LGBT rights in Europe

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Laws regarding same-sex partnerships in Europe
  Other type of partnership
  Unregistered cohabitation
  Unrecognized
  Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights are widely diverse in Europe per country. Ten out of the sixteen countries that have legalised same-sex marriage are situated in Europe[A]; a further thirteen European countries have legalised civil unions or other forms of recognition for same-sex couples. Austria, Finland, Germany, Greenland, Ireland, Luxembourg and Switzerland are considering legislation to introduce same-sex marriage. As of 2014, every jurisdiction in Europe has legalised same-sex sexual activity.

History[edit]

A participant of 2013 Prague Pride wearing a traditional Moravian dress (Hanakia) and a sign "Good day - Olomouc greets Prague"

Although same-sex relationships were quite common (but never an equivalent to marriage between man and woman) in ancient Greece, Rome and pagan Celtic societies, after Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, severe laws against homosexual behavior appeared. An edict by the Emperor Theodosius I in 390 condemned all "passive" homosexual men to death by public burning. This was followed by the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian I in 529, which prescribed public castration and execution for all who committed homosexual acts, both active and passive partners alike. Justinian's law code then served as the basis for most European countries' laws against homosexuals for the next 1400 years. Homosexual behavior, called sodomy, was considered a capital crime, and thousands of homosexual men were executed across Europe during waves of persecution in these centuries. Lesbians were less often singled out for punishment, but they also suffered persecution and execution from time to time.[1]

Since the foundation of Poland in 966, Polish law has never defined homosexuality as a crime.[2] Forty years after Poland lost its independence in 1795, the sodomy laws of Russia, Prussia, and Austria came into force in the partitioned Polish territory. Poland regained its independence in 1918 and abandoned the laws of the occupying powers.[3][4][5] In 1932, Poland codified the equal age of consent for homosexuals and heterosexuals at 15.[6]

In Turkey, homosexuality has been legal since 1858.[7]

During the French Revolution, the French National Assembly rewrote the criminal code in 1791, omitting all reference to homosexuality. During the Napoleonic wars, homosexuality was decriminalised in territories coming under French control, such as the Netherlands and many of the pre-unification German states, however in Germany this ended with the unification of the country under the Prussian Kaiser, as Prussia had long punished homosexuality harshly. On 6 August 1942, the Vichy government made homosexual relations with anyone under twenty-one illegal as part of its conservative agenda. Most Vichy legislation was repealed after the war– but the anti-gay Vichy law remained on the books for four decades until it was finally repealed in August 1982 when the age of consent (15) was again made the same for heterosexual as well as homosexual partners.

Nevertheless, gay men and lesbians continued to live closeted lives, since moral and social disapproval by heterosexual society remained strong across Europe for another two decades, until the modern gay rights movement began in 1969.

Various countries under dictatorships in the 20th century were very anti-homosexual, such as in the Soviet Union, in Nazi Germany and in Spain under Francisco Franco's regime. In contrast, after Poland regained independence after World War I, it went on in 1932 to become the first country in 20th-century Europe to decriminalise homosexual activity[clarification needed], followed by Denmark in 1933, Iceland in 1940, Switzerland in 1942 and Sweden in 1944.

In 1962, homosexual behavior was decriminalized in Czechoslovakia, following a scientific research of Kurt Freund that included phallometry of homosexually oriented men who appeared to have given up sexual relations with other men and established heterosexual marriages. Freund came to the conclusion that homosexual orientation may not be changed.

In 1972, Sweden became the first country in the world to allow people who were transsexual by legislation to surgically change their sex and provide free hormone replacement therapy.[8]

In 1979, a number of people in Sweden called in sick with a case of being homosexual, in protest of homosexuality being classified as an illness. This was followed by an activist occupation of the main office of the National Board of Health and Welfare. Within a few months, Sweden became the first country in Europe from those that had previously defined homosexuality as an illness to remove it as such.[9]

In 1989, Denmark was the first country in Europe, and the world, to introduce registered partnerships for same-sex couples.

In 2001 a next step was made, when the Netherlands opened civil marriage for same-sex couples, which made it the first country in the world to do so. Since then, nine other European states have followed (Belgium in 2003, Spain in 2005, Norway and Sweden in 2009, Portugal and Iceland in 2010, Denmark in 2012, France in 2013 and the United Kingdom in 2014).

On 22 October 2009, the assembly of the Church of Sweden, voted strongly in favour of giving its blessing to homosexual couples,[10] including the use of the term marriage, ("matrimony"). The new law was introduced on 1 November 2009.

Recent developments[edit]

Legal status of adoption by same-sex couples in Europe
  Same-sex parental adoption legal
  Step-child adoption legal
  Same-sex parental adoption illegal
  Unknown/Ambiguous

In May 2013, France became the ninth and most recent European country to legalise same-sex marriage; with French president François Hollande signing a law authorizing adoption by marriage and adoption by gay couples.[11] Same-sex marriage bills have been introduced in Finland, Luxembourg, and the United Kingdom (Scotland).[12][13]

In Ireland civil partnerships have been legal since 2011, and in 2013 the country held a constitutional convention on the issue of same-sex marriage rights. This has resulted in the government planning to hold a referendum in 2015 on the subject of same-sex marriage, and consequently adoption rights for gay couples as marriage and adoption rights are legally bound together under current Irish law. A 2013 poll shows that 75% of Irish people support allowing gay couples to marry.[14]

The Isle of Man has allowed civil partnerships since 2011, as well as Jersey in 2012. Liechtenstein also legalized registered partnership by 68 percent of voters via a referendum in 2011.[15]

In 2012, the United Kingdom government launched a public same-sex marriage consultation,[16] intending to change the laws applying to England and Wales. Its Marriage Bill was signed into law on 17 July 2013. The Scottish government launched a similar consultation, aiming to legalise same-sex marriage by 2015. On 4 February 2014, the Scottish Parliament passed a bill to legalise same sex marriages in Scotland as well as ending the "spousal veto" that would allow spouses to deny transgender partners the ability to change their legal gender. [17] On 1 December 2013, a referendum was held in Croatia to constitutionally define marriage as a union between a woman and a man.[18] The vote passed, with 65.87% supporting the measure, and a turnout of 37,9%. Following the vote, the government announced a prompt introduction of civil unions, with rights equivalent to marriage except in adoption. [19]

On 27 January 2014 in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (part of Cyprus occupied since the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974) Turkish Cypriot deputies passed an amendment repealing a colonial-era law that punished homosexual acts with up to five years in prison by a new Criminal Code. It was the last territory in Europe to decriminalise sexual relations between consenting, adult men. In response to the vote, Paulo Corte-Real from the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, a rights advocacy group said that "We welcome today's vote and can finally call Europe a continent completely free from laws criminalising homosexuality". [20]

Public opinion around Europe[edit]

In a 2002 Pew Global Attitudes Project surveyed by the Pew Research Center, showed majorities in every Western European nation said homosexuality should be accepted by society, while most Russians, Poles and Ukrainians disagreed.[21] A Eurobarometer in 2006 surveying up to 30,000 people from each European Union country, showed split opinion around the 27 member states on the issue of same sex marriage. The majority of support came from the Netherlands (82%), Sweden (71%), Denmark (69%), Belgium (62%), Luxembourg (58%), Spain (56%), Finland (54%), Germany (52%) and the Czech Republic (52%). All other countries within the EU had below 50% support; with Romania (11%), Latvia (12%), Cyprus (14%), Bulgaria (15%), Greece (15%), Lithuania (17%), Poland (17%), Hungary (18%) and Malta (18%) at the other end of the list.[22] Same sex adoption had majority support from only two countries: Netherlands at 69% and Sweden at 51% and the least support from Poland and Malta on 7% respectively.[22]

A more recent survey carried out in October 2008 by The Observer affirmed that the majority of Britons – 55% – support gay marriage.[23] A 2013 poll shows that the majority of the Irish public support gay marriage and gay adoption, 73% and 60% respectively.[24] France has support for same sex marriage at 62%,[25] and Russian at 14%.[26] Italy has support for the 'Civil Partnership Law' between gays at 45% with 47% opposed.[27] In 2009 58.9% of Italians supported civil unions, while 40.4 supported same-sex marriage.[28] In 2010, 63.9% of Greeks supported same-sex partnerships, while 38.5% supported same-sex marriage.[29] In 2012 a poll by MaltaToday[30] showed that 41% of Maltese supported same sex marriage, with support increasing to 60% amongst the 18-35 age group. In 2011 according to a poll by TNS Polska 54% of Poles supported same sex partnerships while 27% supported same sex marriage.[31] According to a 2013 poll by Homo Homini 55% of Poles supported the idea of civil unions.[32][33] In Croatia, a poll from June 2013 revealed that 55,3% of Croats think that marriage should be constitutionally defined as a union between a man and a woman, while 31,1% do not agree with the idea.[34]

According to pollster Gallup Europe, women, younger generations, and the highly educated are more likely to support same-sex marriage and adoption rights for gay people than other demographics.[35]

Gay rights in the European Union, July 2013

Legislation by country or territory

Tables:

European Union[edit]

European Union member states are indicated with the EU flag in regional European sub-divisions.

EU FlagSee: LGBT rights in the European Union
European Union law forbids discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. All EU states are required to legalise same-sex sexual actvity activity and implement anti-discrimination laws.[36][37]

Central Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in:Same-sex sexual activityCivil unionSame-sex marriageSame-sex adoptionAllows gays to serve openly in military?Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation)Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European UnionAustria AustriaYes Legal since 1971[7]Yes Registered partnership since 2010No (pending)No/Yes Biological step-child adoption onlyYesYes Bans some anti-gay discriminationEmblem-question.svg
European UnionCroatia CroatiaYes Legal since 1977[7]No (pending)No Constitution defines marriage as "a union between a woman and a man"No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt (Institution similar to biological step-child adoption proposed)YesYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[38][39][39]Yes Act on the elimination of discrimination, The Law on volunteering, Electronic media Law (all including both gender identity and gender expression)
European UnionCzech Republic Czech RepublicYes Legal since 1962[7]Yes Registered partnership since 2006.NoNo/Yes Gay individuals may adopt (both when in registered partnership or single)YesYes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[39]Yes legal recognition granted and amendment of birth certificate after reassignment surgery/
European UnionGermany GermanyYes Legal since 1969
(since 1968 in East Germany)
Yes Registered life partnership since 2001No (pending)No/Yes Step-child adoption only (full joint adoption proposed)YesYes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[39]No/Yes
European UnionHungary HungaryYes Legal since 1962[7]Yes Registered partnership since 2009No Constitutional ban since 2012NoYesYes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[39]Emblem-question.svg
Liechtenstein LiechtensteinYes Legal since 1989[7]Yes Registered partnership since 2011NoNoN/ANoEmblem-question.svg
European UnionPoland PolandYes Legal
Never punished (Legal until 18th century, criminalized in 19th by laws of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary, legal again since 1932)
No (pending)No Constitution defines marriage as "a union between a man and a woman"[40]No/Yes Gay individuals may adoptYesYes Bans some anti-gay discriminationYes legal recognition and birth certificates amended, including. In 1983, the Supreme Court ruled reassignment surgery is not a prerequisite for legal recognition.[41]
European UnionRomania RomaniaYes Legal since 1996
Previously legal from 1864 to 1968
NoNoNo/Yes Gay individuals may adopt.YesYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[39]No/Yes Legal recognition and birth certificates amended after reassignment surgery
European UnionSlovakia SlovakiaYes Legal since 1962[7]NoNo (constitutional ban pending)No/Yes Gay individuals may adoptYesYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42][43]Emblem-question.svg
European UnionSlovenia SloveniaYes Legal since 1977[7]Yes Registered partnership since 2006NoNoYesYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[39]No Gender change not legal[44]
Switzerland SwitzerlandYes Legal
(Geneva, Vaud, Valais and Ticino: since 1798
Nationwide since 1942)
Yes Registered partnership since 2007No (pending)[45]No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt; Biological step-child adoption pending.[46]YesYes Bans some anti-gay discrimination. Banning all anti-gay discrimination pendingYes Legal documents can be issued based on a person's new gender identity. Sterilization technically required not enforced since 2012. Registered Partnership can become Marriage between the new opposite-sex couple[47].

Eastern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in:Same-sex sexual activityCivil unionSame-sex marriageSame-sex adoptionAllows gays to serve openly in military?Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation)Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Armenia ArmeniaYes Legal since 2003[7]NoNoNoYes/No No explicit ban. However, LGB persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation..[48]NoNo
Azerbaijan AzerbaijanYes Legal since 2000[7]NoNoNoEmblem-question.svgNoYes (Requires sterilization for change).[44]
Belarus BelarusYes Legal since 1994[7]NoNo Constitutional ban since 1994.NoYes/No Banned from military service during peacetime, but during wartime homosexuals are permitted to enlist as partially able.[49]No LGBT activism/expression deemed terrorism[50]No
Georgia (country) GeorgiaYes Legal since 2000[7]NoNoNoEmblem-question.svgYes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[39]Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[44]
Kazakhstan KazakhstanYes Legal since 1998[7]NoNoNoNoNoEmblem-question.svg
Moldova MoldovaYes Legal since 1995[7]NoNo Constitutional ban since 1994.NoYesYes Bans some anti-gay discrimination [39]Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[44]
Russia RussiaYes Legal since 1993
(Previously legal from 1917 to 1930)
NoNoNoNoYes/No Bans homosexual "propaganda" in some RegionsYes (Requires sterilization for change)[44]
Ukraine UkraineYes Legal since 1991NoNo Constitution defines marriage as "a union between a man and a woman"NoYesNo(proposed)[51]Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[44]

Northern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in:Same-sex sexual activityCivil unionSame-sex marriageSame-sex adoptionAllows gays to serve openly in military?Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation)Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European UnionDenmark DenmarkYes Legal since 1933[7]No Registered partnership from 1989 to 2012Yes Legal since 2012YesYesYes Bans all anti-gay discriminationYes / No Legal gender change and recognition is possible only with sterilization[52] Name change possible without sterilization[53]
European UnionEstonia EstoniaYes Legal since 1992[7]NoNoNo Single persons may adopt. Two people can adopt a child only if they are married.[54]YesYes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[39]Yes
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands
(constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933[7]NoNoNoYes (Denmark responsible for defence)Yes Bans some anti-gay discriminationYes
European UnionFinland FinlandYes Legal since 1971Yes Registered partnership since 2002No (pending)Yes/ No Step-child adoption only (full joint adoption under consideration)YesYes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[39]No Legal change and recognition is possible only with sterilization[55]
Greenland Greenland
(constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933Yes Registered partnership since 1996No (pending)Yes / No Step-child adoption onlyYes (Denmark responsible for defence)Yes Bans some anti-gay discriminationNo
Iceland IcelandYes Legal since 1940No Registered partnership from 1996 to 2010Yes Legal since 2010Yes Legal since 2006N/AYes Bans all anti-gay discriminationYes Documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
European UnionLatvia LatviaYes Legal since 1992[7]NoNo
Constitutional ban since 2006
No An unmarried person may adopt child alone. Adoption by multiple persons that are not married banned.YesYes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[39]Yes Documents are amended accordingly, no medical intervention required.[56]
European UnionLithuania LithuaniaYes Legal since 1993NoNo
Constitutional ban since 1992
No Only married couples can adoptYesYes Bans all anti-gay discriminationYes Gender change legal since 2003.[57]
Norway NorwayYes Legal since 1972[7]No Registered partnership from 1993 to 2008Yes Legal since 2009Yes Legal since 2009YesYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[58]Yes All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
European UnionSweden SwedenYes Legal since 1944No Registered partnership from 1995 to 2009Yes Legal since 2009Yes Legal since 2003YesYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[39]Yes

Southern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in:Same-sex sexual activityCivil unionSame-sex marriageSame-sex adoptionAllows gays to serve openly in military?Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation)Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Albania AlbaniaYes Legal since 1995[7]No (proposed)No (proposed)NoYesYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[39]Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.

No Gender change not legal.[44]

Andorra AndorraYes Legal since 1791
(as part of France)
Yes Stable union since 2005NoYes Legal since 2005N/AYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[39]No Gender change not legal
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and HerzegovinaYes Legal since 1998[7]NoNoNoYesYes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[39]No
European UnionBulgaria BulgariaYes Legal since 1968NoNo Constitution defines marriage as "a union between a man and a woman"No/Yes Single gay persons may adopt.YesYes Bans all anti-gay discriminationYes
European UnionCyprus CyprusYes Legal since 1998[7]No (proposed)NoNoNo Homosexuals are barred from serving in the military, on the grounds that homosexuality is a mental illness.Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[39]Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
European UnionGibraltar Gibraltar
(overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1993Yes Civil partnership since 2014NoYes Legal since 2013Yes UK responsible for defenceYes Bans some anti-gay discriminationEmblem-question.svg
European UnionGreece GreeceYes Legal since 1951No (pending)NoNoYesYes Bans some anti-gay discriminationYes
European UnionItaly ItalyYes Legal since 1890No (pending)No (pending)No Only married couples can adoptYesYes Bans some anti-gay discriminationYes Since 1982 legal recognition and documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[59]
Republic of Macedonia MacedoniaYes Legal since 1996[7]NoNoNoYesNoNo
European UnionMalta MaltaYes Legal since 1973No (pending)[60]No (recognition of marriage celebrated abroad pending)No/Yes Single gay persons can adoptYesYes Bans some anti-gay discriminationYes All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
Montenegro MontenegroYes Legal since 1977[7]NoNo Constitutional ban since 2007.NoYesYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[39]Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[44] Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
European UnionPortugal PortugalYes Legal since 1983NoYes Legal since 2010NoYesYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, according to national Constitution.Yes Since 2011, All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
San Marino San MarinoYes Legal since 2001NoNoNoEmblem-question.svgNoNo Gender change not legal.[44]
Serbia SerbiaYes Legal since 1994[7]NoNo Constitution defines marriage as "a union between a man and a woman"NoYesYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[39]No
European UnionSpain SpainYes Legal since 1979[7]NoYes Legal since 2005YesYesYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[39]Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[61]
Turkey TurkeyYes Legal since 1858NoNoNoNoNoYes (Requires sterilization for change)
Vatican City Vatican CityYes LegalNoNoNoEmblem-question.svgNoEmblem-question.svg

Western Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in:Same-sex sexual activityCivil unionSame-sex marriageSame-sex adoptionAllows gays to serve openly in military?Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation)Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European UnionBelgium BelgiumYes Legal since 1795[7]
(as part of France)
Yes Statutory cohabitation since 2000Yes Legal since 2003Yes Legal since 2006YesYes Bans all anti-gay discriminationYes The 2007 law concerning transsexuality grants the right to a legal name and gender change
European UnionFrance FranceYes Legal since 1791[7]Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999Yes Legal since 2013Yes Legal since 2013YesYes Bans all anti-gay discriminationYes (Requires sterilization for change)
Guernsey Guernsey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1983, age of consent equalised 2011[7][62]No (proposed)NoYesYes UK responsible for defenceYes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[63]Yes 2004 anti-discrimination law. Legal gender change since 2007: Case law only. Only allows a new birth certificate to be issued. Does not amend or remove records of existing birth certificates, extension to Alderney and Sark unclear, does extend to Herm.[63][64]
European UnionRepublic of Ireland IrelandYes Legal since 1993Yes Civil partnership since 2011No(pending a scheduled referendum)No/Yes Single gay persons may adopt. Step Child adoption under consideration.YesYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[65][66][67]No Legislation to recognise gender identity pending after High Court ruling in favour.
Isle of Man Isle of Man
(Crown dependencies of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1992[7]Yes Civil partnership since 2011NoYes Legal since 2011Yes UK responsible for defenceYes Bans all anti-gay discriminationYes
Jersey Jersey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1990[7]Yes Civil partnership since 2012NoYesYes UK responsible for defenceNoYes Gender Recognition (Jersey) Law 2010[68]
European UnionLuxembourg LuxembourgYes Legal since 1795
(as part of France)
Yes Partnership since 2004No (pending)NoYesYes Bans some anti-gay discriminationEmblem-question.svg
Monaco MonacoYes Legal since 1793 (as part of France)NoNoNoYes France responsible for defenceNoEmblem-question.svg
European UnionNetherlands NetherlandsYes Legal since 1811
(as part of France)
Yes Registered partnership since 1998Yes Legal since 2001.YesYesYes Bans all anti-gay discriminationYes
European UnionUnited Kingdom United KingdomYes Legal in England and Wales since 1967, in Scotland since 1981 and in Northern Ireland since 1982Yes Civil partnership since 2005Yes check.svg Legal in England and Wales, and Scotland since 2014
No Illegal in Northern Ireland
Yes Legal in England and Wales since 2005, in Scotland since 2009 and Northern Ireland since 2013YesYes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[69][7]Yes Gender Recognition Act 2004

Partially or unrecognised states[edit]

LGBT rights in:Same-sex sexual activityCivil unionSame-sex marriageSame-sex adoptionAllows gays to serve openly in military?Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation)Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Abkhazia AbkhaziaYesNoNoNoNoNoEmblem-question.svg
Kosovo KosovoYes Legal since 1994[7]
(as part of Yugoslavia)
NoNoNoYesYesYes
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-KarabakhYesNoNoNoNoNoEmblem-question.svg
Northern Cyprus Northern CyprusYes Legal since 2014[70][71]NoNoNoNoYes[70][71]Yes Discrimination or hate speech banned since 2014.[70][71]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown if gender change is legal.

Transnistria PridnestrovieYesNoNoNoNoNoEmblem-question.svg
South Ossetia South OssetiaYesNoNoNoNoNoEmblem-question.svg

References[edit]

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  50. ^ Comment: With all eyes on anti-gay Russia, there are three countries with a shocking need for coverage
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  60. ^ Bill No. 20 - Civil Unions Bill
  61. ^ (Spanish) Ley 3/2007, de 15 de marzo, reguladora de la rectificación registral de la mención relativa al sexo de las personas
  62. ^ Sexual Offences (Bailiwick of Guernsey) (Amendment) Law, 2011
  63. ^ a b "The Prevention of Discrimination (Enabling Provisions) (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Law, 2004". Guernsey Legal Resources. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  64. ^ In the case of X 2007
  65. ^ "Employment Equality Act, 1998". Irishstatutebook.ie. 18 June 1998. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  66. ^ "Equal Status Act, 2000". Irishstatutebook.ie. 26 April 2000. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  67. ^ Prohibition of Incitement To Hatred Act, 1989 - Irish Statute Book
  68. ^ GENDER RECOGNITION (JERSEY) LAW 2010
  69. ^ Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 (c. 4)
  70. ^ a b c Northern Cyprus Decriminalizes Homosexuality and Protects LGBTs Against Hate Speech
  71. ^ a b c (Turkish) Kuzey Kıbrıs’ın “Eşcinsellik Suçu” Yasası Tarihe Karıştı!

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

A The UK Parliament excepted Scotland and Northern Ireland from its same-sex marriage legislation.

External links[edit]