LNER Peppercorn Class A1

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LNER Peppercorn Class A1
Steam locomotive with four small carrying wheels at the front, six large driving wheels, two small carrying wheels below the cab, and a tender
60155 Borderer by the coaling stage at Gateshead depot in April 1964
Specifications
Power typeSteam
DesignerArthur Peppercorn
BuilderDoncaster Works
Darlington Works
Build date1948 - 1949
Configuration4-6-2
Leading wheel
diameter
3 ft 2 in (0.97 m)
Driver diameter6 ft 8 in (2.03 m)
Trailing wheel
diameter
3 ft 8 in (1.12 m)
Length72 ft 11.75 in (22.24 m)
Width9 ft 2.875 in (2.82 m)
Height13 ft 1 in (3.99 m)
Axle load22.1 long tons (22.5 t)
Weight on drivers66.55 long tons (67.62 t)
Locomotive weight105.2 long tons (106.9 t)
Tender weight60.9 long tons (61.9 t)
Locomotive and tender
combined weight
166.1 long tons (168.8 t)
Fuel typeCoal
Fuel capacity9.0 long tons (9.1 t)
Water capacity5,000 imp gal (23,000 L)
BoilerDiagram 118
6 ft 5 in (1.96 m) diameter
29 ft 2 in (8.89 m) length
Boiler pressure250 psi (1,700 kPa)
Firegrate area50.0 sq ft (4.65 m2)
Heating surface:
– Tubes
1,211.6 sq ft (112.56 m2)
– Flues1,004.5 sq ft (93.32 m2)
– Firebox245.3 sq ft (22.79 m2)
– Total2,461.4 sq ft (228.67 m2)
Superheater area697.7 sq ft (64.82 m2)
Cylinders3
Cylinder size19 in × 26 in (480 mm × 660 mm)
Valve gearWalschaerts
Top speed100 mph (160 km/h)
Power output2,700 PS (2,000 kW)[citation needed]
Tractive effort37,397 lbf (166.35 kN)
Career
Power classBR: 8P6F
Number in class49 original, plus 1 completed 2008
Number60114 - 60162
LocaleNorth Eastern Region of British Railways
First runAugust 1948
Last runJune 1966
WithdrawnOctober 1962 - June 1966
Scrapped1962 - 1966
DispositionOriginal 49 withdrawn and scrapped, 1 built in 2008 and still in service
 
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This article is about the locomotives built in 1948–49. For other LNER Class A1 locomotives, see LNER Class A1. For the new locomotive completed in 2008, see LNER Peppercorn Class A1 60163 Tornado.
LNER Peppercorn Class A1
Steam locomotive with four small carrying wheels at the front, six large driving wheels, two small carrying wheels below the cab, and a tender
60155 Borderer by the coaling stage at Gateshead depot in April 1964
Specifications
Power typeSteam
DesignerArthur Peppercorn
BuilderDoncaster Works
Darlington Works
Build date1948 - 1949
Configuration4-6-2
Leading wheel
diameter
3 ft 2 in (0.97 m)
Driver diameter6 ft 8 in (2.03 m)
Trailing wheel
diameter
3 ft 8 in (1.12 m)
Length72 ft 11.75 in (22.24 m)
Width9 ft 2.875 in (2.82 m)
Height13 ft 1 in (3.99 m)
Axle load22.1 long tons (22.5 t)
Weight on drivers66.55 long tons (67.62 t)
Locomotive weight105.2 long tons (106.9 t)
Tender weight60.9 long tons (61.9 t)
Locomotive and tender
combined weight
166.1 long tons (168.8 t)
Fuel typeCoal
Fuel capacity9.0 long tons (9.1 t)
Water capacity5,000 imp gal (23,000 L)
BoilerDiagram 118
6 ft 5 in (1.96 m) diameter
29 ft 2 in (8.89 m) length
Boiler pressure250 psi (1,700 kPa)
Firegrate area50.0 sq ft (4.65 m2)
Heating surface:
– Tubes
1,211.6 sq ft (112.56 m2)
– Flues1,004.5 sq ft (93.32 m2)
– Firebox245.3 sq ft (22.79 m2)
– Total2,461.4 sq ft (228.67 m2)
Superheater area697.7 sq ft (64.82 m2)
Cylinders3
Cylinder size19 in × 26 in (480 mm × 660 mm)
Valve gearWalschaerts
Top speed100 mph (160 km/h)
Power output2,700 PS (2,000 kW)[citation needed]
Tractive effort37,397 lbf (166.35 kN)
Career
Power classBR: 8P6F
Number in class49 original, plus 1 completed 2008
Number60114 - 60162
LocaleNorth Eastern Region of British Railways
First runAugust 1948
Last runJune 1966
WithdrawnOctober 1962 - June 1966
Scrapped1962 - 1966
DispositionOriginal 49 withdrawn and scrapped, 1 built in 2008 and still in service
60133 Pommern passing Leeds-Holbeck High Level Station hauling Leeds Central to Kings Cross Yorkshire Pullman
60131 Osprey at Leeds Neville Hill locomotive shed on 18 April 1965

The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Peppercorn Class A1 is a type of express passenger steam locomotive. Forty-nine original Peppercorn Class A1s were built to the design of Arthur Peppercorn (who was the last Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) of the London and North Eastern Railway) during the early British Railways era, but all were scrapped with the discontinuation of steam, with none of the original production run surviving into preservation. In 2008 a brand new 50th Peppercorn A1 locomotive, 60163 Tornado, was completed.

Background[edit]

Most of the former LNER Class A1 locomotives designed by Sir Nigel Gresley had been rebuilt as LNER Class A3 locomotives prior to this class being conceived. The few straggling LNER Class A1 locomotives that remained unrebuilt during the tenure of Peppercorn's predecessor, Edward Thompson, were redesignated by him as Class A10s in preparation for the construction of his new Class A1 locomotives. Thompson rebuilt the pioneer LNER pacific Great Northern in 1945; originally this was the new Class A1, but the rebuild was not repeated. Instead, initiated by Thompson but largely taken forward by his successor Arthur Peppercorn, Great Northern was designated Class A1/1, and a new class of Peppercorn A1s ordered.

The locomotives were designed to cope with the heaviest passenger trains in the after-war period on the East Coast Mainline (LondonYorkNewcastleEdinburghAberdeen) which consisted normally of trains with up to 15 coaches and up to 550 tons. The Peppercorn A1s were able to pull such a train on the flat at a speed of 60–70 mph (95-110 km/h). Like previous LNER pacifics, the class had a 3-cylinder arrangement. The chimney system was of the type Double-Kylchap.

Original locomotives[edit]

Construction[edit]

The new A1s were ordered by the LNER but delivered after that company had been nationalised to form part of British Railways at the start of 1948. The 49 engines were built at the Eastern Region's Doncaster and Darlington works between 1948 and 1949.

Construction details
NosDate builtWorksOrder no.[1]Notes
60114-221948Doncaster382
601231949Doncaster
60124-91949Doncaster383
60130-431948Darlington
60144-521949Darlington
60153-71949Doncaster388Built with Timken roller bearings on all axles
60158-621949Doncaster

Withdrawal[edit]

By summer of 1966 all 49 class members had gone for scrap. The last to be withdrawn from stock was No. 60145 Saint Mungo after a working life of just 17 years.

Withdrawal dates
YearNo. withdrawnNos
1962660115/22/23/35/37/53
1963660136/44/59-62
19641160114/9/20/5/39/41/3/7/9/50/8
19652460116-8/21/26-34/38/40/2/6/8/51/2/4-7
1966260124/45

List of original locomotives[edit]

Below is a list of original Peppercorn A1 Locomotives[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

No.NameBuiltWorksWithdrawnNotes
60114AllenW.P. AllenAugust 1948DoncasterDecember 1964
60115Meg MerriliesSeptember 1948DoncasterNovember 1962
60116Hal o' the WyndOctober 1948DoncasterJune 1965
60117Bois RousselOctober 1948DoncasterJune 1965
60118SturrockArchibald SturrockNovember 1948DoncasterOctober 1965
60119StirlingPatrick StirlingNovember 1948DoncasterMay 1964
60120KittiwakeDecember 1948DoncasterJanuary 1964
60121SilurianDecember 1948DoncasterOctober 1965
60122CurlewDecember 1948DoncasterDecember 1962
60123IvattH.A. IvattFebruary 1949DoncasterOctober 1962
60124KenilworthMarch 1949DoncasterMarch 1966
60125Scottish UnionApril 1949DoncasterJuly 1964
60126RavenSir Vincent RavenApril 1949DoncasterJanuary 1965
60127WorsdellWilson WorsdellMay 1949DoncasterJune 1965
60128BongraceMay 1949DoncasterJanuary 1965
60129ManneringGuy ManneringJune 1949DoncasterOctober 1965
60130KestrelSeptember 1948DarlingtonOctober 1965
60131OspreyOctober 1948DarlingtonOctober 1965
60132MarmionOctober 1948DarlingtonJune 1965
60133PommernOctober 1948DarlingtonJune 1965
60134FoxhunterNovember 1948DarlingtonOctober 1965
60135Madge WildfireNovember 1948DarlingtonNovember 1962
60136AlcazarNovember 1948DarlingtonMay 1963
60137RedgauntletDecember 1948DarlingtonOctober 1962
60138BoswellDecember 1948DarlingtonOctober 1965
60139Sea EagleDecember 1948DarlingtonJune 1964
60140BalmoralDecember 1948DarlingtonJanuary 1965
60141AbbotsfordDecember 1948DarlingtonOctober 1964
60142FletcherEdward FletcherFebruary 1949DarlingtonJune 1965
60143ScottSir Walter ScottFebruary 1949DarlingtonMay 1964
60144King's CourierMarch 1949DarlingtonApril 1963
60145Saint MungoMarch 1949DarlingtonJune 1966
60146PeregrineApril 1949DarlingtonOctober 1965
60147North EasternApril 1949DarlingtonAugust 1964
60148AboyeurMay 1949DarlingtonJune 1965
60149AmadisMay 1949DarlingtonJune 1964
60150WillbrookJune 1949DarlingtonOctober 1964
60151MidlothianJune 1949DarlingtonNovember 1965
60152HolyroodJuly 1949DarlingtonJune 1965
60153FlamboyantAugust 1949DoncasterNovember 1962
60154Bon AccordSeptember 1949DoncasterOctober 1965
60155BordererSeptember 1949DoncasterOctober 1965
60156Great CentralOctober 1949DoncasterMay 1965
60157Great EasternNovember 1949DoncasterJanuary 1965
60158AberdonianNovember 1949DoncasterDecember 1964
60159Bonnie DundeeNovember 1949DoncasterOctober 1963
60160Auld ReekieDecember 1949DoncasterDecember 1963
60161North BritishDecember 1949DoncasterOctober 1963
60162Saint JohnstounDecember 1949DoncasterOctober 1963

Notes on names[edit]

The names of the A1s [9] were an eclectic mix including:

No. 60163 Tornado[edit]

Main article: 60163 Tornado
60163 Tornado, August 2008, Darlington

None of the original production run of 49 Peppercorn A1s survived the scrapyard to be preserved, however in 2008 a brand new 50th A1 based on the Peppercorn patterns, 60163 Tornado, was completed as the evolved member of the class.[10]

Models[edit]

Bachmann Branchline and Hornby make models in OO gauge, Graham Farish produce a model in N gauge and Accucraft (UK) make a live steam model in gauge 1.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boddy, Neve & Yeadon 1978, p. 193
  2. ^ http://www.lner.info/locos/A/a1peppercorn.shtml
  3. ^ Longworth (not including Tornado)
  4. ^ Railuk database (not including Tornado)
  5. ^ RCTS (not including Tornado)
  6. ^ Yeadon (not including Tornado)
  7. ^ A1LST history section (not including Tornado)
  8. ^ Ian Allan ABC of British Railways Locomotives, summer 1961 edition, part 4, pp 26-27 )Names of 60114-60162 are given but it also includes the LNER Thompson Class A1/1 60113 Great Northern in the list, making 50 locomotives.)
  9. ^ http://www.a1steam.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=53&Itemid=69
  10. ^ "New steam loco ready for service". BBC News. 19 November 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2008. "The first new steam engine to be built in the UK for almost 50 years is ready for service after successfully completing all its trial runs ... Tornado, a Peppercorn class A1 Pacific steam locomotive ..." 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]