Kumon Education and Research Association of Japan is a corporation and an education brand created by Toru Kumon. The Kumon method is the math and reading educational method which is practiced in the Kumon centers. [1 ] Kumon History [edit ]
Toru Kumon began to teach his eldest son, who was having problems in mathematics at school. Through the support he provided to his son and to other children in the neighbourhood, Toru Kumon developed the Kumon Method. In 1958, Kumon opened the first Kumon Center in Osaka, Japan with the help of parents who were interested in the Method. In 1960, he founded the Kumon Institute of Education, after which Kumon Centers began to open around the world. As of March 2013, over 4340000 students have been enrolled under the Kumon Method in more than 7,500 Kumon Centers in 48 countries around the world. [2 ] The Kumon Program [edit ]
Kumon is a math and reading program intended to supplement rather than replace school lessons. Students do not work together as a class, but progress through the program at their own pace, moving on to the next level when they have achieved mastery of the previous level. Students are guided by trained Kumon Instructors and Assistants. Mastery is defined as speed (using a standard completion time) and accuracy.
They take an achievement test at the end of each level. [3 ] Company Value [edit ]
The Kumon family, led by Toru's wife Teiko, owns 35 percent of the company.
magazine estimated in March 2009 that the entire company was currently worth over $499 million. Forbes [4 ] Math Program [edit ]
7A-2A are preschool levels.
[5 ] Level 7A: Counting to 10 Level 6A: Counting to 30 Level 5A: Line drawing, number puzzles to 50 Level 4A: Reciting and writing numbers up to 50 Level 3A: Numbers up to 120, Adding up to 3 Level 2A: Adding up to 10
Levels A-F are elementary school levels.
Level A: Horizontal addition, Subtraction from numbers up to 20 Level B: Vertical addition and subtraction Level C: Basic multiplication, division Level D: Long multiplication, long division, introduction to fractions Level E: Fractions Level F: Four operations of fractions, decimals
Levels G-J are middle school levels.
Level G: Positive/negative numbers, exponents, Algebraic expressions, Pre-algebra Level H: Linear/simultaneous equations, inequalities, algebraic functions and graphs Level I: Factorization, square roots, quadratic equations, Pythagorean theorem Level J: Advanced algebra
Levels K-O are high school levels.
Level K: Functions: Quadratic, fractional, irrational, exponential Level L: Logarithms, basic limits, derivatives, integrals, and its applications Level M: Trigonometry, straight lines, equation of circles. Level N: Loci, limits of functions, sequences, differentiation Level O: Advanced differentiation, integration, applications of calculus, differential equations.
Level X is an elective level for grades 7+; also, there are no tests available yet on this level.
Level XT—Triangles: Sine, cosine theorems, application of trigonometry in area Level XV—Vectors: Vectors, inner products, equations of lines, planes, and figures in 3-space. Level XM—Linear algebra: Matrices, determinant, mapping, linear transformation Level XP—Probability: Permutations, combinations, probability, independent trials, expected value Level XS—Statistics: Binomial and normal distributions, probability density functions, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing
Answer books are available for all levels 7A through O.
Reading program [edit ] Level 7A: Look, Listen, Repeat Level 6A: Reciting With Pictures, Rhymes Level 5A: Phonics, Step-By-Step Stories Level 4A: Consonant Combinations and Vowel Sounds Level 3A: Advanced Vowel Combinations, Compound Words Level 2A: Functions of Words (nouns, verbs, adjectives), Reading Aloud Level AI: Simple Sentences, Basic Expressions, Vocabulary Level AII: Reading Comprehension, Writing Skills, Thought Sequence, Vocabulary Level BI: Subject and Predicate, Modifiers (adverbs and adjectives), Irregular Verbs and Plural Nouns, Vocabulary Level BII: Defining Words, Identifying Ideas, Comparing and Contrasting, Vocabulary Level CI: Parts of a Sentence, Expressions of Language, Constructing Sentences, Vocabulary Level CII: Elements of Statements, Organizing Information, Synthesizing Ideas, Vocabulary Level DI: Compound and Complex Sentences, Statements from Paragraphs, Vocabulary Level DII: Topic, Main Idea, Understanding Paragraphs, Vocabulary Level EI: Clauses, Direct and Indirect Speech, Graphing and Charting, Vocabulary Level EII: Sequence and Imagery, Underlining, Reason and Result, Vocabulary Level FI: Referring Words, Interpreting Text, Responding to Questions, Vocabulary Level FII: Unraveling Text, Recounting Story Events, Concision, Vocabulary Level G: Point Making, Theme, Story Elements, Summary Level H: Facts and Opinions, Passage Organization, Interpretation of Language, Summation Level I: Persuasion, Argument, Description, Precis Level J: Critical Reading, Passage Structure, Character Analysis Level K: Plot, Setting and Atmosphere, Irony, Comedy, Content Evaluation Level L: Figurative Language, Interpretation, Tragedy, Critical Writing International presence of Kumon [edit ]
Pencils and an eraser with the Kumon logo
The Kumon language program varies regionally.
For example, the [6 ] Chinese reading program in China is different from the Chinese reading programs in Hong Kong and Singapore, [7 ] [8 ] and the [9 ] English program in the U.S., Canada, and the Philippines varies from the English program in the United Kingdom. Additionally, Kumon Korea has other subjects, such as [10 ] science, calligraphy, Korean, and Chinese characters, which are not available elsewhere. [11 ]
The Math program also varies. The math program for most countries goes up to Level O and Level X.
[12 ] [13 ] [14 ] However, in Japan, the math program is available up to Level V. [15 ] The Kumon method is controversial in Japan, with its critics, including the [16 ] Japanese Ministry for Education, alleging that Kumon promotes rote learning as opposed to critical thinking. [17 ] References [edit ] ^ "Around the World in 80 ideas" . Retrieved . 2009-07-07 ^ List of all Kumon franchises by country Kumon Group ^ Emily Yoffe: . Slate, November 4, 2006 ^ Remedial Maths, Forbes.com, March 2, 2009, retrieved 2009-07-07 ^ Kumon Math, retrieved 2009-07-07 ^ The Kumon maths, native language and foreign language programmes ^ 公文式语文, kumon.com.cn, retrieved 2009-09-03 ^ Kumon 教材簡介, kumon.hk.com, retrieved 2009-09-03 ^ Characteristics of the Chinese Programme 公文式华文母语课程的特点, sg.kumonglobal.com, retrieved 2009-09-03 ^ Level descriptions - the English (or reading comprehension) programme in the UK ^ 구몬학습: 상품안내 ^ Level descriptions - the maths programme in Ireland ^ Kumon Math Program in the US ^ Level descriptions - the maths programme in South Africa ^ Level descriptions - the maths programme in the UK ^ "教科書と公文式教材: 算数・数学" . Retrieved . 2013-04-13 ^ Rohlen, Thomas; LeTendre, Gerald (1999). Teaching and Learning in Japan. Cambridge University Press. p. 249. External links [edit ]