GM Family II engine

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The Family II is a straight-4 piston engine that was originally developed by Opel in the early 1970s. It was used in the Opel Ascona and Opel Kadett and their corresponding sister models the Vauxhall Cavalier and Vauxhall Astra. In the US the SOHC engine was available from 1982 to 1990 including a turbocharged version known as LT3.

Over time, the engine evolved to include many modern features such as DOHC and Gasoline direct injection. Family II has also expanded to include a range of Opel-derived 6-cylinder engines. Many General Motors subsidiaries, including Holden, GM do Brasil and recently GM Powertrain have adopted this design. It is also starting to be used in hot rods as an engine swap.

1990s[edit source | edit]

20NE, 20SE, 20SEH, C20NE, C20GET[edit source | edit]

These engines formed the basis of the modern Family II lineup. Configuration was limited to a single over head cam, and 2 Valves per cylinder (8 valves total). The 20NE served as the base, where later Family II engines evolved.

Common features include:

Individual differences:

EnginePowerTorqueRatioEngine Management(Other)
20NE116 hp (87 kW) @ 5200 rpm175 N·m (129 lb·ft) @ 2600 rpm9.2:1Motronic ML 4.1
20SE122 hp (91 kW) at 5,400 rpm175 N·m (129 lb·ft) at 2,600 rpm10.0:1Motronic ML 4.1High compression pistons
20SEH130 hp (97 kW) at 5,600 rpm180 N·m (130 lb·ft) at 4,600 rpm10.0:1Motronic ML 4.1High compression pistons; More aggressive camshaft than 20SE
C20NE115 hp (86 kW) at 5,200 rpm170 N·m (130 lb·ft) at 2,600 rpm9.2:1Motronic 1.5/Motronic 1.5.2Catalytic converter; Lambda sensor.
C20GET165 hp (123 kW) at 5,600 rpm175 N·m (129 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm8.0:1Most likely Motronic 1.5Turbocharged

A South African derivative of the 20SEH engine was used until 1999 in the Astra/Kadett models featuring 10:1 compression ratio and a Bosch Motronic 1.5.4 engine management system. Quoted power was 95 kW (129 PS; 127 hp) and 180 N·m (130 lb·ft) of torque.

The 2-liter 8v OHC engines is used in the base versions of:

20XE, 20XEJ, C20XE, C20LET[edit source | edit]

The naturally aspirated 16-valve version of the 2.0 L— 1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)—cast-iron-block engine is the successor to the OHC-engines and a predecessor to the 16-valve Ecotec-line of engines.

This lineup features the same block as the OHC based engines with an 86 mm (3.4 in) bore & stroke and a Coscast-developed DOHC cylinder head (Coscast Project KB). The cylinder heads were manufactured by either Coscast or, at a later date, Kolbenschmidt. In general, the heads from this lineup are supposed to flow appreciablу better than their Ecotec successors. Power output is rated at 110 kW (150 hp) at 6000 rpm and 196 N·m at 4600 rpm (C20XE) or 156 hp (20XE).

Common features:

-1,998 cc (121.9 cu in); 86 mm × 86 mm (3.4 in × 3.4 in) bore x stroke
-Cast-iron block
-Aluminium head
-Aluminium oil pan with cooling fins
-Air mass flow meter
-Knock sensors
-Twin Camshafts
-8 bolt flywheel


- 157 hp (117 kW)
- 198 N·m (146 lb·ft)
-Compression ratio: 10.8-1
-Engine Management: Bosch Motronic 2.5


- 150 bhp (112 kW; 152 PS) @ 6000 rpm
- 196 N·m (145 lb·ft) @ 4600 rpm
-Compression ratio: 10.8-1
-Catalytic converter
-Lambda sensor
-Engine Management: Bosch Motronic 2.8


- 204 hp (152 kW) @ 5600 rpm
- 280 N·m (210 lb·ft) @ 2400 rpm
- 102 bhp/litre
-Compression ratio: 9.0-1
-Catalytic converter
-Lambda sensor
-Different camshafts
-Turbo pressure: 0.6 bars (8.7 psi) continuous with a 0.8 bars (12 psi) overboost
-Engine Management: Bosch Motronic M2.7
-The map sensor is built into the ECU.
-Turbo used in the C20LET: KKK16, integral water cooling and oil lubrication.

These engines were used in:

The turbocharged version of the C20XE, branded C20LET was also offered in the Opel/Vauxhall Calibra and Vectra Turbo. The C20LET is essentially the same as the C20XE, bar the lower compression, forged Mahle pistons turbocharger, Bosch Motronic M2.7 with a MAP sensor. There are also slight revisions to the block which provide an oil inlet/outlet for the turbocharger.

X20XEV[edit source | edit]

The first engine Opel branded as Ecotec, a mass-market successor to the C20XE with a Lotus-developed cylinder head. The new cylinder head had a smaller valve angle compared to the older C20XE, which was supposed to give more torque in the lower revs. It is a 1,998 cc (121.9 cu in) naturally aspirated engine with 16 valves and belt driven double overhead camshafts (DOHC). 86 mm (3.4 in) bore and stroke in cast-iron OHC-derived cylinder block and aluminium cylinder head. X20XEV was equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions and air injection reactor (AIR) to speed up the warming up of the catalytic converter and to reduce unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Power 100 kW / 136 hp.

This engine was used in:

Ecotec[edit source | edit]

The Ecotec name was adopted in 2000 for the new generation of Family II engines. The name was already used for the Opel GM Family II engine, Family 1 and Family 0 ranges. GM intends this new Ecotec to become its global 4-cylinder, and it has already fully replaced their OHV I4 line.

The Ecotec Family II is a DOHC 4-valve design with an aluminum block and head (L850 for 86 mm bore applications, and L880 for 88 mm bore), designed for displacements from 1.8 to 2.4 L. It was developed by an international team of engineers and technicians from Opel's International Technical Development Center in Rüsselsheim, Germany, GM Powertrain in Pontiac, Michigan, and Saab in Trollhättan, Sweden.[1] Much of the development work on this project was carried out by Lotus Engineering, Hethel, United Kingdom. The engine uses aluminum pistons and cast iron cylinder liners. Vibration is reduced with twin balance shafts.

The first engine in the Ecotec Gen I line-up was Ecotec 2.2 L61, introduced in 2000.

The current Ecotec line is manufactured in Tonawanda, New York[1] and Kaiserslautern, Germany. Until the discontinuation of Saturn, it was also produced at a plant in Spring Hill, Tennessee. After Saturn it is still produced at Spring Hill. Over 30,000 were assembled in January, 2012.

2.0[edit source | edit]

Z20LET[edit source | edit]

Opel/Vauxhall offers a turbocharged version of the 2.0 L—1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)—Ecotec (the Z20LET) in a cast-iron block; it features a square 86 millimetres (3.4 in) bore and stroke, 8.5:1 compression, 147 kW (200 PS; 197 hp) and 195 lb·ft (264 N·m) of torque.

This engine is used in:

From 2005, the Z20LET engine was revised for the Astra H and Zafira B, to three different model designations, Z20LEL, Z20LER and Z20LEH. The differing designations denote the engine power output, 170 hp, 200 hp (149 kW) and 240 hp (179 kW). Further revisions to the original design include the deletion of the contrarotating balancer shafts in the 240 hp (179 kW) Z20LEH engine, to reduce mechanical losses.

LK9[edit source | edit]

Saab B207 engine in a 2008 Saab 9-3 2.0T

This engine is also known as B207 when used by Saab and Z20NET in other countries such as The United Kingdom and Australia.

LK9 is a turbocharged 2.0 L— 1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)—version of the L850 (86 mm bore) series ECOTEC utilizing a reinforced sand cast aluminum cylinder head and reinforced internal components. It features an 86 millimetres (3.4 in) bore and stroke and a 9.5:1 compression ratio. Power is 210 horsepower (160 kW) at 5300 rpm and 221 lb·ft (300 N·m) of torque at 2500 rpm. Maximum boost is 12.3 psi (0.85 bar).

Saab 9-3, and Cadillac BLS Variations:

1.8t2002–present110 kW (150 PS; 148 hp) @ 5500 rpm240 N·m (180 lb·ft) @ 2000–3500 rpmLow-pressure
2.0t2002–present129 kW (175 PS; 173 hp) @ 5500 rpm265 N·m (195 lb·ft) @ 2500–4000 rpmMid-pressure (B207L)
2.0T2002–present154 kW (209 PS; 207 hp) @ 5300 rpm300 N·m (220 lb·ft) @ 2500–4000 rpmHigh-pressure(B207R)

LSJ[edit source | edit]

Ecotec LSJ engine in a 2006 Saturn Ion Red Line

The LSJ is a supercharged version of the LK9 Ecotec 2.0 L— 1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)— with an Eaton M62 Roots-type supercharger and air-to-liquid intercooler. It is rated at 205 hp (153 kW) at 5600 rpm and 200 lb·ft (271 N·m) at 4400 rpm with a compression ratio of 9.5:1 and a 6500 rpm redline. With the end of the Chevy Cobalt S/C SS and Saturn Ion Red Line, the LSJ was discontinued after 2007.

The LSJ was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2006.

This engine is used in:

2004–2007Saturn Ion Red Line205 hp (153 kW) @ 5600 rpm200 lb·ft (271 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
2005–2007Chevrolet Cobalt SS Supercharged Coupe205 hp (153 kW) @ 5600 rpm200 lb·ft (271 N·m) @ 4400 rpm

Ariel Atom[edit source | edit]

In late 2005 Brammo Motorsports struck a deal with GM for the Supercharged 2.0 L Ecotec for their Ariel Atom. The engine came in various ratings from 205 hp (153 kW) to 300 hp (220 kW).

2.2[edit source | edit]

L61[edit source | edit]

Ecotec L61 engine in a Chevrolet Classic (Malibu)
2003 Pontiac Sunfire Ecotec engine
Ecotec L61 installed in a 2003 Chevrolet Cavalier

This engine is also known as a Z22SE in other countries such as The United Kingdom and Australia.

The basic Family II architecture was substantially re-engineered in 2000 to become the Ecotec Gen I. Unlike its notably harsh predecessor, the engine was designed for smoothness. Dual in-block balance shafts were integral to the design, the power-steering pump was mounted directly to the cylinder head and driven by the intake camshaft, the water-pump housing was cast into the block, and the A/C compressor and alternator were mounted directly on the block without brackets. The oil filter housing was cast into the block with a removable cover and replaceable paper element. It did not use an EGR valve. The Ecotec line is manufactured in Tonawanda, New York and Kaiserslautern, Germany, and was also manufactured for Saturn in Spring Hill, Tennessee until Saturn's discontinuation. In North America this engine replaced both the Quad-4 and the GM 122 engines and first appeared in the 2000 Saturn L-Series.[1]

The L61 is a 2.2 L—2,198 cc (134.1 cu in)—version with a lost-foam cast aluminum cylinder head and block; it features an 86 millimetres (3.4 in) bore and 94.6 millimetres (3.72 in) stroke [1] and either a 9.5:1 compression ratio or a 10.0:1. The engine is 665 millimetres (26.2 in) in length, 642 millimetres (25.3 in)in width, 655 millimetres (25.8 in) in height and approximately 139 kilograms (310 lb).[1]

The Ecotec 2.2, model L61 first appeared in the 2000 Saturn LS1; the L61-powered Saturn Ion also replaced the Saturn-powered Saturn S-Series.

There are a few variations to the standard L61. The 2003 Saturn L-Series has a high output version with higher (10:1) compression and more aggressive camshaft. The 2004-2008 Chevrolet Malibu uses a version with electronic throttle control and a special unitized exhaust manifold and catalytic converter. The Malibu and Saturn versions also use return-less fuel injection. The 2002 Saturn VUE was the first North American variant of the L61 to be equipped with electronic throttle control, whereas other applications did not arise until 2005 in the Saturn ION and Chevrolet Cobalt. On engines produced before 2007, spark was produced via 2 coils in a cassette that bolted to the top of the valve cover which contained the boots for each spark plug on the bottom of it, eliminating the need for wires.

The supercharger and inlet manifold from the 2.0 Ecotec LSJ engine can be purchased as an official kit from GM and along with modified software in the ECM, can create a 2.2 supercharged version of this engine.

The L61 was used in the following cars:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorqueCompression ratio
2002Chevrolet Cavalier140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4400 rpm10.0:1
2003–2005150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2005–2006Chevrolet Cobalt145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm10.0:1
2007–2008148 hp (110 kW) @ 5600 rpm152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4200 rpm
2006Chevrolet HHR143 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm10.0:1
2007149 hp (111 kW) @ 5600 rpm152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2008152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4200 rpm
2004Chevrolet Malibu145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm10.0:1
2005–2006144 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm
2007145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4200 rpm
2002–2004Oldsmobile Alero140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm10.0:1
2002Pontiac Grand Am140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4400 rpm10.0:1
2003–2004150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2002Pontiac Sunfire140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4400 rpm10.0:1
2003–2005150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2005–2006Pontiac Pursuit/G5145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm10.0:1
2007–2008148 hp (110 kW) @ 5600 rpm152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4200 rpm
2000Saturn L-Series137 hp (102 kW) @ 5800 rpm135 lb·ft (183 N·m) @ 4400 rpm9.5:1
2001-2003135 hp (101 kW) @ 5200 rpm142 lb·ft (193 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
2004140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2003–2006Saturn Ion140 hp (100 kW) @ 5800 rpm145 lb·ft (197 N·m) @ 4400 rpm10.0:1
2007145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4200 rpm
2002–2005Saturn Vue143 hp (107 kW) @ 5400 rpm152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4000 rpm10.0:1
2006143 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm
2007144 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm
2001–2005Vauxhall VX220/Opel Speedster[1]147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2000–2003Vauxhall Astra/Opel Astra[1]147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2001–2002Vauxhall Vectra/Opel Vectra[1]147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2000–2003Vauxhall Zafira/Opel Zafira[1]147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm

This engine also powered the Japanese-market Subaru Traviq, a badge-engineered Opel Zafira A.[2]

Following the GM-Fiat agreement, the 2.2 L engine is also used in

Z22YH[edit source | edit]

A direct injection version of the 2.2 L (2198 cc) Ecotec features 114 kW (153 hp) of power @5600 rpm and 220 N·m (160 ft·lbf) of torque @ 3800 rpm with a compression ratio of 12.0:1, and has been available in:

L42[edit source | edit]

The Ecotec 2.2, model L42 is the CNG version of the Ecotec 2.2. It delivers 129 hp (96 kW) and 129 lb·ft (175 N·m).

Ecotec Gen II[edit source | edit]

2.0[edit source | edit]

LNF[edit source | edit]

Ecotec LNF in a Pontiac Solstice

A turbocharged direct injected (redubbed Spark Ignition Direct Injection) Ecotec was introduced in the 2007 Pontiac Solstice GXP and Saturn Sky Red Line. In these applications, the engine is mounted longitudinally. Displacement is 2.0 L—1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)—with a square 86 millimetres (3.4 in) bore and stroke. Compression is 9.2:1 and maximum boost is 1.4 bar (20.0 psi), delivering 260 hp (190 kW) at 5300 rpm and 260 lb·ft (350 N·m) of torque from 2500 to 5250 rpm. Engine redline is at 6300 rpm and premium fuel is recommended. The sodium filled exhaust valves were based on technology developed for the Corvette V8 powertrains. The sodium fuses and becomes a liquid at idle, which improves conductivity and draws heat away from the valve face and valve guide towards the stem to be cooled by the engine oil circulating in this area. The camshaft-driven direct injection systems pressurizes the fuel to 31 bar (450 psi) at idle, and up to 155 bar (2,250 psi) at wide-open throttle. The "Gen II" block is similar to the 2.4 L and also features VVT technology. The Gen II block was developed using data from racing programs and computer simulations. The bore walls and bulkheads were strengthened with a weight increase of 1 kg (2.5 pounds). The coolant jackets were expanded to improve heat transfer, resulting in a coolant capacity increase of 0.5 liters.

In December 2008, GM released a Turbo Upgrade Kit for the LNF engine which increases horsepower to 290 hp (220 kW) and torque to up to 340 lb·ft (460 N·m), depending on the model. The kit retails for $650 and includes remapped engine calibration and upgraded MAP sensors. The kit is covered by the cars' existing GM warranties.[3]

Unique LNF features[4] include:

This engine is used in:

2007–2009Opel GT260 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm
2007–2009Pontiac Solstice GXP260 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm
2007–2009Saturn Sky Red Line260 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm
2008–2010Chevrolet HHR SS260 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm
2008–2010Chevrolet Cobalt SS260 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm
2009Elfin T5264 hp (197 kW) @ 5300 rpm259 lb·ft (351 N·m) @ 2000 rpm
2012Fisker Karma260 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm

LDK[edit source | edit]

A high-performance version of the LNF with 9.2:1 compression. This engine is also known as A20NFT and A20NHT by GM Powertrain Europe.

This engine is used in:

2009Opel Insignia162 kW (220 PS; 217 hp) @ 5300 rpm350 N·m (258 lb·ft) @ 2500 rpm
2010–2012Saab 9-5162 kW (220 PS; 217 hp) @ 5300 rpm350 N·m (258 lb·ft) @ 2500 rpm
2011Opel Insignia 4x4184 kW (250 PS; 247 hp) @5300 rpm400 N·m (300 lb·ft) @2400-3600 rpm
2012Opel Astra J OPC206 kW (280 PS; 276 hp) @5500 rpm400 N·m (300 lb·ft) @2500-4500 rpm

LHU[edit source | edit]

LHU adds E85 flex-fuel capability to the LDK.

2011–presentBuick Regal Turbo220 hp (160 kW) @ 5300 rpm258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2000 rpm
2011–2012Saab 9-5 Turbo4220 hp (160 kW) @ 5300 rpm258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2000 rpm
2012–presentBuick Regal GS270 hp (200 kW)[5]295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 2400 rpm
2013Buick Verano Turbo[6]250 hp (190 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2000 rpm

2.2[edit source | edit]

LAP[edit source | edit]

The LAP is a 2.2 L—2,198 cc (134.1 cu in)—version of the Ecotec, based on the Gen II block with cylinder head improvements, new camshaft design, E37 engine control module, 58X crankshaft reluctor ring, digital crank and cam sensors, individual coil-on-plug ignition, vented starter solenoid, new MAP sensor, new intake manifold seals, new oil filter element, a 32-bit computer, and improved emissions performance.

Bore and stroke are 86 mm (3.4 in) and 94.6 mm (3.72 in), the same as the 2.2 L L61. Compression ratio is 10.0:1. Major features that set it apart from the 2.2 L L61 are variable-valve-timing and other cylinder head improvements from the 2.4 L LE5.

2009–2010Chevrolet Cobalt155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4900 rpm
2009Pontiac G5155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4900 rpm

LE8[edit source | edit]

The LE8 is an E85 compatible 2.2 L—2,198 cc (134.1 cu in)—version of the LAP Ecotec. Bore and stroke remain the same 86 mm (3.4 in) and 94.6 mm (3.72 in). Compression ratio is 10.0:1 and the engine can run on both regular unleaded gasoline or E85.

2009–2011Chevrolet HHR155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm (gasoline)150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4800 rpm (gasoline)
160 hp (120 kW) @ 6000 rpm (E85)158 lb·ft (214 N·m) @ 4600 rpm (E85)

2.4[edit source | edit]

LE5[edit source | edit]

Ecotec LE5 engine in a 2006 Pontiac Solstice

The LE5 is a larger 2.4 L—2,384 cc (145.5 cu in)—version of the Ecotec. Both the 88 mm (3.5 in) bore and 98 mm (3.9 in) stroke are larger, and Variable Valve Timing on the intake and exhaust improve low-end torque. Compression is 10.4:1. Power is 164-177 hp (123-132 kW) and torque is 159-170 lb·ft (215-230 N·m). The engine uses a reinforced "Gen II" block.

2006–2007Chevrolet Cobalt SS173 hp (129 kW) @ 6200 rpm163 lb·ft (221 N·m) @ 4800 rpm
2008Chevrolet Cobalt Sport171 hp (128 kW) @ 6200 rpm167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4800 rpm
2006–2008Chevrolet HHR175 hp (130 kW)165 lb·ft (224 N·m)
2006–2008Pontiac G5/Pursuit171 hp (128 kW) @ 5800 rpm167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4500 rpm
2006–2009Pontiac G6169 hp (126 kW) @ 6300 rpm162 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 4500 rpm
2006–2009Pontiac Solstice173 hp (129 kW) @ 5800 rpm164 lb·ft (222 N·m) @ 4500 rpm
2006–2009Saturn Sky173 hp (129 kW) @ 5800 rpm166 lb·ft (225 N·m) @ 4800 rpm
2006–2007Saturn Ion175 hp (130 kW) @ 6200 rpm164 lb·ft (222 N·m) @ 4800 rpm
2008–2009Saturn Aura169 hp (126 kW)162 lb·ft (220 N·m)
2008–2012Chevrolet Malibu169 hp (126 kW)162 lb·ft (220 N·m)
2008–2009Saturn Vue169 hp (126 kW) @ 6200 rpm161 lb·ft (218 N·m) @ 5100 rpm

The LE5 is also used in the following overseas models:

LAT[edit source | edit]

The LAT is the designation used for the 2.4 L LE5 when used in GM's mild hybrid vehicles.

2007–2009Saturn Aura Green Line Hybrid164 hp (122 kW) @ 6400 rpm159 lb·ft (216 N·m) @ 5000 rpm
2007Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid170 hp (130 kW) @ 6600 rpm162 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 4200 rpm
2008Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid172 hp (128 kW) @ 6500 rpm167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4500 rpm
2008–2009Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid164 hp (122 kW) @ 6400 rpm159 lb·ft (216 N·m) @ 5000 rpm

LE9[edit source | edit]

The LE9 is an E85 compatible version of the 2.4 L—2,384 cc (145.5 cu in)—LE5 Ecotec. Bore and stroke are 88 mm (3.5 in) and 98 mm (3.9 in) and has a compression ratio of 10.4:1, the same as the LE5.

2009–2011Chevrolet HHR172 hp (128 kW) @ 5800 rpm (gasoline)167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4500 rpm (gasoline)
176 hp (131 kW) @ 5800 rpm (E85)170 lb·ft (230 N·m) @ 5000 rpm (E85)
2010–2012Chevrolet Malibu (fleet only)175 hp (130 kW) @ 5800 rpm (E85)170 lb·ft (230 N·m) @ 5000 rpm (E85)

LAF[edit source | edit]

The LAF is a direct injected 2.4 L. It uses technology based on GM’s other four-cylinder direct injection applications, but with unique features designed for its specific application. This includes an 11.4:1 compression ratio that helps build power, slightly dished pistons that increase combustion efficiency and injectors with an application-specific flow rate.[7] [8]

2010–2011Chevrolet Equinox
GMC Terrain
182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm (gasoline)172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm (gasoline)
2010–2011Buick LaCrosse182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm
2011Buick Regal182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm
2011-Chevrolet Captiva182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm

LEA[edit source | edit]

The LEA is similar to the LE9, with E85 capability and the same bore and stroke, but with a compression ratio of 11.2:1. It adds direct injection and electronic throttle control.

2012Buick Regal182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm
2012Buick Verano[9]180 hp (134 kW) @ 6700 rpm171 lb·ft (232 N·m) @ 4900 rpm
2012Chevrolet Captiva Sport182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm
2012Chevrolet Equinox
GMC Terrain
182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm

LUK[edit source | edit]

The LUK is similar to the LAF, but adds the eAssist mild-hybrid system.

2012Buick LaCrosse182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm
2012Buick Regal182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm
2013Chevrolet Malibu ECO182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm
2014Chevrolet Impala182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm

Ecotec Gen III[edit source | edit]

2.0[edit source | edit]

LTG[edit source | edit]

A 2.0 L (1998 cc) turbocharged direct injection version of the gen III Ecotec will be available in 2013 Cadillac ATS and Chevrolet Malibu.This engine is also available in Cadillac XTS in chinese market. Bore and stroke are both 86.0 millimetres (3.39 in), compression is 9.5:1. The engine uses twin-scroll turbocharger with electronically controlled wastegate/bypass valve, air-to-air intercooler, stainless steel dual-scroll (1-4, 2-3) exhaust manifold designed to withstand 980 °C (1,800 °F) turbine temperature, and rotocast aluminum alloy (A356T6) cylinder head with sodium-filled exhaust valves.[10]

2013Cadillac ATS272 hp (203 kW) @ 5500 rpm260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 1700-5500 rpm
2013Chevrolet Malibu259 hp (193.21 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 1700-5500 rpm

2.5[edit source | edit]

LCV[edit source | edit]

First appearing in the 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and 2013 Cadillac ATS, the 2.5 L Gen III block has been reworked to reduce engine noise and vibrations, while improving fuel economy and low-end torque.[10][11][12] LCV is scheduled to replace the direct-injected 2.4 L throughout North American GM products within a year.[13] Engine production started in April 2012 at GM's Tonawanda, New York plant.

The new combustion system developed with GM's proprietary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis software features a higher compression ratio which helps improve fuel efficiency and has improved knock resistance. The engine features dual overhead camshafts with continuously variable valve timing and increased-authority cam phasing (increased phase rotation angle), a high-pressure returnless direct-injection fuel system with camshaft-driven fuel pump delivering 750 psi at idle and 2250 psi at full load, higher-flowing intake and exhaust ports in the cylinder head, electronic throttle control and pistons with jet-spray oil cooling. The engine redline is 7000 rpm.

The balance shafts are relocated from the cylinder block to oil pan module. The two-piece steel-aluminum oil pan features in-pan integrated oil-pump assembly driven by the balance shaft with a shorter inverted-tooth chain. Other improvements include inverted-tooth chain driving the camshaft, forged steel crankshaft, cast aluminum bedplate with main bearing cap inserts made of iron, high-pressure fuel rail with rubber-isolated assembly, acoustically shielded plastic cover for the intake manifold, and structurally enhanced aluminum camshaft cover and front cover. These improvements helped reduce noise intensity by 40% compared to the 2.4 L engine and change the noise signature into a higher frequency above 2,000 Hz. The engine also uses a variable-displacement oil pump and an actively controlled thermostat. Direct injection reduces emissions by 25%, while continuous cam phasing eliminates the need for an EGR system.

For 2013, Intake Valve Lift Control (IVLC) system provides variable valve lift in addition to continuous variable timing. Continuously commanded by engine control unit, the valve rocker arm switches between high-lift and low-lift profiles on the camshaft, actuated by an oil control valve through a two-feed stationary hydraulic lash adjuster, allowing for either 4.0 or 10.5 mm lift.[14]

Displacement for the 2.5 L engine is 2,457 cc (149.9 cu in) with an 88.0 millimetres (3.46 in) bore and 100.8 millimetres (3.97 in) stroke. Compression ratio is 11.3:1.

2013Cadillac ATS202 hp (150.69 kW) @ 6300 rpm190 lbf·ft (257.85 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
2013Chevrolet Malibu197 hp (146.96 kW) @ 6300 rpm190 lbf·ft (257.85 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
2014Chevrolet Impala195 hp (145 kW) @ 6700 rpm187 lb·ft (254 N·m) @ 4900 rpm

Holden[edit source | edit]

Holden made various Family II engines for GM India and GM Daewoo at its Melbourne plant. Variations include displacements from 1.8 L to 2.4 L. Unlike the Ecotec engines, the block is made of iron.

L34[edit source | edit]

This is the 2.0 L (1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)) engine for the North American market, dubbed D-TEC or E-TEC II by Daewoo. It has an 86.0 mm (3.39 in) bore and stroke. Power is 119 hp (89 kW) at 5400 rpm and torque is 126 lb·ft (171 N·m).

The engine has been used on following vehicles:

Other models[edit source | edit]

GM do Brasil[edit source | edit]

General Motors do Brasil specializes in older SOHC FlexPower (alcohol and gasoline powered) iron block engines.

In 2004, a 2.0 L MultiPower engine was made available for the taxi market which could use gasoline, alcohol and natural gas.

A 2.0 L FlexPower engine is available for the current Chevrolet Astra and Vectra. The 2006 Chevrolet Vectra also received a 2.4 L 16V FlexPower engine.

See also[edit source | edit]

Notes[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "GM's Ecotec 2.2-Liter 4-Cylinder Engine Delivers". The Auto Channel. Pontiac, Michigan. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  2. ^ "検索結果: 2001年 スバル トラヴィック Sパッケージ" [Great Car Pavilion: 2001 Subaru Traviq S-package]. (in Japanese). Toyota Motor Corporation. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  3. ^ By  Chris Shunk RSS feed. "GM releases turbo upgrade kit for Solstice GXP, Sky Redline and HHR SS". Retrieved 2012-01-24. 
  4. ^ "Big Power, Small Package". AutoWeek. Retrieved April 4, 2006. 
  5. ^ "2012 Buick Regal GS rated at 270 hp". Autoweek. 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2012-01-24. 
  6. ^
  7. ^ "NAIAS 09: 2010 ECOTEC 2.4l SIDI". Retrieved 2012-01-24. 
  8. ^ Roth, Dan (2008-12-17). "DI FTW: GM unveils new direct-injection 2.4 L EcoTec and 3.0 L V6". Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  9. ^ "Buick Introduces The All-New 2012 Verano". 2011-01-06. Retrieved 2012-01-24. 
  10. ^ a b
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^

References[edit source | edit]

External links[edit source | edit]