L'italiana in Algeri

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search

L'italiana in Algeri (The Italian Girl in Algiers) is an operatic dramma giocoso in two acts by Gioachino Rossini to an Italian libretto by Angelo Anelli, based on his earlier text set by Luigi Mosca. It premiered at the Teatro San Benedetto in Venice on 22 May 1813. The music is characteristic of Rossini's style, remarkable for its fusion of sustained, manic energy with elegant, pristine melodies.

Composition history[edit]

Rossini wrote L'italiana in Algeri when he was 21. The opera was composed in either 18 or 27 days, depending on which source one believes (Rossini, not surprisingly, pegged it at 18). Rossini entrusted the composition of the recitatives as well as the aria "Le femmine d'Italia" to an unknown collaborator.[1] The opera is notable for Rossini's mixing of opera seria style with opera buffa. The overture is widely recorded and performed today, known for its distinct opening of slow, quiet pizzicato basses, leading to a sudden loud burst of sound from the full orchestra. This "surprise" reflects Rossini's early admiration for Joseph Haydn, whose Symphony No. 94 in G major, "The Surprise Symphony", is so named for the same shocking and semi-comic effect.

Performance history[edit]

The work was first performed at the Teatro San Benedetto, Venice on 22 May 1813. It was a notable success and Rossini made progressive changes to the work for later performances in Vicenza, Milan and Naples, during the following two years.

The opera was first presented in London at His Majesty's Theatre on 28 January 1819 and on 5 November 1832 in New York. Having fallen somewhat out of favour as the 19th Century progressed, notable performances of the opera were presented from the 1920s in "Turin (1825), Rome (1927) and London (1935)" [2] and it has been revived frequently after World War II with many successful productions. It is performed regularly in the 21st Century with 48 productions being presented in 43 cities since January 2009. [3] One notable production was given at The Santa Fe Opera in 2002 with Stephanie Blythe as Isabella. [4]

Roles[edit]

RoleVoice typePremiere Cast, 22 May 1813
(Conductor: – )
Isabella, the Italian girlcontraltoMarietta Marcolini
Lindoro, in love with IsabellatenorSerafino Gentili
Taddeo, an elderly ItalianbassPaolo Rosich
Mustafà, the Bey of AlgiersbassFilippo Galli
Elvira, his wifesopranoLuttgard Annibaldi
Zulma, her confidantemezzo-sopranoAnnunziata Berni Chelli
Haly, the captain of the Bey's guardbassGiuseppe Spirito
Harem women (silent); Eunuchs, pirates, slaves, sailors – Male chorus

Synopsis[edit]

Place: Algiers
Time: The past[5]

Act 1[edit]

The palace of the Bey of Algiers

Elvira accompanied by her slave Zulma regrets the loss of the love of her husband, the Turkish Bey Mustafà. Left alone with Haly, Captain of the Corsairs, Mustafà reveals his plan to marry Elvira off to Lindoro, his Italian slave. The Bey is bored with his submissive harem, desiring a new challenge to his virility: he wants an Italian girl, and Haly must find one! Lindoro enters alone and sings about Isabella, his true love, Languir per una bella. Mustafà comes in to explain Lindoro's impending marriage. The enthusiastic Bey describes the attractions of the match, while Lindoro struggles to refuse.

The seashore

A ship has been wrecked in a storm. Its passengers include Isabella, in search of Lindoro, and Taddeo, her travelling companion and would-be lover. Isabella enters with a sorrowful cavatina Cruda sorte! Amor tiranno!, however she is not afraid and will master the situation. Haly and his men take them prisoner. She passes off Taddeo as her uncle. Haly is delighted to learn she is an Italian – exactly what the Bey wanted! Left to consider their fate, Isabella is irritated by Taddeo's jealousy of Lindoro, but they resolve to join forces.

The palace

Back in the palace, Lindoro and Elvira do not wish to marry, but Mustafà offers Lindoro passage on a ship returning to Italy if he takes Elvira. Lindoro agrees, admitting a vague possibility of marrying her in Italy. Haly enters with news of the arrival of the Italian beauty. Mustafà is elated, Già d'insolito ardore nel petto agitare.

Surrounded by eunuchs, Mustafà receives Isabella in a grand hall. He is enchanted. At that moment, Lindoro, Elvira and Zulma arrive to say goodbye to Mustafà. Lindoro and Isabella are astonished to come face to face. Recovering herself, Isabella asks about Elvira, learning she is Mustafà's ex-wife, to be remarried to Lindoro![6]

Act 2[edit]

In the palace

Elvira and Zulma (who have remained in Algiers after all) note Isabella's skill with men. Mustafà reveals his strategy for seducing Isabella: he installs Lindoro as Isabella's servant and his informer, and Taddeo will also be induced to help. Elvira and Zulma must tell Isabella he is coming to take coffee with her.

Isabella and Lindoro are alone. He explains that he had no intention of marrying Elvira. They agree to escape together and Lindoro sings of his happiness: Ah come il cor di giubilo. Mustafà enters with a reluctant Taddeo, acclaimed by the Turks as "Lord Kaimakan". He dislikes interceding with Isabella for the Bey, but is frightened to refuse.

In her apartment

Isabella is dressing in Turkish style. Zulma and Elvira deliver Mustafà's message: he is coming for coffee. Isabella orders three cups. Elvira should wait in a side room. As Mustafà approaches, Isabella sings a romantic cavatina, Per lui che adoro. She will receive him. Mustafà tells Taddeo to leave when he sneezes. Isabella greets Mustafà warmly and he sneezes, but Taddeo ignores the signal. Isabella calls for coffee and then – to Mustafà's horror and amazement – invites Elvira to join them.

Elsewhere in the palace

Haly sings in praise of the women of Italy, Le femmine d'Italia. The Italians enter and Taddeo reveals to a surprised Lindoro that he is not her uncle but her lover, himself unaware of the other man's true identity. Lindoro tells Mustafà that Isabella will declare him her adored pappataci (literally a "silent eater": a man unable to resist the opposite sex). This, as Lindoro explains, is an Italian custom and a great honour, as the pappataci enjoy an idyllic life dedicated to eating, drinking and sleeping. Zulma and Haly speculate about Isabella's real intentions and the quantity of alcohol ordered for the ceremony.

Isabella's apartment

She addresses the Italian slaves who will be pappataci in the ceremony. She will lead them to freedom: Pensa alla patria. The ceremony begins; Mustafà is delighted with his new honour and changes into appropriate costume. Isabella explains his obligations. He must swear an oath of eating, drinking, and keeping silent, repeating the words after Taddeo. Following that his oath is tested, under provocation by Isabella and Lindoro.

A European ship lies alongside the palace: time to escape! Taddeo finally realizes who Lindoro is, but decides to go along with them anyway. Elvira, Zulma and Haly find the Bey still acting as a mad pappataci. Suddenly recovering his sanity, Mustafà calls his troops but they are all drunk. The Italians bid farewell and Mustafà begs Elvira's forgiveness. No more Italian girls for him!

Recordings[edit]

YearCast
(Isabella, Lindoro, Mustafa, Taddeo)
Conductor,
Opera House and Orchestra
Label[7]
1954Giulietta Simionato,
Cesare Valletti,
Mario Petri,
Marcello Cortis
Carlo Maria Giulini
La Scala orchestra and chorus
Audio CD: EMI
Cat: CHS 7 64041-2
1963Teresa Berganza,
Luigi Alva,
Fernando Corena,
Rolando Panerai
Silvio Varviso,
Maggio Musicale Fiorentino
Audio CD: Decca
Cat: 475 8285
1978Lucia Valentini Terrani,
Ugo Benelli,
Sesto Bruscantini,
Enzo Dara
Gary Bertini,
Dresden Staatskapelle
Audio CD: Arts Music
Cat: 43048-2
1979Lucia Valentini Terrani,
Francisco Araiza,
Wladimiro Ganzarolli,
Enzo Dara
Gabriele Ferro,
Cappella Coloniensis
Audio CD: CBS
Cat: M3T 39048
1980Marilyn Horne,
Ernesto Palacio,
Samuel Ramey,
Domenico Trimarchi
Claudio Scimone,
I Solisti Veneti
Audio CD: Erato
Cat: 2292-45404-2
1987Agnes Baltsa,
Frank Lopardo,
Ruggero Raimondi,
Enzo Dara
Claudio Abbado,
Vienna Philharmonic
Audio CD: Deutsche Grammophon
Cat: 427 331-2
1998Jennifer Larmore,
Raúl Giménez,
John Del Carlo
Alessandro Corbelli
Jesús López-Cobos,
Lausanne Chamber Orchestra
Audio CD: Erato
Cat: 0630 17130-2
2006Marianna Pizzolato,
Marco Vinco,
Maxim Mironov
Bruno De Simone
Donato Renzetti,
Orchestra Teatro Comunale di Bologna
Video DVD: Dynamic
Cat: 33526
2008Marianna Pizzolato,
Lorenzo Regazzo,
Lawrence Brownlee
Bruno De Simone
Giulio Mastrototaro,
Alberto Zedda,
Virtuosi Brunensis Orchestra and the Philharmonischer Chor Transilvania Cluj
(Recording of a performance at the Wildbad Festival, 5 July)
Audio CD: Naxos
Cat: 8.660284-85

References[edit]

Notes

Cited sources

Other sources

External links[edit]