Languages of Ghana

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Languages of Ghana
Official languagesEnglish
Regional languagesGovernment-sponsored languages: Akan, Ewe, Dagomba (Dagbani), Dangme, Dagaare, Ga, Nzema, Gonja, Kasem
Main immigrant languagesSindhi, Hindi, Lebanese Arabic, Chinese
Lingua francaEnglish, Akan
 
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Languages of Ghana
Official languagesEnglish
Regional languagesGovernment-sponsored languages: Akan, Ewe, Dagomba (Dagbani), Dangme, Dagaare, Ga, Nzema, Gonja, Kasem
Main immigrant languagesSindhi, Hindi, Lebanese Arabic, Chinese
Lingua francaEnglish, Akan
Sign in English in Accra

The official language of Ghana is the English language. Nine languages have the status of government-sponsored languages: Akan, Ewe, Dagomba (Dagbani), Dangme, Dagaare, Ga, Nzema, Gonja, and Kasem.[citation needed] Akan has two literary dialects, Twi and Fante.

Government-sponsored languages[edit source | edit]

There are nine government-sponsored languages. They are supported by the Bureau of Ghana Languages, which was established in 1951 and publishes materials in them. During the periods when Ghanaian languages were used in primary education, these were the languages which were used. All nine belong to the Niger–Congo language family, though to several different branches

Akan[edit source | edit]

Akan with Twi being one of the Akan languages, which are part of the Kwa branch of the Niger–Congo family. It is the most widely spoken language in Ghana. The dialects, especially Twi and Fante, are often given the status of separate languages.

Ewe[edit source | edit]

Ewe is a Gbe language, part of the Volta–Niger branch of the Niger–Congo family. It is spoken by approximately 2 million people in the Volta Region of south-east Ghana. It is also spoken in Togo.

Dagbani[edit source | edit]

Dagbani, or Dagomba, is one of the Gur languages. It is spoken in the Northern Region of Ghana.

Dangme[edit source | edit]

Dangme is one of the Ga–Dangme languages within the Kwa branch. It is spoken in Greater Accra, in south-east Ghana and Togo.

Dagaare[edit source | edit]

Dagaare is another of the Gur languages. It is spoken in the Upper West Region of Ghana. It is also spoken in Burkina Faso.

Ga[edit source | edit]

Ga is the other Ga–Dangme language within the Kwa branch. Ga is spoken in south-eastern Ghana, in and around the capital Accra.

Nzema[edit source | edit]

Nzema is one of the Bia languages, closely related to Akan. It is spoken by the Nzema people in the Western Region of Ghana. It is also spoken in the Ivory Coast.

Kasem[edit source | edit]

Kasem is a Gurunsi language, in the Gur branch. It is spoken in the Upper Eastern Region of Ghana. It is also spoken in Burkina Faso.

Gonja[edit source | edit]

Gonja is one of the Guang languages, part of the Tano languages within the Kwa branch along with Akan and Bia. It is spoken in the Northern Region of Ghana and Wa.

Language classification[edit source | edit]

The languages of Ghana belong to the following branches within the Niger–Congo language family. Older classifications group them as Kwa, Gur, and Mande:

See also[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

External links[edit source | edit]