Kinnor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Kinnor
Davids-harp.jpg
Representation of a Kinnor David at David's City, Jerusalem
Other namesKinnor David, harp of David
ClassificationString instrument
Related instruments
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Kinnor
Davids-harp.jpg
Representation of a Kinnor David at David's City, Jerusalem
Other namesKinnor David, harp of David
ClassificationString instrument
Related instruments

Kinnor (Hebrew: כִּנּוֹר‎) is an ancient Israelite musical instrument, the exact identification of which is unclear, but in the modern day is generally translated as "harp" or "lyre",[1]:440 and associated with a type of lyre depicted in Israelite imagery, particular the Bar Kochba coins.[1]:440 It has been referred to as the "national instrument" of the Jewish people,[2] and modern luthiers have created reproduction lyres of the "kinnor" based on this imagery.

Identification[edit]

The kinnor is generally agreed to be a stringed instrument, and thus the stringed instrument most commonly mentioned in the Old Testament.[1]:440 The kinnor is also the first string instrument to be mentioned in the Bible, appearing in Genesis 4:21.[3]

Details[edit]

Construction[edit]

Josephus describes the kinnor as having 10 strings, made from a sheep's small intestine,[1]:442 and played with a plectrum (pick),[1]:441 though the Book of Samuel notes that David played the kinoor "with his hand".[4] The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia also notes that the early church fathers agreed the cithara (kinnor) had its resonator in the lower parts of its body.[1]:442 Like the nevel, the kinnor likely consisted of a soundboard with two arms extending parallel to the body, with the arms crossed by a yoke from which the strings extend down to the body.[5]:43

Usage[edit]

The kinnor is mentioned 42 times in the Old Testament, in relation to "divine worship... prophecy... secular festivals... and prostitution."[6] The kinnor is sometimes mentioned in conjunction with the nevel, which is also presumed to be a lyre but larger and louder than the kinnor.[5]:43 The Mishna states that the minimum number of kinnor to be played in the Temple is nine, with no maximum limit.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Geoffrey W. Bromiley. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 442–. ISBN 978-0-8028-3785-1. Retrieved 4 June 2013. 
  2. ^ Nathanael D. Putnam; Darrell E. Urban; Horace Monroe Lewis (1968). Three dissertations on ancient instruments from Babylon to Bach. F. E. Olds. Retrieved 4 June 2013. 
  3. ^ Theodore W. Burgh (23 May 2006). Listening to the Artifacts: Music Culture in Ancient Palestine. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-0-567-02542-5. Retrieved 4 June 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Abraham Zebi Idelsohn (1929). Jewish Music: In Its Historical Development. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-0-486-27147-7. Retrieved 4 June 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Amnon Shiloah (1 May 1995). Jewish Musical Traditions. Wayne State University Press. pp. 137–. ISBN 978-0-8143-2235-2. Retrieved 4 June 2013. 
  6. ^ Jonathan L. Friedmann (8 January 2013). Music in Biblical Life: The Roles of Song in Ancient Israel. McFarland. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-0-7864-7409-7. Retrieved 4 June 2013. 

External links[edit]