L-arabinose operon

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The L-arabinose operon, also called ara operon, is a gene sequence encoding enzymes needed for the catabolism of arabinose to xylulose 5-phosphate, an intermediate of the pentose phosphate pathway. It has both positive and negative regulation. The operon is found in Escherichia coli.

It has been a focus for research in molecular biology since 1970, and has been investigated extensively at its genetic, biochemical, physiological, and biophysical levels.

Contents

Structure

The structural gene, which encodes arabinose breakdown enzymes, is araBAD. The regulator gene is araC. The genes, araBAD and araC, are transcribed in opposite directions. [1]

The operators are araI and araO2. The operators lie between the AraC.

AraI lies between the structural genes and the operator. The araI1 and araI2 are DNA-binding sites that, when occupied by AraC, induce expression.

Sequence of the Operon:

5'-----araC-----araO-----araI-----araB-----araA-----araD-----3'

(Distances not to scale)

Function

Repression

The ara operon is regulated by the AraC protein. If arabinose is absent, the dimer AraC protein represses the structural gene by binding to araI1 and araO2 and the DNA forms a loop. The loop prevents RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter of the ara operon, thereby blocking transcription.

Activation

When arabinose is present, arabinose binds AraC and prevents AraC from interacting. This breaks the DNA loop. The two AraC-arabinose complexes bind to the araI site which promotes transcription. When arabinose is present, AraC acts as an activator.

Metabolism of arabinose in E. coli
SubstrateProtein(s)FunctionReversibleProduct
L-arabinoseAraAisomeraseyesL-ribulose
L-ribuloseAraBribulokinasenoL-ribulose-phosphate
L-ribulose-phosphateAraDepimeraseyesD-xylulose-phosphate

If arabinose is present, it builds a complex: AraC + arabinose
This complex is needed for RNA polymerase to bind to the promoter and transcribe the ara operon. Also for activation the binding of another structure to araI is needed: CRP (formerly known as CAP) + cyclic AMP
So the activation depends on the presence of arabinose and cAMP.

See also

References

  1. ^ Schleif, R. (2010). "AraC protein, regulation of the l-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli, and the light switch mechanism of AraC action". FEMS Microbiology Reviews: no. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2010.00226.x. edit

Notes

  1. ^ Schleif, R. (2010). "AraC protein, regulation of the l-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli, and the light switch mechanism of AraC action". FEMS Microbiology Reviews: no. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2010.00226.x. edit

References

"Regulation of the L-arabinose operon of Escherichia coli". Trends in Genetics 16 (12): 559–565. December 2000. doi:10.1016/S0168-9525(00)02153-3. PMID 11102706.