Krasnodar

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Krasnodar (English)
Краснодар (Russian)
-  City[citation needed]  -
Krasnodar attraction.jpg
Map of Russia - Krasnodar Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Krasnodar Krai in Russia
Krasnodar is located in Krasnodar Krai
Krasnodar
Location of Krasnodar in Krasnodar Krai
Coordinates: 45°02′N 38°58′E / 45.033°N 38.967°E / 45.033; 38.967Coordinates: 45°02′N 38°58′E / 45.033°N 38.967°E / 45.033; 38.967
Coat of Arms of Krasnodar (Krasnodar krai).png
Flag of Krasnodar (Krasnodar krai) (2006).gif
Coat of arms
Flag
City DayLast non-working day of September[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of December 2001)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKrasnodar Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated toCity of Krasnodar[2]
Administrative center ofKrasnodar Krai,[1] City of Krasnodar[2]
Municipal status (as of February 2012)
Urban okrugKrasnodar Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center ofKrasnodar Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed]Vladimir Yevlanov[4]
Representative bodyCity Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census)744,995 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 201017th
Time zoneMSK (UTC+04:00)[6]
FoundedJanuary 12, 1794[citation needed]
City status since1867[citation needed]
Previous namesYekaterinodar (until 1920)[citation needed]
Postal code(s)350000–350090[citation needed]
Dialing code(s)+7 861[citation needed]
Official website
Krasnodar on WikiCommons
 
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Krasnodar (English)
Краснодар (Russian)
-  City[citation needed]  -
Krasnodar attraction.jpg
Map of Russia - Krasnodar Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Krasnodar Krai in Russia
Krasnodar is located in Krasnodar Krai
Krasnodar
Location of Krasnodar in Krasnodar Krai
Coordinates: 45°02′N 38°58′E / 45.033°N 38.967°E / 45.033; 38.967Coordinates: 45°02′N 38°58′E / 45.033°N 38.967°E / 45.033; 38.967
Coat of Arms of Krasnodar (Krasnodar krai).png
Flag of Krasnodar (Krasnodar krai) (2006).gif
Coat of arms
Flag
City DayLast non-working day of September[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of December 2001)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKrasnodar Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated toCity of Krasnodar[2]
Administrative center ofKrasnodar Krai,[1] City of Krasnodar[2]
Municipal status (as of February 2012)
Urban okrugKrasnodar Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center ofKrasnodar Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed]Vladimir Yevlanov[4]
Representative bodyCity Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census)744,995 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 201017th
Time zoneMSK (UTC+04:00)[6]
FoundedJanuary 12, 1794[citation needed]
City status since1867[citation needed]
Previous namesYekaterinodar (until 1920)[citation needed]
Postal code(s)350000–350090[citation needed]
Dialing code(s)+7 861[citation needed]
Official website
Krasnodar on WikiCommons

Krasnodar (Russian: Краснодар; IPA: [krəsnɐˈdar]) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kuban River about 148 kilometers (92 mi) northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. Population: 744,995 (2010 Census);[5] 646,175 (2002 Census);[7] 620,516 (1989 Census).[8]

Contents

Name

A 19th century photo depicting Kuban Cossacks obelisk in Yekaterinodar

It was founded on January 12, 1794 (Gregorian calendar) as Yekaterinodar (Екатеринода́р).[citation needed] The original name meant "Catherine's Gift" simultaneously in recognition of Catherine the Great's grant of land in the Kuban region to the Black Sea Cossacks (later the Kuban Cossacks) and in recognition of Saint Catherine, the Martyr, who is considered to be the patron of the city. After the October Revolution, Yekaterinodar was renamed Krasnodar (December 1920).[citation needed] There is meaning for the new communist name of the city: Krasno- (Красно-), meaning 'red' (especially relevant considering the political atmosphere of the time); and -dar (-дар), meaning 'gift'. Thus, the city's name means red gift (i.e. 'gift of the reds').

History

Yekaterinodar in the early 20th century

The origin of the city starts with a fortress built by the Cossacks in order to defend imperial borders and claim Russian ownership over Circassia, which was contested by Ottoman Turkey. In the first half of the 19th century Yekaterinodar grew into a busy center of the Kuban Cossacks. It was granted town status in 1867.[citation needed] By 1888, about 45,000 people lived in the city and it became a vital trade center of southern Russia. In 1897, an obelisk commemorating the two hundred year history of Kuban Cossack Host was built in Yekaterinodar.

During the Russian Civil War the city changed hands several times between the Red Army and Volunteer Army, many Kuban Cossacks were committed anti-Bolsheviks who supported the White Movement. Lavr Kornilov, a White general, captured the city in 10 April 1918, only to be killed a week later when an artillery shell fired by Bolsheviks blew up the farmhouse he was using as his headquarters.

During the World War II, Krasnodar was occupied by the German Army between August 12, 1942 and February 12, 1943. The city sustained heavy damage in the fighting but was rebuilt and renovated after the war.

In the summer of 1943, the Soviets began trials, including of their own citizens, for collusion with the Nazis and participation in war crimes. The first such trial was held at Krasnodar on July 14–17, 1943. The Krasnodar tribunal pronounced eight death sentences, which were summarily conducted in the city square in front of a crowd of about thirty thousand people.

Administrative and municipal status

Krasnodar is the administrative center of the krai.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with twenty-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Krasnodar—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[2] As a municipal division, the City of Krasnodar is incorporated as Krasnodar Urban Okrug.[3]

Main sights

The Splash Fountain in Krasnodar
Obelisk to Red Army soldiers

Krasnodar is home to the steel lattice hyperboloid tower built by the Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1928; it is located near Krasnodar Circus.

Other attractions include St. Catherine's Cathedral, the State Arts Museum, a park and theater named after Maxim Gorky, the beautiful concert hall of the Krasnodar Philharmonic Society, which is considered to have some of the best acoustics in southern Russia, State Cossack Choir and the Krasnodar circus

The most interesting place of Krasnodar is Krasnaya Street (which translates as "Red, Beautiful Street"). There are situated many sights of Krasnodar. In the beginning of this street one can see the Central Concert Hall; at the other end one can see the Avrora cinemacenter. A "Triumphal Arch" is situated in the middle of Krasnaya Street.

Theater Square is home to the largest splash fountain in the Europe.[9] This fountain was officially inaugurated on September 25, 2011 along with the official ceremony to celebrate the City Day in Krasnodar.

Economy

Krasnodar is the economic center of southern Russia. For several years, Forbes magazine named Krasnodar the best city for business in Russia.[10] In the industrial sector of the city has more than 130 large and medium-sized enterprises.

The main industries of Krasnodar:

In Krasnodar is a highly developed commercial area. Krasnodar has the largest turnover in the SFD. Retail trade turnover in 2010 reached 290 billion RUB. Krasnodar is the first in Russia in the number of malls (per capita). Note that in the crisis year 2009 turnover of Krasnodar continued to grow, while most of the cities showed a negative trend of circulation of goods.

Tourism comprises a large part of Krasnodar's economy. There are more than 80 hotels in Krasnodar.

Transportation

A tram in Krasnodar

Like with many other major cities in Russia, the primary mode of local transportation in Krasnodar is automobile, though efforts have been made to increase the availability of alternative modes of transportation, including the construction of light rail lines (projected), biking paths, and wide sidewalks. Public transportation within Krasnodar consists of city buses, trolleybuses, trams, and marshrutkas (routed taxis). Trolleybuses and trams, both powered by overhead electric wires, are the main form of transportation in Krasnodar. Krasnodar does not have a metro system.

The main airline is Kuban Airlines (at Krasnodar International Airport), and the largest hotels in the city include the Intourist, Hotel Moskva, and Hotel Platan. Krasnodar uses a 220 V/50 Hz power supply with two round-pin outlets, like most European countries.

Culture

Pushkin Library
The Pushkin monument

The oldest part of the city is Old Downtown Krasnodar, which consists of many historic buildings, several from the 19th century. Buildings have been preserved, restored or reconstructed, and the district is now a substantial tourist attraction.

There are several major theater venues for Krasnodar:

Krasnodar has several major museums. The Krasnodar Regional Art Museum named after Kovalenko, the oldest public art museum North Caucasus, is one of the finest.

Coat of arms

The coat of arms of Yekaterinodar was introduced in 1841 by the Cossack yesaul Ivan Chernik. The royal letter "E" in the middle is for Ekaterina II (Russian for Catherine II). It also depicts the date city was founded, the Imperial double headed eagle (symbolizing Tsar's patronage of Black Sea Cossacks), a bulawa of a Cossack ataman, Yekaterinodar fortress, and flags with letters "E", "P", "A", and "N" standing for Catherine II, Paul I, Alexander I and Nicholas I. Yellow stars around the shield symbolized 59 Black Sea stanitsas around the city.

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification Krasnodar has a humid subtropical climate climate (Cfa).

Winters are cold and damp, with unstable snow cover. The average temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32 °F (0 °C). Weather conditions in winter vary greatly. Temperatures can exceed 68 °F (20 °C) for a few days, but temperatures below −4 °F (−20 °C) are not uncommon for Krasnodar as the city is not protected by mountains from cold waves. Summers are typically hot with a July average of 75.2 °F (24.0 °C).

The city receives 28.26 inches (718 mm) of precipitation annually, fairly spread throughout the year. Extreme storms are rare in the Krasnodar area. Extreme temperatures have ranged from -27.2 to 104 °F (-33 to 40 °C), recorded on January 11, 1940 and July 30, 2000, respectively.

Climate data for Krasnodar
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.8
(69.4)
22.2
(72.0)
28.5
(83.3)
34.7
(94.5)
34.9
(94.8)
38.1
(100.6)
40.7
(105.3)
40.0
(104.0)
38.5
(101.3)
33.9
(93.0)
27.4
(81.3)
22.9
(73.2)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F)4.4
(39.9)
5.7
(42.3)
10.7
(51.3)
18.0
(64.4)
23.2
(73.8)
27.1
(80.8)
30.2
(86.4)
30.2
(86.4)
24.9
(76.8)
18.1
(64.6)
10.7
(51.3)
5.8
(42.4)
17.4
(63.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)0.6
(33.1)
1.1
(34.0)
5.5
(41.9)
12.2
(54.0)
17.2
(63.0)
21.3
(70.3)
24.1
(75.4)
23.7
(74.7)
18.5
(65.3)
12.3
(54.1)
6.1
(43.0)
2.1
(35.8)
12.1
(53.8)
Average low °C (°F)−2.2
(28.0)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.8
(35.2)
7.6
(45.7)
12.2
(54.0)
16.4
(61.5)
18.7
(65.7)
18.0
(64.4)
13.3
(55.9)
7.9
(46.2)
2.8
(37.0)
−0.7
(30.7)
7.8
(46.0)
Record low °C (°F)−32.9
(−27.2)
−29.8
(−21.6)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
4.2
(39.6)
9.5
(49.1)
3.9
(39.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
−9.9
(14.2)
−20.4
(−4.7)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−32.9
(−27.2)
Precipitation mm (inches)66
(2.6)
54
(2.13)
58
(2.28)
51
(2.01)
68
(2.68)
86
(3.39)
56
(2.2)
44
(1.73)
46
(1.81)
56
(2.2)
73
(2.87)
77
(3.03)
735
(28.94)
Avg. rainy days11913141413989101314137
Avg. snowy days9850.2000000.43732.6
humidity84797570707066647077838574
Mean monthly sunshine hours71.387.0136.4180.0248.0276.0303.8285.2237.0173.687.055.82,141.1
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[11]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)[12]

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Krasnodar has five sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI):

Notable people

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Charter of Krasnodar Krai, Article 13
  2. ^ a b c Reference Information #20-2969/11-03
  3. ^ a b c Law #670-OZ
  4. ^ "Евланов Владимир Лазаревич - глава муниципального образования город Краснодар". Glava.krd.ru. http://www.glava.krd.ru/. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
  5. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
  8. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg.php. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
  9. ^ "The Splash Fountain in Krasnodar". Sergio-zevs.blogspot.com. 2011-09-25. http://sergio-zevs.blogspot.com/2011/10/splash-fountain-in-krasnodar.html. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
  10. ^ "Krasnodar again was named best city for business in Russia. RU". Vesti.kz. http://vesti.kz/ru_economics/52257/. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
  11. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net (Weather and Climate-The Climate of Krasnodar)" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/34927.htm. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  12. ^ "Climatological Information for Krasnodar, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. http://www.weather.gov.hk/wxinfo/climat/world/eng/europe/russia/krasnodar_e.htm. Retrieved August 16, 2012.

Sources

External links