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|Lancaster County, Pennsylvania|
Location in the state of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania's location in the U.S.
|Founded||May 10, 1729|
|• Total||984 sq mi (2,549 km2)|
|• Land||949 sq mi (2,458 km2)|
|• Water||35 sq mi (91 km2), 3.53%|
|• Density||547/sq mi (211.3/km²)|
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
|Lancaster County, Pennsylvania|
Location in the state of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania's location in the U.S.
|Founded||May 10, 1729|
|• Total||984 sq mi (2,549 km2)|
|• Land||949 sq mi (2,458 km2)|
|• Water||35 sq mi (91 km2), 3.53%|
|• Density||547/sq mi (211.3/km²)|
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
Lancaster County local //, sometimes nicknamed the Garden Spot of America or Pennsylvania Dutch Country, is a county located in the south central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 519,445. Its county seat is Lancaster.
The County of Lancaster is a popular tourist destination. The term Pennsylvania Dutch comes from Pennsylvania German language, derived from the German Deutsch ('German'), Dutch Duits ('German'), Diets ('Dutch'): they are the descendants of Germans (Deutsche) who immigrated in the 18th and 19th centuries for the freedom of religion offered by William Penn, and were attracted by the rich soil and mild climate of the area. Freedom from poverty and political uncertainty also was a major factor. Also attracted to promises of religious freedom, French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution with significant numbers of English, Welsh and Scots-Irish settled this area in 1710.
The area that became Lancaster County was part of William Penn's 1681 charter, and John Kennerly received the first recorded deed from Penn in 1691. Although Matthias Kreider was said to have been in the area as early as 1691, there is no evidence that anyone actually settled in Lancaster County before 1710.
Lancaster County was part of Chester County, Pennsylvania until May 10, 1729, when it became the fourth county in the state. Lancaster County was named after the city of Lancaster in the county of Lancashire in England, the native home of John Wright, one of the early settlers. Six other counties were subsequently formed from territory directly taken, in all or in part, from Lancaster County: Berks (1752), Cumberland (1750), Dauphin (1785), Lebanon (1813), Northumberland (1772), and York (1749). Many other counties were in turn formed from these six.
Among the earliest recorded inhabitants of the Susquehanna River valley were the Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannocks, whose name means "Oyster River People" to the Lenape (or Delaware). They were also known as the Conestoga, from their principal village,Gan'ochs'a'go'jat'ga ("Roof-place" or "town"—pronounced "Conestoga" by the English-modern Washington Boro, Lancaster County). Other place names occupied by the People of Conestoga were Ka'ot'sch'ie'ra ("Place-crawfish"—modern Chickisalunga) and Gasch'guch'sa ("Great-fall-in-river"—modern Conewago Falls, Lancaster County). They were viewed by the Lenape, Nanticoke, English, Dutch, and Swedes of the area as a mighty nation, experts in war and trade. They were only beaten by the combined power of the Iroquois once Maryland withdrew its support. After 1675, however, they were totally absorbed by the Iroquois and a handful of them were settled at "New Conestoga," which was located along the south-bank of the modern Conestoga River in Conestoga Township, Lancaster County, to help staff an Iroquois consulate with the English in Maryland and Virginia (and later, Pennsylvania). By the 1720s, the Conestoga Indians were considered as a "civilized" or "friendly tribe," having been converted in large part to Christianity, who spoke English as a second language, and who made brooms and baskets for sale, and named children after their favorite neighbors.
However, the outbreak of Pontiac's War in the summer of 1763, coupled with the conciliatory but militarily ineffective policies of the provincial government, aroused in some suspicion and hatred against all Indians in the frontier counties of the state. On December 14, 1763, the Paxton Boys, led by Matthew Smith and Capt. Lazarus Stewart, descended upon the village, slaughtered the six Indians present at the time, and burned their houses. The fourteen survivors of the tribe were placed in protective custody in the county jail, but the Paxton Boys returned on December 27, broke into the jail, and butchered the remaining Conestogas. The lack of effective government control and widespread sympathy in the frontier counties for the murderers rendered their discovery and arrest futile.
The southern boundary of Pennsylvania, and thus of Lancaster County, was in dispute for years, culminating in nine years of armed clashes during the Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary dispute beginning with the 1730 establishment of Wright's Ferry across the Susquehanna River. Lord Baltimore believed that his grant to Maryland extended to the 40th parallel – about halfway between Lancaster and the town of Willow Street, PA, which line of demarcation, would have put Philadelphia in Maryland.
Spurred by a sudden influx of settlers crossing the Susquehanna and the licensing and formal beginning of the Wright's Ferry ferry services early in the year, acting on behalf of Maryland as a henchman of Lord Baltimore, Thomas Cresap starting in mid-1730, began confiscating the newly settled farms near Peach Bottom and Columbia, Pennsylvania (then—unnamed, but soon would be called "Wright's Ferry"), for the question from Lord Baltimore, was who was to get the income from the lands. He had believed he had a defensible claim on the west bank of the Susquehanna since 1721, that his demesne and grant extended to forty degrees north. That could be jeopardized if Pennsylvanians settled his lands without adverse reaction, and a counter claim to settlements.
Captain Cresap's initial actions were innocuous, establishing a second ferry in the upper Conejohela down river from John Wright's but near his father-in-laws settlement at Peach Bottom, and demanding settlers either move out or pay Maryland for the right bank lands they'd already received from Pennsylvania, but here events soon got out of hand, blew up, and soon started Cresap's War by acting on behalf of Maryland as a henchman of Lord Baltimore confiscating farms near Peach Bottom and Wrightsville, establishing a second ferry there. He started vandalizing farms, killing livestock and driving away settlers in southern York and Lancaster counties, giving those lands to his followers. When a follower was arrested, the Marylanders broke him out of the Lancaster lockup.
Lord Baltimore negotiated a compromise in 1733, but Cresap ignored it, and continued his raids. When an attempt was made to arrest him in 1734, he killed a deputy at his door. The Pennsylvania governor demanded Maryland arrest Cresap for murder; the Maryland governor named him a captain in their militia instead. In 1736, he was finally arrested, and jailed until 1737 when the King intervened. In 1750, a court decided that Lord Baltimore had forfeited his rights to a twenty-mile (32 km) swath of land. The new Pennsylvania-Maryland border was properly established by the Mason-Dixon line in 1767.
The names of the original Lancaster County townships reflect the diverse array of settlers in the new county: two had Welsh names (Caernarvon and Lampeter), three had Native American names (Cocalico, Conestoga and Peshtank or Paxton), six were English (Warwick, Lancaster, Martic, Sadsbury, Salisbury and Hempfield); four were Irish (Donegal, Drumore, Derry, and Leacock), Manheim was German, Lebanon came from the Bible, and Earl the anglicization of the German surname of Graf or Groff.
Lancaster County's native son James Buchanan, a Democrat, was elected as the 15th President of the United States in 1856, the only Pennsylvanian to hold the presidency. His home, Wheatland, is now a museum in Lancaster. Thaddeus Stevens, the noted Radical Republican, served Lancaster County in the United States House of Representatives from 1849–1853 and from 1859 until his death in 1868. Stevens left a $50,000 bequest to start an orphanage that eventually became the state-owned Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology. Both men are buried in Lancaster.
Pennsylvania abolished slavery in 1780, although in a slow manner. The existing 6000 slaves in Pennsylvania remained slaves, and the registered children of those slaves were slaves until their 28th birthday. The last slave child registered in Pennsylvania was Haley, born in 1811, and a freedman no later than 1839. Thus Pennsylvania was legally a free state when the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was passed as part of the Compromise of 1850.
Being immediately north of the Mason-Dixon line, Lancaster County was an important stop on the Underground Railway. Charles Spotts found 17 stations, including ones with trap doors, hidden vaults, an underground cave and one with a brick tunnel leading to Octoraro Creek.
Edward Gorsuch, probably one of the least cruel, did not beat his slaves, and as a wealthy Maryland wheat farmer, he could afford to manumit slaves in their 20s. He allowed his slaves to work for cash elsewhere during the slow season. There was wheat missing, though, sold to a local farmer by his slaves, and he thought a former slave was responsible for this dishonesty. As he had a bad temper, slaves Noah Buley, Nelson Ford, George Ford, and Joshua Hammond became afraid, and fled to the farm of William Parker, a mulatto who lived in Christiana, Pennsylvania. Parker, 29, was a member of the Lancaster Black Self-Protection Society, and known to use violence to defend himself and the slaves who sought refuge in the area.
Gorsuch obtained four warrants, and organized four parties which set out separately to recover his property. He died in the attempt, though, and others were wounded. Although Gorsuch was legally entitled to recover his slaves, it is not clear who precipitated the violence. The incident was variously called the "Christiana Riot", "Christiana Resistance", the "Christiana Outrage", and the "Christiana Tragedy". It was one of the key moments that struck fear to slaveholders, as it was the black men, not white, who prevailed. Many feared this had sparked the hope and pride for African Americans to later participate in more slave rebellions. This also was one of the first times a recent law of aiding runaway slaves rather than turning them in to authorities was issued as a federal crime, which did not help the slaves cause at all. The riot caused regional and racial tensions to flair up even more, causing more and more of a push to abolish slavery.
In September, 1851, the grand jury returned a "true bill" (indictment) against 38 individuals who were then held in Moyamensing Prison in Philadelphia to await trial. The only one who was ever tried was Castner Hanway.
It is not clear that Castner Hanway was responsible in any way for what happened. He was a white man, one of the first on the scene. Hanway and his horse provided cover for Dickerson Gorsuch and Dr. Pearce, who were wounded. Hanway was tried in federal court in Philadelphia on November 15, 1851 for liberating slaves taken into custody by U.S. Marshal Kline, for resisting arrest, for conspiracy, and for treason. The jury returned a Not Guilty verdict in 15 minutes. Among the five defense lawyers was congressman Thaddeus Stevens. 
The oldest surviving dwelling for European immigrants in the county is that of Mennonite Bishop Hans Herr, built in 1719. In 1989, Donald Kraybill counted 37 distinct religious bodies/organizations, with 289 congregations and 41,600 baptized members, among the plain sects who are descendants of the Anabaptist Mennonite immigrants to Lancaster County. The Mennonite Central Committee in Akron is often among the first to arrive at a disaster scene, quietly providing manpower and material to local organizations that better understand where relief should be directed.
The town of Lititz was originally planned as a closed community founded by members of the Moravian Church early in the 1740s. The town eventually grew and welcomed its neighbors. The Moravian Church established Linden Hall School for Girls in 1746, it is one of the earliest educational institutions in continuous operation in the United States.
In addition to the Ephrata Cloister, the United Brethren in Christ and the Evangelical United Brethren (EUB) trace their beginnings to a 1767 meeting at the Isaac Long barn, near the hamlet of Oregon, in West Lampeter Township. The EUB, a German Methodist church, merged with the traditionally English Methodist church to become the United Methodist Church in 1968,
The first Jewish resident was Isaac Miranda, who owned property there before the town and county were organized in 1730. Ten years later there were several Jewish families in the town; on Feb. 3, 1747, there was recorded a deed to Isaac Nunus Ricus (Henriques) and Joseph Simon, conveying 0.5 acres (2,000 m2) of land "in trust for the society of Jews settled in and about Lancaster," to be used as a place of burial. Today, this cemetery is still in use by, and is considered the fourth oldest Jewish cemetery in America.
Today, Lancaster County is home to three synagogues, the Orthodox Degel Israel, the Conservative Beth El, and the Reform Shaarai Shomayim. In 2003 Rabbi Elazar Green & Shira Green founded the Chabad Jewish Enrichment Center, a branch of the Chabad Lubavitch movement, that focuses on serving the Jewish students of Franklin and Marshall College as well serving the general community with specific religious services. The larger community enjoys a Jewish Community Center which hosts a preschool, and a catering hall. The Lancaster Mikvah Association runs a mikveh on Degel Israel's property. Central PA Kosher Stand is operated at Dutch Wonderland, a seasonal amusement park.
This area was also settled by French Huguenots. Among its very first resident was Isaac LeFevre, who with a group of other Huguenot's settled in the area of the Pequea Creek.
In September 2008, the Democratic Party reached the benchmark of 100,000 registered voters for the first time in the county's history. The party had just 82,171 registered Democrats in 2004. As of 2008, the ratio of Republicans to Democrats in Lancaster County now stands at 1.8 Republicans to 1 Democrat, down from a 3-1 advantage for the Republicans in the late 1990s.
|Presidential Election results in Lancaster County|
|Source: The Committee of Seventy|
|County Commissioner||Scott Martin||Republican|
|County Commissioner||Dennis Stuckey||Republican|
|County Commissioner||Craig Lehman||Democratic|
|Clerk of Courts||Josh Parsons||Republican|
|Controller||Kathryn B. Kunkel (acting)||Republican|
|Coroner||Dr. Stephen Diamantoni, M.D.||Republican|
|District Attorney||Craig Stedman, Esq.||Republican|
|Jury Commissioner||Debbie Frantz||Democratic|
|Jury Commissioner||Kathleen Harrison||Republican|
|Recorder of Deeds||Bonnie Bowman||Republican|
|Register of Wills||Mary Ann Gerber||Republican|
According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 984 square miles (2,548.5 km2), of which 949 square miles (2,457.9 km2) of which is land and 35 square miles (90.6 km2) (3.53%) is water.
Almost all of Lancaster County is in the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin, via the Susquehanna River watershed (the exception is a small unnamed tributary of the West Branch of Brandywine Creek that rises in eastern Salisbury Township and is part of the Delaware River watershed). The major streams in the county (with percent area drained) are: Conestoga River and Little Conestoga Creek (31.42%); Pequea Creek (15.02%); Chiques Creek (or Chickies Creek, 12.07%); Cocalico Creek (11.25%); Octoraro Creek (10.74%); and Conowingo Creek (3.73%).
Lancaster County is home to Susquehannock State Park, located on 224 acres (91 ha) overlooking the Susquehanna River in Drumore Township. One of the three tracts comprising William Penn State Forest, the 10-acre (4.0 ha) Cornwall fire tower site, is located in northern Penn Township near the Lebanon County border. The site, with its 1923 fire tower, was acquired by the state in January, 1935.
There are also six Pennsylvania State Game Lands for hunting, trapping, and fishing located in Lancaster County. They are numbers (with location and area): 46 (near Hopeland, 5,035 acres (2,038 ha)), 52 (near Morgantown, 1,447 acres (586 ha)), 136 (near Kirkwood, 91 acres (37 ha)), 156 (near Poplar Grove, 4,537 acres (1,836 ha)), 220 (near Reinholds, 96 acres (39 ha)), and 288 (near Martic Forge, 89 acres (36 ha)).
The southern border of Lancaster county has some protected serpentine barrens, a rare ecosystem where toxic metals in the soil inhibit the growth of plants and lead to the formation of natural grassland and savanna. These barrens include the New Texas Serpentine Barrens, privately owned land managed by The Nature Conservancy, and Rock Springs Nature Preserve, a publicly accessible preserve with hiking trails owned and managed by the Lancaster County Conservancy.
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania also leads the nation in farmland preservation. Organizations like the Lancaster Farmland Trust, the Lancaster County Agricultural Preservation Board, and multiple municipalities work in partnership with landowners to preserve their farms and way of life for future generations by placing a conservation easement on their property. A conservation easement restricts real estate development, commercial and industrial uses, and certain other activities on the land that are mutually agreed upon by the grantees and the property owner. After giving up their development rights, landowners continue to manage and own their properties and may receive significant income tax breaks. The conservation easement ensures that the land will remain available for agricultural use forever. Lancaster Farmland Trust is a private, non-profit organization that works closely with the vast Amish and Plain-Sect communities of Lancaster County to ensure their farms will retain their agricultural value. Together, with the Lancaster County Agricultural Preserve Board, the County is approaching a milestone of 100,000 acres of preserved farmland in the county---a first in the nation.
The area falls along the general track of the Appalachian Mountains along the east coast of the North America. As such, residual seismic activity from ancient faulting occasionally produces minor earthquakes of magnitude 3 to 4. For example, on December 27, 2008, shortly after midnight, Lancaster County had a 3.3 magnitude earthquake which was widely felt in the Susquehanna Valley but caused no damage to structures.
Lancaster County is bounded to the north by Lebanon County, to the northeast by Berks County, and to the east by Chester County (the southeastern boundary with Chester County is formed by Octoraro Creek). To the south are Cecil and Harford Counties, Maryland (across the Mason-Dixon line). To the west is York County (the boundary is the western shore of the Susquehanna River). To the northwest is Dauphin County (the boundary is formed by Conewago Creek).
|Dauphin County||Lebanon County||Berks County|
|York County||Chester County|
|Harford County, Maryland and Cecil County, Maryland|
Lying on the natural route from Philadelphia to the western part of Pennsylvania, Lancaster County has given rise to many improvements in transportation, among them the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, later part of the Lincoln Highway, in 1794, a canal in 1820 and the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad in 1834.
Lancaster County's highways include the Pennsylvania Turnpike (or Interstate 76), U.S. Route 30 (or the Lincoln Highway), U.S. Route 222, and U.S. Route 322. Pennsylvania State Routes in the county include: 10, 23, 41, 72, 230, 241, 272, 283, 324, 340, 372, 441, 462, 472, 501, 625, 741, 743, 772, 896, 897, and 999.
As of 2006, passenger service in Lancaster County is provided by Amtrak, whose Keystone Corridor passes through the county, with stops at Lancaster, Mount Joy and Elizabethtown. A station is planned at Paradise to provide connecting service with the Strasburg Railroad, which runs passenger excursions from nearby Leaman Place to Strasburg.
The principal freight operator in the county is Norfolk Southern Railway (NS). The NS main line follows the Susquehanna River (with trackage rights for Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR)), and leaves the county by crossing the river on Shocks Mills Bridge near Marietta. NS also has trackage rights over the Keystone Corridor, to which it is connected by the Royalton Branch, which runs north along the river from the main line at Marietta, and the Columbia Branch, which runs from the Corridor at Dillerville to the main line at Columbia. Two other NS branches originate on the Corridor: the Lititz Secondary, which runs from Dillerville to Manheim and ends at Lititz, and the New Holland Industrial, which leaves the Corridor around the east end of Lancaster to run east to New Holland and ends at East Earl.
Several shortlines also operate in the county. With the exception of the Strasburg Railroad, all are freight railroads. The East Penn Railroad (ESPN) operates on a spur off the NS branch to Manheim, and on a longer line in the northeast corner of Lancaster County into Berks County. Landisville Terminal and Transfer Company (LNTV) operates on a spur off the Amtrak line at Landisville. The Tyburn Railroad operates some trackage around Dillerville. Most recently, the Columbia and Reading Railway (CORY) began operating on 2.5 miles (4.0 km) of track in Columbia in January 2010.
The bog turtle was first discovered and identified by science in Lancaster County by botanist Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg. Muhlenberg discovered the turtle species accidentally while he was conducting a survey of the flora in Lancaster County. The species was named Muhlenberg's tortoise in 1801, but renamed bog turtle, its present common name, in 1956.
The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Lancaster County as the Lancaster, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. The United States Census Bureau ranked the Lancaster, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area as the 101st most populous metropolitan statistical area and the 100th most populous primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012.
|Lancaster County Demographics|
|Two or more races||1.1%||0.9%||1.5%|
|Hispanic/Latino of any race||6.5%||3.8%||14.1%|
As of the census of 2000, there were 470,658 people, 172,560 households, and 124,070 families residing in the county. The population density was 496 people per square mile (191/km²). There were 179,990 housing units at an average density of 190 per square mile (73/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 91.46% White, 2.76% African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.45% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.90% from other races, and 1.25% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.68% of the population.
There were 172,560 households out of which 33.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.90% were married couples living together, 8.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.10% were non-families. 23.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.14.
In the county the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, and 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.60 males.
5.58% of the population and 8.37% of the children aged 5–17 reported speaking Pennsylvania German, German, or Dutch at home, while a further 4.97% of the population spoke Spanish. 39.8% were of German, 11.8% United States or American, 7.2% Irish and 5.7% English ancestry according to the United States Census, 2000. According to official Census Bureau estimates, the county's population had grown to 490,562 by 2005.
It is estimated that around 30,000 Amish people live in Lancaster county, which is around 6.37% of the total population.
United Church of Christ: 2%
Independent Churches: 1%
Holiness Churches: 1%
Overall 28% of the population in Lancaster County is either Protestant or Protestant reformed
Some inhabitants of Lancaster County speak with a Pennsylvania Dutch influenced dialect. This dialect is most commonly used in the Lancaster, Lebanon, York, and Harrisburg areas, and incorporates influences from the Pennsylvania Dutch to include not only dialect but also in nomenclature. But the main difference and what people take notice of from outside the area is the Pennsylvania Dutch English that people from Lancaster, York, and Harrisburg use.
In 2004, the county had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $30,790, only 93% of the national average. This reflects a growth of 4.5% from the prior year, versus a 5.0% growth for the nation as a whole. Despite the lower income, the county poverty rate in 2003 was just 8.3% compared to a national rate of 12.5%. In 2004, federal spending in Lancaster County was $4,199 per resident, versus a national average of $7,232.
In 2005, Lancaster County was 10th of all counties in Pennsylvania with 17.7% of its workforce employed in manufacturing; the state averages 13.7%, and the leader, Crawford County, has only 25.1%.
Lancaster County lags in information workers, despite being the corporate headquarters of MapQuest. It ranks 31st in the state with only 1.3% of the workforce; the state as a whole employs 2.1% in information technology.
The county ranks 11th in the state in managerial and financial workers, despite having only 12.5% of the workforce in those occupations (versus the state average of 12.8%). The state leaders are Chester County with 20.5% and Montgomery County with 18.5%.
With only 17.3% working in the professions, Lancaster County is 31st in Pennsylvania, compared to a state average of 21.5%. Centre County leads with 31.8%, undoubtedly due to Penn State's giant footprint in an otherwise rural county, but the upscale Philadelphia suburbs of Montgomery County give them 27.2%.
Lancaster County has an unemployment rate of 7.8% as of August 2010. This is a rise from a rate of 7.6% the previous year.
There are 11,000 companies in Lancaster County. The county's largest manufacturing and distributing employers at the end of 2003 were Acme Markets, Alumax Mill Products, Anvil International, Armstrong World Industries, Bollman Hat, CNH Global, Conestoga Wood Specialties, Dart Container, High Industries, Lancaster Laboratories, Pepperidge Farm, R R Donnelley & Sons, The Hershey Company, Tyco Electronics, Tyson Foods, Warner-Lambert, and Yellow Transportation.
Auntie Anne's, Clipper Magazine, Lancaster Farming, MapQuest, Turkey Hill Dairy, Clair Brothers, and Wilbur Chocolate Company are Lancaster County-based organizations with an economic footprint of regional or national significance.
Herley Industries is a local producer of microwave and millimeter wave products for the defense and aerospace industries.
With some of the most fertile non-irrigated soil in the U.S., Lancaster County has a strong farming industry. Lancaster County's 5293 farms, generating $800 million in food, feed and fiber, are responsible for nearly a fifth of the state's agricultural output. Chester County, with its high-value mushroom farms, is second, with $375 million.
Livestock-raising is responsible for $710 million of that $800 million, with dairy accounting for $266 million, poultry and eggs accounting for $258 million. Cattle and swine each account for about $90 million.
Agriculture is likely to remain an important part of Lancaster County: almost exactly half of Lancaster County's land – 320,000 acres (130,000 ha) – is zoned for agriculture, and of those, 276,000 acres (112,000 ha) are "effective agricultural zoning", requiring at least 20 acres (8.1 ha) per residence.
Tourism is a significant industry in Lancaster County, employing 47,000.
In the 1860s, articles in the Atlantic Monthly and Lippincott’s Magazine started tourism in Lancaster County right after the Civil War, but it didn't really take off until the 1920s, when the Lincoln Highway was built. A New York Times travel article in 1952 brought 25,000 visitors, and the 1955 Broadway musical Plain and Fancy brought even more, but tourism tapered off, after the 1974 gas rationing and the Three Mile Island incident led to five years of stagnation.
Local tourism officials viewed it as deus ex machina when Hollywood stepped in to rescue their industry. Harrison Ford, in the popular 1985 movie Witness, played John Book, a Philadelphia detective who in turn played "Plain" in order to protect Samuel Lapp, an Old Order Amish boy who has witnessed a murder. Predictably, John Book falls in love with Rachel Lapp, the boy's widowed mother; the movie is less a thriller than a romance about the difficulties faced by an English man in love with a Plain widow. The film was nominated for eight Oscars, and won two. However, the real winner was Lancaster County tourism, as movie-goers found themselves intrigued by the Plain.
Once again, especially after the 9/11 attacks, tourism in Lancaster County has shifted. Instead of families arriving for a 3–4 day stay for a general visit, now tourists arrive for a specific event, whether it be the rhubarb festival, the "maize maze", to see Thomas the Tank Engine, for Sertoma's annual "World's Largest Chicken Barbecue" or for the latest show at Sight & Sound Theatres. The tourism industry is discouraged by this change, but not despondent:
|“||"In four years of working here on the Strasburg Rail Road, I’ve only had one complaint, she said that the ride is too short. People love Lancaster County. They’ll keep coming back." – Betty McCormack||”|
The county also promotes tourist visits to the county's numerous historic and picturesque covered bridges by publishing driving tours of the bridges. At over 200 bridges still in existence, Pennsylvania has more covered bridges than anywhere else in the world, and at 29 covered bridges, Lancaster County has the largest share.
The Lancaster County Convention Center Authority  is building a controversial $170 million convention center in downtown Lancaster on the site of the former Watt & Shand building. The project's supporters believe it would promote the revitalization of the city's center. Its opponents, however, feel it poses an unacceptable risk to taxpayers.
Other tourist attractions include the American Music Theatre, Dutch Wonderland, Ephrata Cloister, Ephrata Fair, Hans Herr House, Landis Valley Museum, Pennsylvania Dutch Country, Pennsylvania Renaissance Faire (one of the largest Renaissance fairs in the world), Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, Rock Ford plantation, Robert Fulton Birthplace, Sight & Sound Theatres, Strasburg Railroad, Wilbur Chocolate, and Sturgis Pretzel House. There are many tours of this historic area including the Downtown Lancaster Walking Tour.
Many communities are neither incorporated nor treated as census-designated places.
The colleges of Lancaster County are Elizabethtown College, Franklin & Marshall College, Harrisburg Area Community College, Lancaster Bible College, Lancaster Theological Seminary, Millersville University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania College of Art and Design, Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology and Lancaster General College of Nursing and Health Sciences.
There are 16 public school districts in the county:
There is also one charter school, the La Academia Charter School.
Linden Hall, an independent boarding and day school for girls, is located in Lititz.
Additionally, Lancaster County has a federated library system with 14 member libraries, three branches and a bookmobile. The Library System of Lancaster County was established in April 1987 to provide well-coordinated countywide services and cooperative programs to assist member libraries in meeting the diverse needs of its community residents. The Board of Lancaster County Commissioners appoints the Library System of Lancaster County's seven-member board of directors. The System is an agent of the Commonwealth which supported Pennsylvania and The County of Lancaster.
Before the Barnstormers, Lancaster was the home of the Lancaster Red Roses, which played from 1906 to about 1930, and from 1932 to 1961. In 2005, the Lancaster Barnstormers joined the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball. The Barnstormers are named after the "barnstorming" players who played exhibition games in the county. Their official colors are red, navy blue, and khaki, the same as those of the Red Roses. This franchise won their first league championship in 2006, only their second season. They have revived the old baseball rivalry between Lancaster and nearby York, called the War of the Roses, when the York Revolution started their inaugural season in 2007.
The Women's Premier Soccer League expanded to Lancaster for the 2008 season, with the Lancaster Inferno. The WPSL is a FIFA-recognized women's league. The Inferno is owned by the Pennsylvania Classics organization and play their home games at the Hempfield High School stadium in Landisville. The Inferno's colors are orange, black, and white.
Lancaster is also the home of the Dutchland Derby Rollers (DDR), a member of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA.) Founded in 2006, The Dutchland Rollers boast 2 travel teams, the All-Stars and the Blitz. Both rosters play teams from neighboring leagues, though it is the Dutchland All-Stars that compete for national ranking. Their home rink is Overlook Activities Center, and their colors are orange and black.
From 1946 to 1980, a professional basketball team known as the Lancaster Red Roses (as well as the Lancaster Rockets and the Lancaster Lightning) played in the Continental Basketball Association.