Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV

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Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV
Maharaja of Mysore
GCSI GBE
Maharaja Sir Sri Krishnaraja Wodiyar 1906 by 1906 K Keshavayya.jpg
Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV
Portrait by K. Keshavayya (1906)
Reign1894–1940
Coronation1 February 1895, Mysore Palace
BornJune 4, 1884
BirthplaceMysore Palace, Mysore, Kingdom of Mysore
DiedAugust 3, 1940
Place of deathBangalore Palace, Bangalore, Kingdom of Mysore
PredecessorChamarajendra Wadiyar X
SuccessorJayachamarajendra Wadiyar
ConsortLakshmivilasa Sannidhana Sri Pratapa Kumari Ammani Avaru
Royal HouseWadiyar dynasty
FatherChamarajendra Wadiyar X
MotherMaharani Vani Vilas Sannidhana
Religious beliefsHinduism
 
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Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV
Maharaja of Mysore
GCSI GBE
Maharaja Sir Sri Krishnaraja Wodiyar 1906 by 1906 K Keshavayya.jpg
Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV
Portrait by K. Keshavayya (1906)
Reign1894–1940
Coronation1 February 1895, Mysore Palace
BornJune 4, 1884
BirthplaceMysore Palace, Mysore, Kingdom of Mysore
DiedAugust 3, 1940
Place of deathBangalore Palace, Bangalore, Kingdom of Mysore
PredecessorChamarajendra Wadiyar X
SuccessorJayachamarajendra Wadiyar
ConsortLakshmivilasa Sannidhana Sri Pratapa Kumari Ammani Avaru
Royal HouseWadiyar dynasty
FatherChamarajendra Wadiyar X
MotherMaharani Vani Vilas Sannidhana
Religious beliefsHinduism

Colonel H.H. Maharaja Sri Sir Nalwadi Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV (Nalwadi Krishnaraja Wadiyar) GCSI, GBE (June 4, 1884 – August 3, 1940, Bangalore Palace) was the ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Mysore from 1894 until his death in 1940. At the time of his death, he was also one of the world's wealthiest men, with a personal fortune estimated in 1940 to be worth US$400 million, equivalent to $56 billion at 2010 prices.[1]

He was a philosopher-king, who was seen by Paul Brunton as living the ideal expressed in Plato's Republic. He has been compared to the Emperor Ashoka by the English statesman Lord Samuel. Mahatma Gandhi called him Rajarshi, or "saintly king", and his kingdom was described by his followers as Rama Rajya, an ideal kingdom akin to the rule of Lord Rama.

Krishna IV was the 24th ruler of the Wodeyar dynasty of Mysore that ruled over Mysore State from 1399 to 1950.

Early years[edit]

A photograph of Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV taken 2 February 1895, a few months before his eleventh birthday.

Krishna was born on June 4, 1884 at the Royal Palace, Mysore. He was the eldest son of Maharaja Chamaraja Wadiyar X and Maharani Vani Vilas Sannidhana. After the death of his father in Calcutta in 1894, Krishna's mother ruled the state as Regent until Krishna reached the age of majority, 8th August 1902.

The Maharaja had his early education and training at the Lokaranjan Palace under the direction of P. Raghavendra Rao. In addition to Western studies, the Yuvaraja was instructed in the languages of Kannada and Sanskrit, was taught horse riding, and Indian and western Classical music. He was also sent to Mayo College, Ajmer to study but returned to Mysore due to ill health. His early administrative training was imparted by Sir Stuart Fraser of the Bombay Civil Service. The study of the principles of jurisprudence and methods of revenue administration were supplemented by extensive tours of the state during which he gained extensive knowledge of the nature of the country which he was later to govern.

Marriage[edit]

Marriage of H.H Sri Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV and Rana Prathap Kumari of Kathiawar, painted 1904.

On June 6, 1900, he wed Maharani Lakshmivilasa Sannidhana Sri Pratapa Kumari Ammani Avaru of Kathiawar (b. 1889), youngest daughter of Rana Sri Bane Sinhji Sahib, Rana Sahib of Vana in the Kathiawar region of the present-day Gujarat State.

Rama Rajya[edit]

Shortly after the 1876-77 famine and the death of Maharaja Chamaraja Chamarajendra Wadiyar X, Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV, still a boy of eleven, ascended the throne in 1895. His mother Maharani Kemparajammanniyavaru ruled as regent until Krishnaraja Wodeyar took over on 8 February 1902.[2] Krishna IV was invested as the Maharaja of Mysore, with full ruling powers, by the Viceroy, Lord Curzon, on August 8, 1902 at a ceremony at Jagan Mohan Palace (now the Jayachamarajendra Art Gallery).

Krishnaraja Wodeyar set up educational infrastructure.[3] The king was an accomplished musician, and like his predecessors, patronised the fine arts.[4] For these reasons, his reign is often described as the 'Golden age of Mysore'.[5]

Flag of Mysore.svg Mysore Kings

(1399-1950)

Under Vijayanagara Empire

(1399-1565)

Yaduraya(1399–1423)
Chamaraja Wodeyar I(1423–1459)
Timmaraja Wodeyar I(1459–1478)
Chamaraja Wodeyar II(1478–1513)
Chamaraja Wodeyar III(1513–1553)
Independent Wodeyar Kings

(1565-1761)

Timmaraja II(1553–1572)
Chamaraja Wodeyar IV(1572–1576)
Bettada Wodeyar(1576–1578)
Raja Wodeyar I(1578–1617)
Chamaraja Wodeyar V(1617–1637)
Raja Wodeyar II(1637–1638)
Narasaraja Wodeyar I(1638–1659)
Dodda Devaraja Wodeyar(1659–1673)
Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar(1673–1704)
Narasaraja Wodeyar II(1704–1714)
Krishnaraja Wodeyar I(1714–1732)
Chamaraja Wodeyar VI(1732–1734)
Krishnaraja Wodeyar II(1734–1766)
Under Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan

(1761-1799)

Krishnaraja Wodeyar II(1734–1766)
Nanjaraja Wodeyar(1766–1772)
Chamaraja Wodeyar VII(1772–1776)
Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII(1776–1796)
Under British Rule

(1799-1947)

Krishnaraja Wodeyar III(1799–1868)
Chamaraja Wodeyar IX(1881–1894)
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV(1894–1940)
Jayachamaraja Wodeyar(1940–1950)
C Rajagopalachari
(Governor-General - Republic of India)

Krishna Raja Wadiyar was the first chancellor of Banaras Hindu University and University of Mysore. The latter was the first university chartered by an Indian State. The Indian Institute of Science at Bangalore which was initiated during His mother's tenure as Regent was started during his reign, with the gift, in 1911, of 371 acres (1.5 km²) of land and a donation of funds. He was a patron of Indian (both Carnatic and Hindustani) and Western Classical Music.

Mysore had been the first Indian state to have a Representative Assembly, a democratic forum in 1881. During Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV's reign, the Assembly was enlarged and became bicameral in 1907 with the creation of the Legislative Council, a house of elders which introduced much new legislation for the state. During his reign Mysore became the first Indian state to generate hydroelectric power in Asia, and Bangalore was the first Asian city to have street lights, first lit on August 5, 1905.

During his 39-year reign as Maharaja, Krishna IV had the following Prime Ministers (popularly known as Diwans):

  1. P.N. Krishnamurthy (1901–06)
  2. V.P. Madhava Rao (1906–09)
  3. T. Ananda Rao (1909–1912)
  4. Sir M. Visvesvaraya (1912–19)
  5. Sir M. Kantha Raje Urs (1919–22)
  6. Sir Albion Rajkumar Banerjee, ICS, (1922–26)
  7. Sir Mirza Ismail (1926–41)

During his reign, he worked toward alleviating poverty and improving rural reconstruction, public health, industry and economic regeneration, education and the fine arts. Such were the strides that Mysore made during his period that Gandhiji was moved to remark that the Maharaja was a Rajarishi ("a saintly king").[6] Paul Brunton, the British philosopher and orientalist; John Gunther, the American author; and the British statesman, Lord Samuel, were also among those who heaped praise on the king. Lord Sankey said during the Round table conference that Mysore was "the best administered state in the world". Princes from other sections of India were sent to Mysore for administrative training. The Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya described the Raja as "Dharmic" and Lord Wellington echoed the sentiment by calling Mysore's industrial development "incredible".

Patron of the arts[edit]

Nalvadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar

The Raja was a connoisseur of Carnatic and Hindustani music. He played eight musical instruments, flute, violin, saxophone, piano, mridangam, nadaswara, sitar, and veena.[citation needed] Members of the Agra Gharana, including Nattan Khan and Ustad Vilayat Hussain Khan, were guests of the Maharajah in Mysore, as were Abdul Karim Khan and Gauhar Jan. Barkatullah Khan was a palace musician from 1919 until his death in 1930. Composers at his Court included Veena Shamanna, Veena Sheshanna, 'Vikatakavi",K.R.Venugopal sarma,Mysore Karigiri Rao, Veena Subbanna, Bidaram Krishnappa, Mysore Vasudevacharya, Veena Subramanaya Iyer, Dr Muthiah Bhagavatar, Veena Shivaramiah, Veena Venkatagiriappa, Belakawadi Srinivasa Iyengar, Chikka Rama Rao, Mysore T.Chowdiah, B.Devendrappa, Gottuvadyam Narayana Iyengar, and Tiruvayyar Subramaya Iyer.

Mahatma Gandhi and the Maharaja[edit]

Mahatma Gandhi praised the Maharaja of Mysore in 1925 for taking up spinning, to the benefit of himself and his subjects.[7]

Progress during reign[edit]

During the reign of Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV:

Titles[edit]

Honours[edit]

(ribbon bar, as it would look today)

Ord.Stella.India.jpg Order of the British Empire (Civil) Ribbon.png Order of St John (UK) ribbon.png

Med.DelhiDurbar1903.png King George V Coronation Medal ribbon.png GeorgeVSilverJubileum-ribbon.png GeorgeVICoronationRibbon.png

References[edit]

  1. ^ Current Biography 1940, p833
  2. ^ Rama Jois, M. 1984. Legal and constitutional history of India ancient legal, judicial and constitutional system. Delhi: Universal Law Pub. Co. p597
  3. ^ "The Mysore duo Krishnaraja Wodeya IV & M. Visvesvaraya". India Today. Retrieved 2007-10-23. 
  4. ^ Pranesh (2003), p. 162
  5. ^ "[Group portrait of] the Maharaja [of Mysore] & his brothers and sisters.". British Library. Retrieved 2007-10-23. 
  6. ^ Puttaswamaiah, K., 1980. Economic development of Karnataka a treatise in continuity and change. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH, p. 3
  7. ^ Navajivan, February 8, 1925: "His Highness the Maharaja of Mysore has taken up spinning. This news cannot but gladden the hearts of those who look upon it as sacred duty ... I congratulate the Maharaja and hope that he will not give up till the end of his life this activity which he has taken up, It will do immense good to him and his subjects."
  8. ^ "Yuvaraja College". 
  9. ^ "MSR". 
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Hand Book of Karnataka". 
  11. ^ "Mysore Sandal Soap". 
  12. ^ "MSCWM website". 
  13. ^ "Marakonahalli Dam". 
  14. ^ "Mysugar website". 
  15. ^ "MPM website". 
  16. ^ "Hirebhaskara Dam surfaces as Sharavathy recedes". The Hindu. Retrieved 2003-06-09. 


External links[edit]

Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV
Born: 4 June 1884 Died: 3 August 1940
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Chamaraja Wodeyar
Maharaja of Mysore
1894–1940
Succeeded by
Jayachamaraja Wodeyar Bahadur