quezón, President of the Philippines on Filipino national language." (PDF). p. 4. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  6. ^ a b Andrew Gonzalez (1998). "The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines" (PDF). Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 19 (5, 6): 487. doi:10.1080/01434639808666365. Retrieved 2007-03-24. 
  8. ^ Ricardo Ma. Nolasco Ph.D. "Maraming Wika, Matatag na Bansa - Chairman Nolasco" (in Filipino). Commission on the Filipino Language. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  9. ^ Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2013. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version:
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000
  12. ^ Lobel, Jason. An Satuyang Tataramon - Ethnologue. Central Bicolano (Dialects: Naga, Legazpi, Daet, Partido, and Virac)
  13. ^ Lobel, Jason. An Satuyang Tataramon - Ethnologue. Albay Bicolano (Dialects: Buhi, Daraga, Libon, Oas, and Ligao)
  14. ^ Hinnenkamp, Volker (2005). "Semilingualism, Double Monolingualism and Blurred Genres - On (Not) Speaking a Legitimate Language". Journal of Social Science Education. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  15. ^ Martin-Jones, M. (1986). "Semilingualism: A Half-Baked Theory of Communicative Competence". Applied Linguistics (Oxford Univerrsity Press) 7 (1): 26–38. doi:10.1093/applin/7.1.26. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  16. ^, 3 Bulacan courts to use Filipino in judicial proceedings
  17. ^ a b [2]
  18. ^ Quests of the Dragon and Bird Clan: Luzon Jars (Glossary)
  19. ^ Ancient Japanese pottery in Boljoon town | Inquirer News
  20. ^ Philippines History, Culture, Civilization and Technology, Filipino
  21. ^ "Estadisticas: El idioma español en Filipinas"
  23. ^ Going BananaThe Philippines | The Philippines
  24. ^ Kinding Sindaw
  25. ^ The Indian in the Filipino -, Philippine News for Filipinos
  26. ^ Rising India and Indian Communities in East Asia - Google Boeken
  27. ^ Indian Communities in Southeast Asia (First Reprint 2006) - Google Boeken

General references[edit]

  • Bellwood, Peter; Fox, James; & Tryon, Darrell (1995). The Austronesians: Historical and comparative perspectives. Department of Anthropology, Australian National University. ISBN 0-7315-2132-3. 
  • "Ethnologue report for Philippines". Retrieved July 28, 2005. 
  • Lobel, Jason William & Wilmer Joseph S. Tria (2000). An Satuyang Tataramon: A Study of the Bikol language. Lobel & Tria Partnership Co. ISBN 971-92226-0-3. 
  • Malcolm Warren Mintz (2001). "Bikol". Facts About the World's Languages: an Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages, Past and Present. ISBN 0-8242-0970-2. 
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External links[edit]