Kirk Douglas

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Kirk Douglas
Kirk and Michael Douglas -1969.jpg
Douglas in 1969
BornIssur Danielovitch
(1916-12-09) December 9, 1916 (age 97)
Amsterdam, New York, U.S.
Other namesIzzy Demsky
EducationSt. Lawrence University
Alma materAmerican Academy of Dramatic Arts
OccupationActor, producer, director, author
Years active1942–present
ReligionConservative Judaism[1]
Spouse(s)Diana Dill (m. 1943; div. 1951)
Anne Buydens (m. 1954)
ChildrenMichael (b. 1944)
Joel (b. 1947)
Peter (b. 1955)
Eric (1958–2004)
RelativesCameron Douglas (b. 1978; grandson)
Dylan Michael Douglas (b. 2000; grandson)
Carys Zeta Douglas (b. 2003; granddaughter)
SignatureKirkDouglas.png
 
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Kirk Douglas
Kirk and Michael Douglas -1969.jpg
Douglas in 1969
BornIssur Danielovitch
(1916-12-09) December 9, 1916 (age 97)
Amsterdam, New York, U.S.
Other namesIzzy Demsky
EducationSt. Lawrence University
Alma materAmerican Academy of Dramatic Arts
OccupationActor, producer, director, author
Years active1942–present
ReligionConservative Judaism[1]
Spouse(s)Diana Dill (m. 1943; div. 1951)
Anne Buydens (m. 1954)
ChildrenMichael (b. 1944)
Joel (b. 1947)
Peter (b. 1955)
Eric (1958–2004)
RelativesCameron Douglas (b. 1978; grandson)
Dylan Michael Douglas (b. 2000; grandson)
Carys Zeta Douglas (b. 2003; granddaughter)
SignatureKirkDouglas.png

Kirk Douglas (born Issur Danielovitch, Russian: Иссур Даниелович;[2] December 9, 1916) is an American film and stage actor, film producer and author. His popular films include Out of the Past (1947), Champion (1949), Ace in the Hole (1951), The Bad and the Beautiful (1952), 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954), Lust for Life (1956), Paths of Glory (1957), Gunfight at the O.K. Corral (1957), The Vikings (1958), Spartacus (1960), Lonely Are the Brave (1962), Seven Days in May (1964), The Heroes of Telemark (1965) and Tough Guys (1986).

He is No. 17 on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest male screen legends in American film history, making him the highest-ranked living person on the list. In 1996, he received the Academy Honorary Award "for 50 years as a creative and moral force in the motion picture community".

Early life[edit]

Douglas was born Issur Danielovitch in Amsterdam, New York, the son of Bryna "Bertha" (née Sanglel) and Herschel "Harry" Danielovitch, a businessman.[3] His parents were Jewish immigrants from Chavusy, Mahilyow Voblast, (now in Belarus but then part of the Russian Empire),[4] and the family spoke Yiddish.[5][6] His father's brother, who emigrated earlier, used the surname Demsky, which Douglas' family adopted in the United States.[2] In addition to their surname, his parents also changed their given names to Harry and Bertha.

His 1988 biography paints a memorable picture of his family in the early years in America. After noting that his father was denied work in the carpet mills, the town's largest employers, because he was Jewish, Douglas writes:

So my father, who had been a horse trader in Russia, got himself a horse and a small wagon, and became a ragman, buying old rags, pieces of metal, and junk for pennies, nickels, and dimes. . . . Even on Eagle Street, in the poorest section of town, where all the families were struggling, the ragman was on the lowest rung on the ladder. And I was the ragman's son.

Douglas grew up as Izzy Demsky and legally changed his name to Kirk Douglas before entering the Navy during World War II.[7]

Coming from a poor family, as a boy Douglas sold snacks to mill workers to earn enough to buy milk and bread. Later, he delivered newspapers and worked at more than forty jobs before becoming an actor.[8] He found living in a family of six sisters to be stifling, stating, "I was dying to get out. In a sense, it lit a fire under me."[9] During high school, he acted in school plays, and discovered "The one thing in my life that I always knew, that was always constant, was that I wanted to be an actor."[10]

College graduation, 1939

Unable to afford tuition, Douglas talked his way into St. Lawrence University and received a loan which he paid back by working part-time as a gardener and a janitor. He was a standout on the wrestling team, and wrestled one summer in a carnival to make money.[11]

Douglas' acting talents were noticed at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City and he received a special scholarship. One of his classmates was Betty Joan Perske (later to become better known as Lauren Bacall), who would play an important role in launching his film career.[12] Another classmate was aspiring Bermudian actress Diana Dill. While doing summer stock theater during a college term break, he began using the name Kirk Douglas, which he later legally adopted.[2] He earned his first money as an actor that summer.[13] Upon graduating from drama school, Douglas made his Broadway debut as a singing telegraph boy in Spring Again.

Douglas enlisted in the United States Navy in 1941, shortly after the United States entered World War II. He was medically discharged for war injuries in 1944. On May 3, 1943, Diana Dill, his former classmate, appeared on the cover of Life magazine. Seeing the photograph, Douglas told his fellow sailors that he was going to marry her. He did on November 2, 1943. The couple had two sons (Michael in 1944 and Joel in 1947) before they divorced in 1951.[14][15]

After the war, Douglas returned to New York City and found work in radio, theatre, and commercials. His stage break occurred in Kiss and Tell, which led to other roles. Douglas had planned to remain a stage actor but Lauren Bacall helped him get his first screen role in the Hal B. Wallis film The Strange Love of Martha Ivers (1946), starring Barbara Stanwyck. Wallis was on his way to New York to look for new talent when Bacall suggested he visit Douglas, who was rehearsing a play called The Wind Is Ninety. Douglas finished the play's run and, with no follow-up work in sight, headed to Hollywood. He was immediately cast in one of the leading roles in Wallis' film and made his film acting debut as a weak man dominated by a ruthless woman, unlike his later roles where he often played dominating characters.[16]

Career[edit]

Douglas established his image as a tough guy in his eighth film, Champion, playing a selfish boxer. From then on, he made a career of playing "sons of bitches".[17] From that film on, he decided that to succeed as a star, he needed to ramp up his intensity, overcome his natural shyness, and choose stronger roles. He later stated, "I don't think I'd be much of an actor without vanity. And I'm not interested in being a 'modest actor'."[18] Early in his Hollywood career, he demonstrated his independent streak and broke his studio contracts to gain total control over his projects, forming his own movie company, Bryna Productions, named after his mother.[9]

Douglas made his Broadway debut in 1949 in the Anton Chekhov play Three Sisters, produced by Katharine Cornell.[19]

Douglas was a major box office star in the 1950s and 1960s, playing opposite some of the leading actresses of that era. Among his various roles, he played a frontier peace officer in his first western Along the Great Divide (1951). He quickly became comfortable with riding horses and playing gunslingers, and appeared in many westerns. In Lonely Are the Brave (1962), his own favorite of his performances, Douglas plays a cowboy trying to live by his own code, much as he did in real life.[20]

With Eve Miller in The Big Trees (1952)

In The Bad and the Beautiful (1952), one of his three Oscar-nominated roles, Douglas plays Jonathan Shields, a hard-nosed film producer who manipulates and uses his actors, writers, and directors.[21] In Young Man with a Horn (1950), Douglas portrays the rise and fall of a driven jazz musician, based on real-life horn player Bix Beiderbecke. Composer-pianist Hoagy Carmichael, playing the sidekick role, added realism to the film and gave Douglas insight into the role, being a friend of the real Beiderbecke.[22]

In one of his earliest television appearances, Douglas was a musical guest (as himself) on The Jack Benny Program (1954).[23] In the opening monologue, Benny reads the reviews of critics who liked his season premiere, while skipping the ones who did not. He then hurries home for his weekly jam session with Tony Martin (on clarinet), Fred MacMurray (saxophone), Dick Powell (trumpet), Dan Dailey (drums), and Douglas (four-string banjo). They avail themselves of the coin-operated vending machines in Benny's living room. The band plays "Basin Street Blues", but Douglas keeps going into "Bye Bye Blues", the only song he knows.

In Lust for Life as Vincent van Gogh

Douglas played many military men, with varying nuance, in Top Secret Affair (1957), Paths of Glory (1957) (his most famous role in that genre), Town Without Pity (1961), The Hook (1963), Seven Days in May (1964), Heroes of Telemark (1965), In Harm's Way (1965), Cast a Giant Shadow (1966), Is Paris Burning (1966), and The Final Countdown (1980).

His role as Vincent van Gogh in Lust for Life (1956), filmed mostly on location in France, was noted not only for the veracity of his appearance but also for how he conveyed the painter's internal turmoil. He won a Golden Globe award for his role. Director Vincente Minnelli stated, "Kirk Douglas achieved a moving and memorable portrait of the artist—a man of massive creative power, triggered by severe emotional stress, the fear and horror of madness. In my opinion, Kirk should have won the Academy Award."[24] Douglas himself called his acting role as Van Gogh a "very painful experience." He writes, "Not only did I look like Van Gogh, I was the same age he was when he committed suicide."[25]:288

Douglas played the lead with an all-star cast in Spartacus (1960). He was the executive producer as well, raising the $12 million production cost.[26] He also played an important role in breaking the Hollywood blacklist by making sure that Dalton Trumbo's name was mentioned in the opening and ending credits of the film for the outstanding screenplay he did for the film.[2] Douglas initially selected Anthony Mann to direct the movie, but dismissed him when he judged the initial shooting to be unsatisfactory. To replace Mann he chose Stanley Kubrick, who three years earlier had collaborated closely with Douglas in Paths of Glory, where Douglas played one of his most notable roles as Colonel Dax, the commander of a French regiment during World War I.[27] Spartacus was a huge success, but Kubrick, considering himself a mere employee of Douglas and since much of the footage (including Peter Ustinov's key scenes) was shot under Mann, did not consider it to be part of his own oeuvre.

In Broadway play, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1963)

In addition to serious, driven characters, Douglas was adept at roles requiring a comic touch, as in 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954), an adaptation of the Jules Verne novel, wherein he played a happy-go-lucky sailor who was the opposite in every way to the brooding Captain Nemo (James Mason). The film was one of Walt Disney's most successful live-action movies and a major box-office hit.[24] He managed a similar comic turn in the western Man Without a Star (1955) and in For Love or Money (1963).

Douglas bought the rights to the novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest from its author, Ken Kesey, and turned it into a play in 1963 in which he starred. It ran on Broadway for five months, and while many reviews were positive, some of the important critics gave it poor reviews. Douglas retained the movie rights, but after a decade of being unable to find a producer, gave the rights to his son Michael, who produced the film version, winning five Academy Awards.[28]

Douglas made seven films over the decades with Burt Lancaster; I Walk Alone (1948), Gunfight at the O.K. Corral (1957), The Devil's Disciple (1959), The List of Adrian Messenger (1963), Seven Days in May (1964), Victory at Entebbe (1976) and Tough Guys (1986), which fixed the notion of the pair as something of a team in the public imagination. Douglas was always second-billed under Lancaster in these movies but, with the exception of I Walk Alone, in which Douglas played a villain, their roles were more or less the same size. Both actors arrived in Hollywood at the same time, and first appeared together in the fourth film for each, albeit with Douglas in a supporting role. They both became actor-producers who sought out independent Hollywood careers.[29]

Douglas stated that the keys to acting success are determination and application, "You must know how to function and how to maintain yourself, and you must have a love of what you do. But an actor also needs great good luck. I have had that luck."[10] Douglas had great vitality, "It takes a lot out of you to work in this business. Many people fall by the wayside because they don't have the energy to sustain their talent."[30] His intensity spilled over into all elements of his film-making. As an actor, he dove into every role, dissecting not only his own lines but all the parts in the script to measure the rightness of the role, and he was willing to fight with the director if he felt justified.[30] According to his wife, he often brought home that intensity, "When he was doing Lust for Life, he came home in that red beard of Van Gogh's, wearing those big boots, stomping around the house—it was frightening."[29] His distinctive acting style and delivery made him, like James Stewart, a favorite with impersonators, especially Frank Gorshin.[31]

Unlike some actors such as Robert Mitchum, Douglas had a high opinion of actors, movies, and moviemaking, "To me it is the most important art form—it is an art, and it includes all the elements of the modern age." But he also stressed the entertainment value of films, "You can make a statement, you can say something, but it must be entertaining."[18]

His first film as a director was Scalawag (1973). In his autobiography The Ragman's Son, he said "Since I was accused so often of trying to direct the films I was in, I thought I ought to really try my hand at directing."[32] It was a difficult debut with many production problems, requiring his wife to act as producer. Douglas played a charming scoundrel with one leg, a considerable challenge to his athleticism, and though he got credit for his role, the film received unimpressive reviews.[33] Later in 1973, Douglas appeared in a made-for-TV musical version of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.[34][35][36]

The Douglases with President Ronald Reagan, December 1987

On July 5, 1986, he co-hosted (with Angela Lansbury) the New York Philharmonic's tribute to the 100th anniversary of the Statue of Liberty, which was televised live on ABC Television.[37] The orchestra was conducted by Zubin Mehta.

Douglas was nominated three times for the Academy Award for Best Actor for his work in Champion, The Bad and the Beautiful and Lust for Life. He was especially disappointed for not winning for the last film, "I really thought I had a chance."[18] Douglas did not win any competitive Oscars, but received an Honorary Academy Award in 1996 for "50 years as a moral and creative force in the motion picture community".

Douglas with Zubin Mehta, March 2011

For his contributions to the motion picture industry, Douglas has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6263 Hollywood Blvd. He is one of the few personalities (along with James Stewart, Gregory Peck, and Gene Autry) whose star has been stolen and later replaced.[38] In 1984, he was inducted into the Western Performers Hall of Fame at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. He received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1991 and the Screen Actors Guild Lifetime Achievement Award in 1999.

In 1994, Douglas' accomplishments in the performing arts were celebrated in Washington, D.C., where he among the recipients of the annual Kennedy Center Honors.[39]

In October 2004, the avenue Kirk Douglas Way in Palm Springs, California was named in his honor by the Palm Springs International Film Society and Film Festival. Popular at home and around the world, Douglas received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1981, the French Legion of Honor in 1985, and the National Medal of the Arts in 2001.

In March 2009, Douglas starred in an autobiographical one man show titled Before I Forget at the Center Theatre Group's Kirk Douglas Theatre in Culver City, California. The four performances were filmed and turned into a documentary that was first screened in January 2010.[40]

On February 27, 2011, Douglas appeared on the stage of the Kodak Theatre for the 83rd Academy Awards to present the Best Supporting Actress Oscar, where he flirted with host Anne Hathaway, quipping, "where were you when I was making pictures?"[41]

Douglas is on the Board of Selectors of Jefferson Awards for Public Service.[42]

Personal life[edit]

President Jimmy Carter greets Kirk Douglas and Mrs. Douglas, March 1978

Douglas married twice, first to Diana Dill, on November 2, 1943. The couple had two sons, actor Michael Douglas and producer Joel Douglas. They divorced in 1951. He then married German American producer Anne Buydens on May 29, 1954. They had two sons, producer Peter Douglas and actor Eric Douglas. Eric Douglas died July 6, 2004 of a drug overdose.

In February 1991, Douglas survived a helicopter crash in which two people died. This sparked a search for meaning, which led him, after much study, to embrace the Judaism in which he was raised. He documented this spiritual journey in his book Climbing the Mountain: My Search for Meaning (2001). In his earlier autobiography, The Ragman's Son (1988), he stated that "years back, I tried to forget that I was a Jew."[25]:383 However, in his later career, he notes that "coming to grips with what it means to be a Jew has been a theme in my life."[25] In an interview in 2000, he explained this transition:[43]

Judaism and I parted ways a long time ago, when I was a poor kid growing up in Amsterdam, N.Y. Back then, I was pretty good in cheder, so the Jews of our community thought they would do a wonderful thing and collect enough money to send me to a yeshiva to become a rabbi. Holy Moses! That scared the hell out of me. I didn't want to be a rabbi. I wanted to be an actor. Believe me, the members of the Sons of Israel were persistent. I had nightmares – wearing long payos and a black hat. I had to work very hard to get out of it. But it took me a long time to learn that you don't have to be a rabbi to be a Jew.

Douglas notes also that the underlying theme of some of his films, including The Juggler (1953), Cast a Giant Shadow (1966), and Remembrance of Love (1982), was about "a Jew who doesn't think of himself as one, and eventually finds his Jewishness."[25]:383 Although his children had a non-Jewish mother, Douglas states that they were "aware culturally" of his "deep convictions," and he never tried to influence their own religious decisions. He notes, however, that Michael answered, "I'm a Jew," when once asked about what he was.[25]:384 Kirk Douglas' wife, Anne Buydens, converted to Judaism before they renewed their wedding vows in 2004.[44]

Douglas is a lifelong supporter of the US Democratic Party.[45] He has on occasion written letters to politicians who were friends. He notes in his memoir, Let's Face It (2007), that he felt compelled to write former president Jimmy Carter in 2006 in order to stress that "Israel is the only successful democracy in the Middle East. . . . [and] has had to endure many wars against overwhelming odds. If Israel loses one war, they lose Israel."[2]:226

In January 1996, he suffered a severe stroke, partially impairing his ability to speak. On December 8, 2006, Douglas appeared on Entertainment Tonight, where the entire staff wished him a happy 90th birthday the night before. His son Michael and daughter-in-law Catherine Zeta-Jones were among the many celebrities who attended his birthday celebration. On the show, he discussed the books he has written and the death of his son Eric. Douglas celebrated a second Bar-Mitzvah ceremony in 1999 at the age of eighty-three.

A portrait of Douglas, titled "The Great and the Beautiful," which encapsulated his film career, art collection, philanthropy and rehabilitation from the helicopter crash and the stroke, appeared in Palm Springs Life magazine in 1999. The article said "For years, this energetic performer could be seen jogging several miles to get his morning paper, playing tennis with locals or posing for snapshots and signing autographs for star-struck out-of-towners. He has been a veritable one-man tourist promotion over the past four decades, extolling the virtue of the city he loves to virtually anyone who'll listen".

Douglas blogged regularly on his Myspace account, but no longer does so.[46] At 92, he was the oldest celebrity blogger.[47] He has also written a blog on Huffington Post since 2012.[48]

Family tree[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
Diana Dill
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kirk Douglas
 
 
 
 
 
Anne Buydens
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diandra Luker
 
Michael Douglas
 
Catherine Zeta-Jones
 
Joel Douglas
 
Peter Douglas
 
Lisa Schoeder
 
Eric Douglas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cameron Douglas
 
Dylan Michael Douglas
 
Carys Zeta Douglas
 
Kelsey Douglas
 
Tyler Douglas
 
Ryan Douglas
 
Jason Douglas
 

Filmography[edit]

Awards[edit]

AFI Life Achievement Award

Kennedy Center Honors

Academy Awards

Golden Globes

Emmy Awards

Screen Actors Guild Awards

BAFTA Awards

BAFTA/LA Britannia Awards

Berlin International Film Festival

Cesar Awards

Hollywood Film Festival

National Board of Review

New York Film Critics Circle Award

In 1983, Douglas received the S. Roger Horchow Award for Greatest Public Service by a Private Citizen, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.[49]

Books[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Other Celebrity Houses of Worship". seeing-stars.com. Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Douglas, Kirk. Let's Face It. John Wiley & Sons, 2007. ISBN 0-470-08469-3.
  3. ^ Kirk Douglas Biography (1916–)
  4. ^ Land of Ancestors: Kirk and Michael Douglas
  5. ^ http://forward.com/articles/11171/a-legend-looks-back-/
  6. ^ Farndale, Nigel (July 23, 2011). "Kirk Douglas: in 'pretty good shape' at 94". Telegraph. 
  7. ^ Douglas, Kirk (2007). Let's face it: 90 years of living, loving, and learning. John Wiley and Sons. p. 3. ISBN 0-470-08469-3. 
  8. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 12.
  9. ^ a b Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 13
  10. ^ a b Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 11
  11. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 15.
  12. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 18
  13. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 16.
  14. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 17.
  15. ^ The Bermudian: Bermuda and Hollywood. March 1946
  16. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 33.
  17. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 19.
  18. ^ a b c Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 28.
  19. ^ Mosel, Leading Lady: The World and Theatre of Katharine Cornell
  20. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 181.
  21. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 93
  22. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 64.
  23. ^ "Jam Session at Jacks'", originally telecast on CBS, October 17, 1954.
  24. ^ a b Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 7.
  25. ^ a b c d e Douglas, Kirk. The Ragman's Son, Simon and Schuster (1988) p. 384
  26. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 168.
  27. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 149.
  28. ^ Douglas, Edward. Jack: A Biography of Jack Nicholson, HarperCollins (2004) p. 136
  29. ^ a b Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 44.
  30. ^ a b Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 21
  31. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 24.
  32. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 256.
  33. ^ Thomas, Tony. The Films of Kirk Douglas. Citadel Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8065-1217-2. p. 258.
  34. ^ "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1973)." New York Times Review. Retrieved October 1, 2008.
  35. ^ Clute, John (1999). The Encyclopedia of Fantasy. John Grant. Macmillan. p. 518. ISBN 978-0-312-19869-5. 
  36. ^ Weldon, Michael J. (1996). "Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde (1973)". The Psychotronic Video Guide. St. Martin's Press. p. 167. ISBN 0-312-13149-6. 
  37. ^ "Liberty Receives Classical Salute, Sun Sentinel, July 5, 1986". 
  38. ^ "Hollywood Walk of Fame". Guide to and locations of the stars on Hollywood Boulevard. Retrieved June 13, 2008. 
  39. ^ "List of Kennedy Center Honorees". Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Retrieved December 1, 2013. 
  40. ^ Olivier, Ellen (January 17, 2010). "Kirk Douglas' 'Before I Forget' movie premieres; South Coast Repertory's 'Ordinary Days' has West Coast opening". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 4, 2010. 
  41. ^ Vena, Jocelyn (February 27, 2011). "Kirk Douglas Steals The Show Presenting Best Supporting Actress Oscar". MTV. 
  42. ^ http://www.jeffersonawards.org/board
  43. ^ AISH Interview, 2000
  44. ^ http://www.thejc.com/lifestyle/interviews/82813/hollywood-gladiator-kirk-douglas-has-his-eyes-set-a-third-barmitzvah
  45. ^ http://www.newsmax.com/InsideCover/douglas-mccain-slavery/2007/10/21/id/321950
  46. ^ Nigel Kendall, "World's oldest blogger María Amelia López Soliño dies." Times Online. May 22, 2009. Accessed May 25, 2009.
  47. ^ Hardingham-Gill, Tamara (December 22, 2008). "Screen legend Kirk Douglas, oldest celebrity blogger with 4414 online friends". Daily Mail (London). 
  48. ^ Huffingtonpost.com - Kirk Douglas Retrieved 11th of January 2014
  49. ^ http://www.jeffersonawards.org/pastwinners/national

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]