Languages of Indonesia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search

More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia.[1] Most belong to the Austronesian language family, with a few Papuan languages also spoken. The official language is Indonesian (locally known as Bahasa Indonesia), a modified version of Malay,[2] which is used in commerce, administration, education and the media, but most Indonesians speak local languages, such as Javanese, as their first language.[1]

Since Indonesia only recognizes a single official language, other languages are not recognized either at national level nor regional level, thus making Javanese the most widely spoken language without official status, and Sundanese the second in the list (excluding Chinese dialects).

Languages by speakers[edit]

Several major ethno-linguistic groups of Indonesia
Largest languages in Indonesia[3]
(Figures indicate numbers of native speakers except for the national language, Indonesian)

LanguageNumber (millions)Year surveyedMain areas where spoken
Indonesian/Malay2102010throughout Indonesia
Javanese84.32000 (census)Northern Banten, Northern West Java, Yogyakarta, Central Java and East Java
Sundanese34.02000 (census)West Java, Banten
Madurese13.62000 (census)Madura Island (East Java)
Minangkabau5.52007West Sumatra, Riau
Musi (Palembang Malay)[4]3.92000 (census)South Sumatra
Bugis3.51991South Sulawesi
Banjarese3.52000 (census)South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan
Acehnese3.52000 (census)Aceh
Balinese3.32000 (census)Bali Island and Lombok Island
Betawi2.71993Jakarta
Sasak2.11989Lombok Island (West Nusa Tenggara)
Batak Toba2.01991North Sumatra
Ambonese Malay1.91987Maluku
Makassarese1.61989South Sulawesi
Batak Dairi1.21991North Sumatra
Batak Simalungun1.22000 (census)North Sumatra
Batak Mandailing1.12000 (census)North Sumatra
Jambi Malay1.02000 (census)Jambi
Mongondow0.91989North Sulawesi
Gorontalo0.91989Gorontalo (province)
Ngaju Dayak0.92003Southern Kalimantan
Lampung Api0.82000 (census)Lampung
Nias0.82000 (census)Nias Island, North Sumatra
Batak Angkola0.71991North Sumatra
North Moluccan Malay0.72001North Maluku
Chinese (Hokkien and Teochew)0.71982Northern Sumatra, Riau, Riau Islands and West Kalimantan
Chinese (Hakka)0.61982Bangka Belitung, Riau Islands and West Kalimantan
Batak Karo0.61991North Sumatra
Uab Meto0.61997West Timor (East Nusa Tenggara)
Bima0.51989Sumbawa Island (West Nusa Tenggara)
Manggarai0.51989Flores Island (East Nusa Tenggara)
Toraja-Sa’dan0.51990South Sulawesi, West Sulawesi
Komering0.52000 (census)South Sumatra
Tetum0.42004West Timor (East Nusa Tenggara)
Rejang0.42000 (census)Bengkulu
Muna0.31989Southeast Sulawesi
Basa Semawa0.31989Sumbawa Island (West Nusa Tenggara)
Bangka0.32000 (census)Bangka Island (Bangka Belitung)
Osing0.32000 (census)East Java
Gayo0.32000 (census)Aceh
Tolaki0.31991Southeast Sulawesi
Lewotobi language0.32000Flores Island (East Nusa Tenggara)
Tae’0.31992South Sulawesi

Comparison Chart[edit]

Indonesian languages comparison chart[edit]

Below is a chart of several Indonesian languages. While there has been misunderstandings on which ones should be classified as language and which ones should be classified as dialect, the chart confirms that most have similarities, yet are not mutually comprehensible. These languages are arranged according to the numbers of native speakers.

Englishonetwothreefourwaterpersonhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (inclusive)whatand
Indonesian/ Malaysatuduatigaempatairorangrumahanjingkelapaharibarukitaapadan
Javanesesijilorotelupapatbanyuwongomahasuklapadinaanyarkitaapalan
Sundanesehijiduatiluopatcai/cijalmaimahanjingkalapapoéanyarurangnaonjeung
Maduresesettongdhuwa'tello'empa'âênorengromapate'nyiorareanyarsengkoapaban
Minangkabaucie'duotigoampe'aieurangrumahanjiangkarambiaharibaruawakapojo
Palembang Malaysikokduotigoempatbanyuwongrumahanjingkelaposiangbarukitoapodan
Bugineseseqdiduatellueppaje'ne'taubolaasukalukuessoma-baruidiqagana
Banjareseasaduataluampatbanyuurangrumahhadupannyiurharihanyarkitaapawan
Acehnesesadualhèëpeuëtureuëngrumohasèëuuroëbangeutanyoëpeuëngon
Balinesesadaduatelupatpatyèhanakumahcicingnyuhdinamarairagaapamuah
Betawiatu'duetigeempataerorangrumehanjingkelapearibarukiteapeame
Sasaksa/seke'duetelumpataikdenganbaleacong/basongkenyamen/nyiohjelobaruiteapedait
Batak Tobasadaduatoluopataekhalakjabubiangharambiriariibbaruhitaahadohot
Ambonese Malaysatuduatigaampaairorangrumaanjingkalapaharibarukatongapadan
Makassaresese'reruatalluappa'je'ne'tauballa'kongkongkalukualloberuikatteapana
Batak Mandailingsadaduatoluopataekhalakbagasasuarambiraribaruhitaahadohot
Mongondowinta'duatoluopattubigintaubaloiungku'cekutsinggaimo-bagukitaondabo
Gorontalotuwewuduluwototoluwopatotaluhutawubele'apulasekatdulahubohu'itowolowau
Dayak Ngajuije'due'telu'epatdanumuluhhuma'asuenyuhandauharuitahnaraien
Lampungsayʁuwateluampatwayjelemanuwaasunyiwiʁaniampaiʁamapijama
Niassaraduatoluofaidanonihaomoasubanioluobohouya'itahadiaba

Challenge[edit]

There are 726 languages spoken across the Indonesian archipelago in 2009 (dropped from 742 languages in 2007), the largest multilingual population in the world only after Papua New Guinea. Indonesian Papua which adjacent with Papua New Guinea has the most languages in Indonesia.[5] Based on Summer Institute of Linguistic 637 languages are endangered with less than 100,000 native speakers. This is due to the Indonesian language becoming more dominant and many scholars believe that local languages are associated with ancient values as opposed to modernity. Thus, multilingualism is endangered. It is more like a battlefield of linguistic survival than a melting pot of languages.[6]

Language Education Policy[edit]

Indonesia's Minister of Education and Culture Muhammad Nuh affirmed in January 2013 that the teaching of local languages as school subjects will be part of the national education curriculum. Nuh stated that much of the public worry about the teaching of local languages being left out of the curriculum is misplaced and that the new curriculum will be conveyed to them. [7]

Languages by family[edit]

Several prominent languages spoken in Indonesia sorted by its language family are:

In addition, the Enggano language of Sumatra is unclassified and may be a language isolate; and there are numerous small families of Papuan languages.

Writing system[edit]

Like most writing systems in human history, Indonesia's are not rendered in native-invented systems, but devised by speakers of Sanskrit, Arabic, and Latin. Malay, for example, has a long history as a written language and has been rendered in Indic, Arabic, and Latin scripts. Javanese has been written in the Nagari and Pallava scripts of India, as well as their derivative (known as Kawi and Javanese), in an Arabic alphabet called pegon that incorporates Javanese sounds, and in the Latin script.

Chinese characters have never been used to write Indonesian languages, although Indonesian place-names, personal names, and names of trade goods appear in reports and histories written for China's imperial courts.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lewis, M. Paul (2009). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition.". SIL International. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  2. ^ Sneddon, James (2003). The Indonesian Language: Its history and role in modern society. Sydney: University of South Wales Press Ltd. 
  3. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ID
  4. ^ Muhadjir. 2000. Bahasa Betawi:sejarah dan perkembangannya. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. p. 13.
  5. ^ "90 Persen Bahasa Ibu di Dunia Terancam Punah". June 27, 2012. 
  6. ^ http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/01/29/indonesia-a-battlefield-linguistic-survival.html
  7. ^ http://m.antaranews.com/berita/351761/pelajaran-bahasa-daerah-tetap-ada
  8. ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 29. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 

External links[edit]