Kingisepp

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Kingisepp (English)
Кингисепп (Russian)
-  Town[citation needed]  -
Sc-mus.jpg
Kingisepp museum
Map of Russia - Leningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Leningrad Oblast in Russia
Kingisepp is located in Leningrad Oblast
Kingisepp
Location of Kingisepp in Leningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 59°22′N 28°36′E / 59.367°N 28.6°E / 59.367; 28.6Coordinates: 59°22′N 28°36′E / 59.367°N 28.6°E / 59.367; 28.6
Coat of Arms of Kingisepp (Leningrad oblast).png
Flag of Kingisepp (Leningrad oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status
CountryRussia
Federal subjectLeningrad Oblast
Administrative districtKingiseppsky District[citation needed]
Administrative center ofKingiseppsky District[citation needed]
Municipal status
Mayor[citation needed]Viktor Gashele[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census)48,488 inhabitants[1]
Rank in 2010327th
Time zoneMSK (UTC+04:00)[2]
Founded1384[citation needed]
Previous namesYam (until May 14, 1703),[3]
Yamburg (until 1922)[3]
Postal code(s)188480[4]
Dialing code(s)+7 81375[4]
Official website
 
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This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Russian Wikipedia.
Kingisepp (English)
Кингисепп (Russian)
-  Town[citation needed]  -
Sc-mus.jpg
Kingisepp museum
Map of Russia - Leningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Leningrad Oblast in Russia
Kingisepp is located in Leningrad Oblast
Kingisepp
Location of Kingisepp in Leningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 59°22′N 28°36′E / 59.367°N 28.6°E / 59.367; 28.6Coordinates: 59°22′N 28°36′E / 59.367°N 28.6°E / 59.367; 28.6
Coat of Arms of Kingisepp (Leningrad oblast).png
Flag of Kingisepp (Leningrad oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status
CountryRussia
Federal subjectLeningrad Oblast
Administrative districtKingiseppsky District[citation needed]
Administrative center ofKingiseppsky District[citation needed]
Municipal status
Mayor[citation needed]Viktor Gashele[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census)48,488 inhabitants[1]
Rank in 2010327th
Time zoneMSK (UTC+04:00)[2]
Founded1384[citation needed]
Previous namesYam (until May 14, 1703),[3]
Yamburg (until 1922)[3]
Postal code(s)188480[4]
Dialing code(s)+7 81375[4]
Official website

Kingisepp (Russian: Ки́нгисепп or Кингисе́пп; Finnish: Jaama[5]), formerly Yamburg (Я́мбург), Yam (Я́м), and Yama (Я́ма), is an ancient town and the administrative center of Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located along the Luga River 110 kilometers (68 mi) west of St. Petersburg, 20 kilometers (12 mi) east of Narva, and 49 kilometers (30 mi) south of the Gulf of Finland. Population: 48,488 (2010 Census);[1] 50,295 (2002 Census);[6] 49,954 (1989 Census).[7]

Contents

History

14th century

The town was first documented in 1384, when the Novgorodians under Patrikas built there a fortress against the Swedes.[8] They called it Yama or Yamsky Gorodok after the Ingrian (ethnic Finnic group) name Jaama.[5] The environs of the town are still cited as the main location of speakers of the nearly extinct Ingrian language [1]. The citadel withstood sieges by the Teutonic Knights in 1395 and during the 1444-1448 war.

16th century

The town became the most important economic center of the Vodskaya pyatina of the republic. There were 201 homesteads in the 15th century in the town; its total population can only be evaluated roughly based on the estimates of 3-5 persons per homestead.[8] At the end of the Livonian War, it was ceded to Sweden, only to be returned twelve years later, in 1595.

17th century

Following the Treaty of Stolbovo, it again passed to the Swedes, who kept the name which in Swedish orthography became Jama or Jamo. The township was completely destroyed by Russian armies during the war of 1656–8, after which only the citadel remained intact. It is questionable whether the township, with its exclusively Russian townspeople, ever recovered.

18th century

Yamburg's St. Catherine Cathedral was built in 1764-1782 to a late Baroque design by Antonio Rinaldi

In 1703, the citadel was finally taken by the Russians in the course of the Great Northern War (it was first held by the Russians for a month in late 1700). On May 14, 1703, Yam was renamed Yamburg[3] (a German version of the name). Five years later, Peter the Great granted the town to Alexander Menshikov in his capacity of the Duke of Izhora. In 1780, Catherine II re-approved with some changes a previously existing coat of arms.[3] Town status was granted in 1784.

20th century

Russian Civil War

Vladimir Lenin reportedly stayed in Yamburg in January 1919, when he ordered the Bolshevik troops to retake the town of Narva from Estonian forces.[9] In October 1919, the anti-Bolshevist commander, General Nikolai Yudenich captured Yamburg, which marked the beginning of the push by the Northwestern White Army towards Petrograd.[10] However, the Bolsheviki consequently re-captured Yamburg on November 14, 1919.[11] On November 16, 1919, The forces of General Yudenitch were "crowded together in a small space near Yamburg", "in a serious state of disorganization", reported The New York Times at the time.[12]

Name change

The German form of the town name was retained until 1922, when the Bolsheviks renamed it in honor of the Estonian Communist leader Viktor Kingissepp. It should not be confused with the Estonian town of Kuressaare, formerly Kingissepa (1952-1988).

Kingisepp–Gdov Offensive

On February 1, 1944, the 109th Rifle Division captured Kingisepp, forcing the German 18th Army into new positions on the eastern bank of Narva.[13]

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Kingisepp is twinned with:

Notable people

External links

References

  1. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  2. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  3. ^ a b c d "Кингисепп - официальный сайт Администрации МО Кингисеппское городское поселение - История" (in Russian). Официальный сайт Администрации. http://www.kingisepp-mo.ru/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=76&Itemid=369. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  4. ^ a b "Кингисепп - официальный сайт Администрации МО Кингисеппское городское поселение - О городе" (in Russian). http://www.kingisepp-mo.ru/index.php?option=com_contact&task=view&contact_id=3&Itemid=406. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  5. ^ a b http://www.hs.fi/english/article/Last+of+the+Ingrian+grannies+hold+on/1329104265831
  6. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
  7. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg.php. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
  8. ^ a b Bernadsky, Viktor Nikolayevich (1961). Новгород и новгородская земля в XV веке (Novgorod and the Novgorod Land in 15th century). Leningrad (Saint Petersburg): published by the USSR Academy of Sciences. pp. 123–124.
  9. ^ "Allies Repulse Reds' Attack At the Dvina". New York Tribune. 29 January 1919. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030214/1919-01-29/ed-1/seq-3/. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  10. ^ "Push on Petrograd Marked by Taking of Russian Town". The Democratic Banner. Ohio Historical Society (Columbus, OH): p. 1. 14 October 1919. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88078751/1919-10-14/ed-1/seq-1/. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  11. ^ "Bolsheviki Grain Near Petrograd". New York Tribune. Library of Congress (Washington, DC): p. 4. 15 November 1919. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030214/1919-11-15/ed-1/seq-4/. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  12. ^ "Yudenitch a Refuge? Bolshevist Commander Said to Have Arrived in Esthonian Capital.". The New York Times: p. 7. 23 November 1919. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9C05EEDA153BEE32A25750C2A9679D946896D6CF. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  13. ^ David M. Glantz (2002). The Battle for Leningrad: 1941-1944. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1208-4.