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French is the only official language in Monaco, a result of the role France has had over the microstate (see Franco-Monegasque Treaty) since the annexation of Nice and the Nizzardo (the territory surrounding Monaco), then culturally and ethnically Italian, as part of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
Monégasque is the national language of the Monegasque people (who represent only 21.6% of the total population, but growing from 19.0% in 2000). It is a dialect of Ligurian, somewhat similar to Italian.
Because the Monégasques are only a minority in Monaco, Monégasque was threatened with extinction in the 1970s. However, the language is now being taught in schools, and its continuance is regarded as secured. In the old part of Monaco, the street signs are marked with Monégasque in addition to French.
Italian is the paternal language of Andrea Casiraghi, Charlotte Casiraghi and Pierre Casiraghi, children of Caroline of Monaco, Princess of Hanover and Heiress Presumptive of Monaco, as her late husband, Stefano Casiraghi, was born in Italy.
There is also an English-speaking community in Monaco (8.5% of overall population being from Britain or USA, and population from other anglophone nations is too insignificant and is counted within the category of "other," below), and many[quantify] English-speaking tourists and vacationers visit the city.
Belgian, Swiss, and German nationals are approximately 2.5% each of the overall population, and "other" constitute a further 15%. Some 125 nationalities make up the population of Monaco.