Lakeland, Florida

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City of Lakeland, Florida
City
Downtown Lakeland
Downtown Lakeland
Location in Polk County and the state of Florida
Location in Polk County and the state of Florida
Coordinates: 28°2′28″N 81°57′32″W / 28.04111°N 81.95889°W / 28.04111; -81.95889Coordinates: 28°2′28″N 81°57′32″W / 28.04111°N 81.95889°W / 28.04111; -81.95889
CountryUnited States
StateFlorida
CountyPolk
Settledc. 1875
Incorporated (city)1 January 1885
Government
 • TypeCommission-Manager
 • MayorHoward Wiggs (2014)
 • City ManagerDouglas B. Thomas
Area[1]
 • City74.4 sq mi (193 km2)
 • Land68.79 sq mi (178.2 km2)
 • Water5.61 sq mi (14.5 km2)  10.9%
Elevation197 ft (141 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City97,422
 • Density1,711/sq mi (660.8/km2)
 • Metro584,383
 Census Bureau American Community Survey
Time zoneEST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code33801–33815
Area code(s)863
FIPS code12-38250[3]
GNIS feature ID0294459[4]
Websitehttp://www.lakelandgov.net/
Twinned with Richmond Hill, Ontario
 
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City of Lakeland, Florida
City
Downtown Lakeland
Downtown Lakeland
Location in Polk County and the state of Florida
Location in Polk County and the state of Florida
Coordinates: 28°2′28″N 81°57′32″W / 28.04111°N 81.95889°W / 28.04111; -81.95889Coordinates: 28°2′28″N 81°57′32″W / 28.04111°N 81.95889°W / 28.04111; -81.95889
CountryUnited States
StateFlorida
CountyPolk
Settledc. 1875
Incorporated (city)1 January 1885
Government
 • TypeCommission-Manager
 • MayorHoward Wiggs (2014)
 • City ManagerDouglas B. Thomas
Area[1]
 • City74.4 sq mi (193 km2)
 • Land68.79 sq mi (178.2 km2)
 • Water5.61 sq mi (14.5 km2)  10.9%
Elevation197 ft (141 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City97,422
 • Density1,711/sq mi (660.8/km2)
 • Metro584,383
 Census Bureau American Community Survey
Time zoneEST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code33801–33815
Area code(s)863
FIPS code12-38250[3]
GNIS feature ID0294459[4]
Websitehttp://www.lakelandgov.net/
Twinned with Richmond Hill, Ontario

Lakeland is a city in Polk County, Florida, USA, and is located between Orlando and Tampa along Interstate 4. According to the 2013 U.S. Census Bureau estimate, the city had a population of 100,710.[2] Lakeland is a principal city of the Lakeland-Winter Haven, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 623,009 in July, 2013 based on data from the University of Florida Bureau of Economic and Business Research. It is twinned with Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada; Imabari, Ehime, Japan; Balti, Moldova; Portmore, Jamaica; and Chongming County, Shanghai, China as part of the Sister Cities program.

The area was home to Native American tribes. Lakeland was settled in the 1870s and expanded in the 1880s with the arrival of rail service. Lakeland is home to the 1,267 acre Circle B Bar Reserve.

History[edit]

Prehistory[edit]

The first Paleo-indians reached the central Florida area near the end of the last ice age, as they followed big game south.[5][6] As the ice melted and sea levels rose, these Native Americans ended up staying and thrived on the peninsula for thousands of years. By the time the first Spanish conquistadors arrived, there were over 250,000 Native Americans living on the peninsula. Some of these first early tribes were the Tocobago, Timucua, and the Calusa. In 1527, a Spanish map showed a settlement near the Rio de la Paz.[5][6] The arrival of the Spanish turned out to be disastrous to these Native American tribes. Within 150 years, the majority of the pre-Columbian Native American peoples of Florida had been wiped out. Those who had not succumbed to diseases such as Small Pox or Yellow Fever were either killed or enslaved.[5][6][7][8] Little is left of these first Native Americans cultures in Polk County except for scant archaeological records including a few personal artifacts and shell mounds. Eventually the remnants of these tribes would merge with Creek Indians who arrived from the north and become the Seminole Indian tribe.[6][8]

Florida became a state in 1845, and Polk County was established in 1861. After the American Civil War, the county seat was established southeast of Lakeland in Bartow. While most of the early history of Polk County centered around the two cities of Bartow and Fort Meade, eventually people entered the areas in northern Polk County and began settling in the areas which became Lakeland.

Early history[edit]

A view of Lakeland's business district, early 1920s

Lakeland was first settled in the 1870s and began to develop as the rail lines reached the area in 1884. It was incorporated 1 January 1885. The town was founded by Abraham Munn (a resident of Louisville, Kentucky), who purchased 80 acres (320,000 m2) of land in what is now downtown Lakeland in 1882 and platted the land for the town in 1884. Among the names considered (and rejected) for the town by its residents were Munnville, Red Bug and Rome City.

In April 1898, the Spanish-American War began and started a crucial point in Lakeland's development. While the war ended quickly and had little impact on most of the nation, the Florida peninsula was used as a launch point for the war and the then small town of Lakeland would house over 9,000 troops.[9]

The Florida boom resulted in the construction of many significant structures in Lakeland, a number of which are today listed on the National Register of Historic Places. This list includes the Terrace Hotel, New Florida Hotel (Regency Tower, currently Lake Mirror Tower), Polk Theatre, Promenade of Lake Mirror, Polk Museum of Art (not a product of the 20's boom), Park Trammell Building (formerly the Lakeland Public Library and today the Lakeland Chamber of Commerce), and others. The city also has several historic districts with many large buildings built during the 1920s and 1940s. The Cleveland Indians held spring training there from 1923 to 1927 at Henley Field Ball Park. Parks were developed surrounding Lake Mirror including Barnett Children's Park, Hollis Gardens, and the newest, Allen Kryger Park.

The "boom" period went "bust" quickly, and years passed before the city recovered. Part of the re-emergence was due to the arrival of the Detroit Tigers in 1934 for spring training. (The team continues to train at Lakeland's Joker Marchant Stadium and owns the city's Florida State League team, the Lakeland Flying Tigers.) The development of the Lakeland Municipal Airport as a major facility in central Florida transportation was another factor. The 1930s also featured the arrival of renowned architect Frank Lloyd Wright. In 1938 he came to Lakeland at the request of Florida Southern College President Ludd Spivey to design a "great education temple in Florida." For 20 years Wright worked on his "true American campus" creation. In his original master plan he called for 18 buildings (and several other structures), nine of which were completed and nine left on the drawing board. All of the buildings were built out of what Wright called his "textile block system," the first use of such a system in Florida. He called his project "A Child of the Sun," so named from the architect’s own description of being "out of the ground, into the light, a child of the sun." It is the largest one-site collection of Frank Lloyd Wright buildings in the world, and in many ways helped to form a pattern for many colleges in Florida and other areas of the country in the future years.[10]

The John F. Cox Grammar School opened in 1925

From World War II to present[edit]

During World War II, hundreds of young British airmen were taught to fly at Lakeland's Lodwick airfield by volunteer flight instructors, a collection of barnstormers and independent pilots. Later, when America entered the war, the Army Air Corps relied on training fields like Lodwick to train pilots for its fighters, bombers, and transport planes.

Geography and climate[edit]

Lakeland is located at 28°02′28″N 81°57′32″W / 28.041248°N 81.958978°W / 28.041248; -81.958978 (28.041248, -81.958978).[11] Lakeland is 141 feet (43 m) above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 67 square miles (173.5 km2). 45.84 square miles (118.7 km2) of it is land and 5.61 square miles (14.5 km2) of it (10.90%) is water. Lakeland is located within the Central Florida Highlands area of the Atlantic coastal plain with a terrain consisting of flatland interspersed with gently rolling hills.[12]

Lakes[edit]

Lake Mirror Park in downtown Lakeland is lined by City Hall and Lakeland Terrace Hotel.

The dominant feature in Lakeland is the city's many lakes. There are 38 named lakes in Lakeland with a number of other bodies of water unnamed, mostly phosphate mine pits that eventually filled with water.[13][14] The largest of these is Lake Parker which is 2,550 acres (10.3 km2) in size. Much of the culture of Lakeland revolves around its many lakes, and many people use the lakes as reference points in much the same way that people in other towns use streets as reference points, such as "I live near Lake Beulah." In addition to Lake Parker, some of the more prominent lakes in the Lakeland area are Lake Hollingsworth, Lake Morton, Lake Mirror, and Lake Gibson.

Swans are one of the most visible features on the lakes of Lakeland. They have a long history, the first swans appearing around 1923. By 1954, the swans were gone, eradicated by alligators and pets. A Lakeland resident who mourned the passing of the swans wrote to Queen Elizabeth. The royal family allowed the capture of two of the royal swans, and the swans now on the lakes of Lakeland are the descendants of the royal swans sent by the queen.

In July 2006, Scott Lake, one of the city's lakes, was almost totally drained by a cluster of sinkholes.[15] The lake later partially refilled.[16]

Climate[edit]

Lakeland, like most other parts of Florida north of Lake Okeechobee, is located in the humid subtropical zone (Köppen climate classification: Cfa).[17] Typically, summers are hot and humid with high temperatures seldom dropping below 90 degrees and 70 degrees for the overnight low. Like most of Central Florida, afternoon thunderstorms are the norm throughout the summer. The winters are drier and mild, although the rare cold snap will drop temperatures below freezing.

Climate data for Lakeland, Florida
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)87
(31)
90
(32)
92
(33)
95
(35)
103
(39)
105
(41)
100
(38)
100
(38)
98
(37)
96
(36)
93
(34)
87
(31)
105
(41)
Average high °F (°C)74
(23)
76
(24)
82
(28)
86
(30)
91
(33)
94
(34)
95
(35)
94
(34)
92
(33)
87
(31)
80
(27)
75
(24)
85.5
(29.7)
Average low °F (°C)51
(11)
52
(11)
56
(13)
61
(16)
67
(19)
72
(22)
73
(23)
74
(23)
73
(23)
66
(19)
59
(15)
53
(12)
63.1
(17.3)
Record low °F (°C)20
(−7)
27
(−3)
25
(−4)
35
(2)
47
(8)
52
(11)
64
(18)
63
(17)
57
(14)
42
(6)
28
(−2)
20
(−7)
20
(−7)
Precipitation inches (mm)2.45
(62.2)
2.73
(69.3)
3.38
(85.9)
2.04
(51.8)
3.81
(96.8)
7.00
(177.8)
7.51
(190.8)
7.33
(186.2)
6.33
(160.8)
2.29
(58.2)
2.12
(53.8)
2.14
(54.4)
49.13
(1,247.9)
Mean monthly sunshine hours203.2209.4258.2302.1306.7255.8255.4248.9226.5239.9213.4203.52,923
Source #1: [18]
Source #2: [19]

Government and politics[edit]

Lakeland is governed by a six member city council. Four members are elected from districts. The other two are elected at large. The mayor is elected.

Law enforcement[edit]

Officers killed on duty[edit]

Lakeland made national headlines on September 28, 2006, when Polk County Sheriff's Deputy Vernon "Matt" Williams and his K-9 partner Diogi were shot and killed after a routine traffic stop in the Wabash area of Lakeland. More than 500 police officers from a variety of law enforcement agencies joined in a search for Angilo Freeland, suspected of murdering Williams and then stealing his gun.

Freeland was found hiding in a rural area the next morning. Nine officers from five different law enforcement agencies surrounded Freeland and shot him when he raised Williams' stolen gun at them. A total of 110 shots were fired and Freeland was hit 68 times, killing him instantly.[20][21] Multiple investigations concluded the officers' use of force was justified.[22] Deputy Williams and Diogi were laid to rest on October 3, 2006, after a funeral that included a one-hour and 45 minute procession to Auburndale.[23]

On December 18, 2011, Lakeland Police Officer Arnulfo Crispin was shot and killed after he stopped five young men while on a routine patrol. Crispin was 25 years old, and an 18-month veteran of the force. The alleged shooter, Kyle Williams, will stand trial in August 2014, and prosecutors will seek the death penalty if he is convicted.[24]

Police Canine Unit[edit]

The Lakeland Police Department is recognized as having one of the best trained canine units in the United States. At the annual USPCA Police Dog Field Trials—the largest competition of police dogs in the United States—Lakeland police dog Bruno took 1st place in 2012 and 2013, and Charief took 2nd place in 2009 and 2011.[25][26]

Misconduct[edit]

In October 2010, Officer Rawn Haynes was arrested and charged with negligence for having left a weapon in a car with two young boys. One of the children found the gun and shot the other boy in the hand. Officer Haynes was suspended with pay after his arrest.[27]

In June 2011, Sergeant Steven Sealy was suspended from the department for reportedly interfering with the investigation of police Lieutenant Ralph Schrader. Schrader had been convicted in January 2010 of stalking his ex-wife.[28]

A week later, Officer Billy Wayne Skinner, who was assigned to protect local schools, was charged with stalking and making threatening phone calls to a married woman he was having an affair with.[29]

In July, 2013 the county prosecutor released a report that "revealed an extraordinary amount of sexual conduct that was committed both on-duty and off-duty," with a single woman. As a result of the report, an assistant chief of the department retired while five officers have been placed on various forms of modified duty. "Had these members of your department been more focused on the important responsibilities of law enforcement, rather than pursuing sexual encounters with a civilian analyst, LPD might not be in the condition it is today," the report concluded.[30] Sergeants Rusty Longaberger and David Woolverton were fired for conduct unbecoming, failure to report misconduct and neglect of duty.[31]

In late January 2014, the State Attorney's Office investigated hiring practices in the department due to allegations of improper handling of the 2012 job application of the nephew of the Chief Lisa Womack. The chief had already announced she would leave her position on 1 May 2014. She was placed on administrative leave in January 2014. One city councilman, Justin Troller commented, ""Let's pay her and move on."[32]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
1890552
19001,180113.8%
19103,719215.2%
19207,06289.9%
193018,554162.7%
194022,06818.9%
195030,85139.8%
196041,35034.0%
197042,8033.5%
198047,40610.8%
199070,57648.9%
200078,45211.2%
201097,42224.2%
Population 1890-2000.[33]
Lakeland Demographics
2010 CensusLakelandPolk CountyFlorida
Total population97,422602,09518,801,310
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010+24.2%+24.4%+17.6%
Population density1,492.6/sq mi334.9/sq mi350.6/sq mi
White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic)70.8%75.2%75.0%
(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian)63.1%64.6%57.9%
Black or African-American20.9%14.8%16.0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)12.6%17.7%22.5%
Asian1.8%1.6%2.4%
Native American or Native Alaskan0.3%0.4%0.4%
Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian0.1%0.1%0.1%
Two or more races (Multiracial)2.7%2.4%2.5%
Some Other Race2.6%5.5%3.6%

As of 2010, there were 48,218 households, with 15.5% being vacant. As of 2000, 23.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.5% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39% were individuals and non-traditional families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.82.

In 2000, the city the population was spread out with 21.4% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 23.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 86.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.1 males.

In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $16,119, and the median income for a family was $17,468. Males had a median income of $14,137 versus $9,771 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,760. About 47% of families and 35% of the population were below the poverty line, including 97% of those under age 18 and 9% of those age 65 or over.

Languages[edit]

As of 2000, those who spoke only English at home accounted for 91% of all residents, while 9% spoke other languages at home. The most significant were Spanish speakers who made up 6.44% of the population, while German came up as the third most spoken language, which made up 0.75%, and French was at fourth, with 0.51% of the population.[34]

Religion[edit]

In 1913, the Wolfson family arrived from Lithuania and became the first Jewish settlers to the area.[35] After some struggles, the Jewish community in Lakeland flourished and the first synagogue, Temple Emanuel opened in 1932.[36]

Lakeland is home to one of the first Hindu temples in the United States, the Swaminarayan Hindu Temple.[37]

In 1994 the first and only mosque was established. It was called Masjid Aisha but is now called the Islamic Center of Lakeland. It was remodeled in 2011. It is located on the corner of Providence and Orange Blossom.[citation needed]

Christianity makes up the largest religious group in Lakeland. As of 2013 an estimated 300 churches exist with an address in the city.[38]

Economy[edit]

Publix headquarters

Lakeland is the largest city on Interstate 4 between Orlando and Tampa. Large industries in the Lakeland area are citrus, cattle and phosphate mining. In the past few decades, tourism, medicine, insurance, transportation and music have grown in importance.

Citrus growing dates back to the early settlers who planted trees in the area in the 1850s. After a series of freezes in counties north of Polk County, the area became the focal point for citrus growing in the state of Florida. Although citrus is no longer the biggest industry in the area, it still plays a large part in the economy of Lakeland and Polk County.

Phosphate mining is still important to the economy of Lakeland, although most of the mining now takes place further south. The Bone Valley produced 25% of the U.S. phosphate supply.

Lakeland's largest employer is Publix Supermarkets.[39] Publix is one of the largest regional grocery chains in the United States with over 1,000 stores. Publix employs over 6,500 people in the Lakeland area including headquarter and warehouse employees. A regional restaurant chain, Crispers, also calls Lakeland home.

Lakeland is a transportation hub. FedEx Freight & FedEx Services and the Saddle Creek Corporation employ over 600 people in the area.[39] Other large employers in the area include GEICO, Rooms To Go, and Lakeland Regional Medical Center.[39]

The Lakeland seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 11.3% as of February 2011.[40]

Culture[edit]

Historic districts[edit]

Munn Park

Buildings and locations[edit]

Century Plaza in downtown Lakeland.
Lake Mirror Promenade

Media[edit]

Polk County is within the Tampa Bay television market. Bright House Networks is the cable television franchise serving Lakeland, which offers most television stations from the Tampa Bay market, as well as WFTV, the ABC affiliate from Orlando. WMOR-TV, an independent television station, is licensed to Lakeland, with its studios in Tampa and its transmitter in Riverview.

Lakeland and Polk County are within its own radio market. Local radio stations include:

WLLD 94.1 FM is licensed to Lakeland, but has wider focus on the Tampa Bay area, with studios in St. Petersburg. WKES 91.1 FM is also licensed to Lakeland as part of the statewide Moody Radio Florida network, with studios in Seminole, near St. Petersburg. Most major stations from Tampa Bay and a few from Orlando are also available.

The local newspaper is The Ledger, owned by Halifax Media Group.

Popular culture[edit]

Southgate Shopping Center

In 1990, Lakeland made its Hollywood debut when the Southgate Shopping Center was featured in the movie Edward Scissorhands. It was also used in the filming of the Judd Nelson movie Endure.[41] Classrooms from Florida Southern College were used in the Adam Sandler comedy, "The Waterboy".[42]

Transportation[edit]

Because Lakeland is the largest city on Interstate 4 between Tampa and Orlando, the city is an important transportation hub. The county nickname, Imperial Polk County, was coined because a large bond issue in 1914 enabled wide roads between the cities of Polk County.[43]

The important freeways and highways in Lakeland today are:

The Interstate 4 overpass in Lakeland (exit 32)

Public transportation[edit]

Education[edit]

Annie Pfeiffer Chapel

The public schools in Lakeland are operated by the Polk County School Board. There are 28 elementary, 7 middle, 5 traditional high schools and 3 magnet-choice high schools in the Lakeland area run by the Polk County School Board.

Traditional public high schools[edit]

Magnet high schools[edit]

Traditional public middle schools[edit]

  • Kathleen Middle School
  • Lake Gibson Middle School
  • Crystal Lake Middle school
  • Sleepy Hill Middle School
  • Lakeland Highlands Middle School
  • Southwest Middle School

Magnet middle schools[edit]

  • Lawton Chiles Middle School
  • Rochelle School of the Arts (elementary and middle)

Charter schools[edit]

Private schools[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

There are a number of opportunities for higher education around the Lakeland area. Southeastern University is the largest university in the area, with an enrollment of around 2800.[45] Southeastern is affiliated with the Assemblies of God. Florida Southern College, established in 1883 and with a current enrollment of just over 2000,[46] is located on Lake Hollingsworth. Florida Southern is the home of the world’s largest single-site collection of Frank Lloyd Wright architecture. In July 2008, the University of South Florida's Lakeland campus was granted partial autonomy by Governor Charlie Crist and became Florida Polytechnic University. Florida Polytechnic plans a new campus located just inside the Lakeland's northeast border at the intersection of I-4 and Polk Parkway in addition to their joint site with Polk State College on Winter Lake Road. Both Everest University and Keiser University, two multi-site for-profit accredited universities, have locations in Lakeland. Traviss Career Center is a vocational school.[47] Webster University offers on-site, regionally accredited graduate degree programs in business and counseling at their Lakeland Metropolitan Campus[48]

Sports[edit]

Joker Marchant Stadium, north of downtown, hosts spring training for the Detroit Tigers, as well as their Lakeland Flying Tigers class-A Florida State League and GCL Tigers rookie-league Gulf Coast League minor league baseball teams. Lakeland is also home to the Lakeland Raiders, an indoor football team playing in the Ultimate Indoor Football League. They play at the Lakeland Center. In the 1980s, the Lakeland Center briefly played host to the indoor version of the Tampa Bay Rowdies soccer team. The Lakeland Center also hosts the Florida High School Athletic Association's state basketball finals. Sun 'n Fun is the home of Lakeland's only roller derby league, the Lakeland Derby Dames.

Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Florida by Place. Population, Housing, Area, and Density: 2000". US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  2. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the population for the Incorporated Places of Florida" (XLS). US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  3. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ a b c "Ancient Native". HOTOA. Retrieved 2010-09-09. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Polk County History". Polk Counjty Historical Association. Retrieved 2010-09-11. 
  7. ^ "The Ancient Ones". HOTOA. Retrieved 2010-09-09. 
  8. ^ a b Weibel, B. "Trail of Florida's Ancient Heritage". active.com. Retrieved 2010-09-09. 
  9. ^ "Spanish American War". Polk County Historical Association. 2003-6. p. 6. Retrieved 2010-09-26. 
  10. ^ "Restoring a Campus-Full of Frank Lloyd Wright". NPR. Retrieved 2010-09-26. 
  11. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  12. ^ "Florida's Geological History". University of Florida. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  13. ^ "Measurement of Recovery in Lakes Following Phosphate Mining". Florida Institute of Phosphate Research. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  14. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Lakeland, Florida. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  15. ^ Diane Lacey Allen (23 June 2006). "'The Lake is Dry'". The Ledger. Retrieved 3007-11-25. 
  16. ^ "Florida Lake Swallowed by Sinkhole Reappearing". Associated Press. 25 July 2006. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  17. ^ "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna. 2008-11-06. Retrieved 2010-09-10. 
  18. ^ "Average Weather for Lakeland, FL - Temperature and Precipitation". Weather.com. Retrieved August 27, 2010. 
  19. ^ "NOAA". NOAA. 
  20. ^ Waddell, Lynn (Oct 13, 2006). "68 Bullets". Newsweek. 
  21. ^ "Autopsy: Officers fired 110 rounds at man suspected in cop's death". Sunbeam Television Corp. Sep 30, 2006. 
  22. ^ Walter, Shoshana (June 5, 2008). "Killer's Civil Rights Not Violated, Panel Says". TheLedger.com. 
  23. ^ Stegall, Sarah (Oct 4, 2006). "Thousands Turn Out to Say 'Thank You'". TheLedger.com. 
  24. ^ Geary, Jason (December 5, 2013). "Trial of Kyle Williams Is Delayed In 2011 Lakeland Police Killing". The Ledger. 
  25. ^ "2013 National Patrol Dog Field Trials". United States Police Canine Association. Retrieved January 2014. 
  26. ^ "National 2011 USPCA Police Dog Field Trials". United States Police Canine Association. 
  27. ^ LPD Officer Arrested, Suspended, The Ledger, 21 October 2010
  28. ^ Police Sgt. Sealey Suspended Over Schrader Inquiry, by Jason Geary, The Ledger, 10 June 2011
  29. ^ Lakeland Officer Charged With Stalking Woman After Affair, by Matthew Pleasant, The Ledger, 18 June 2012
  30. ^ Florida police officers entangled in widespread sex scandal, Associated Press, 10 July 2013
  31. ^ Two Lakeland police sergeants fired in wake of major sex scandal, by Chris Trenkmann, 15 July 2013, WFTS
  32. ^ LPD Chief Lisa Womack Put on Administrative Leave; Police chief suspended after report about her nephew's job search at LPD is released, by Jeremy Maready & Rick Rousos, 31 January 2014, The Ledger
  33. ^ "Census Of Population And Housing". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  34. ^ Modern Language Association Data Center Results of Lakeland, Florida.
  35. ^ "First Jewish Settlers". Polk County Historical Association. October 2002. p. 1. Retrieved 2010-09-26. 
  36. ^ "Temple Emanuel History". Billy. October 2002. Retrieved 2010-09-26. 
  37. ^ "Religion in Polk". Lakeland. Retrieved 2010-09-26. 
  38. ^ name="Counting Lakeland's Churches""Churches in Lakeland, FL". Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  39. ^ a b c "Lakeland Demographics Guide 2010". City of Lakeland. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  40. ^ "Unemployment Rate - Polk County, FL - July, 2012 | theledger.com | The Ledger | Lakeland, FL". Ledgerdata.com. Retrieved November 1, 2012. 
  41. ^ White, Gary (March 3, 2009). "Lakeland Filmmakers Snag Judd Nelson". TheLedger.com. 
  42. ^ Erickson, Stephanie (13 October 2005). "Have any movies been filmed in Polk County?". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  43. ^ "Why Imperial Polk". Polk County Website. Retrieved 2010-09-10. 
  44. ^ http://www.ridecitrus.com/content/interior.asp?section=routes&body=lakeland.htm
  45. ^ "Southeastern University". cappex.com. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  46. ^ "Florida Southern College". US News and World Report. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  47. ^ "Traviss Career Center | Lakeland, Florida". Traviss.edu. Retrieved November 1, 2012. 
  48. ^ http://www.webster.edu/lakeland

External links[edit]