Kinesiology

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Kinesiology, also known as human kinetics, is the scientific study of human movement. Kinesiology addresses physiological, mechanical, and psychological mechanisms. Applications of kinesiology to human health include: biomechanics and orthopedics, strength & conditioning, sport psychology, rehabilitation, such as physical and occupational therapy, as well as sport and exercise.[1] Individuals who have earned degrees in kinesiology can work in research, the fitness industry, clinical settings, and in industrial environments.[2] Studies of human and animal motion include measures from motion tracking systems, electrophysiology of muscle and brain activity, various methods for monitoring physiological function, and other behavioral and cognitive research techniques.[3][4]

Kinesiology as described above should not be confused with applied kinesiology, a controversial[5][6][7] chiropractic diagnostic method.[8]

The word comes from the Greek words kinesis (movement) and kinein (to move).

Contents

Basics

Kinesiology is the study of human and animal movement, performance, and function by applying the sciences of biomechanics, anatomy, physiology, psychology, and neuroscience. Applications of kinesiology in human health include physical education teacher, the rehabilitation professions, such as physical and occupational therapy, as well as applications in the sport and exercise industries. Kinesiology is a field of scientific study, and does not prepare individuals for clinical practice. A bachelor's degree in kinesiology can provide strong preparation for graduate study in biomedical research, as well as in professional programs, such as allied health and medicine.

Whereas the term "kinesiologist" is neither a licensed nor professional designation in the United States nor most countries (with the exception of Canada), individuals with training in this area can teach physical education, provide consulting services, conduct research and develop policies related to rehabilitation, human motor performance, ergonomics, and occupational health and safety. In North America, kinesiologists may study to earn a Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, or Doctorate of Philosophy degree in Kinesiology or a Bachelor of Kinesiology degree, while in Australia or New Zealand, they are often conferred an Applied Science (Human Movement) degree (or higher). Many doctoral level faculty in North American kinesiology programs received their doctoral training in related disciplines, such as neuroscience, mechanical engineering, psychology, and physiology.

The world's first kinesiology department was launched in 1967 at the University of Waterloo, Canada.[9]

Scope of practice

In most countries, kinesiology refers to an area of study and is not associated with a professional designation.[citation needed] In Canada, kinesiology is a professional designation associated with the assessment of movement, performance, and function; and the rehabilitation, prevention, and management of disorders to maintain, rehabilitate, and enhance movement, performance, and function in the areas of sport, recreation, work, exercise, and general activities of daily living.[10]

Kinesiology is applied in areas of health and fitness for all levels of athletes, but more often found with training of elite athletes. All too often biomechanical analysis focuses on the kinetic energy or the working numbers in execution of technique. More emphasis should be placed on muscle and joints as they are involved in the action and the role they play in execution of the technique is critical.[11]

Licensing and regulation

Canada

In Canada, Kinesiology has been designated a regulated health profession [12] Kinesiology was made a regulated health profession in the province of Ontario in the summer of 2007 [13] and similar proposals have been made for other Canadian provinces.

United States

In the United States, the American Kinesiology Association is the national kinesiology organization of university departments providing professional information about kinesiology degree programs.[14]

Health services

Kinesiologists working in the health promotion industry focus on working with individuals to enhance the health, fitness, and well-being of the individual. Kinesiologists can be found working in fitness facilities, personal training/corporate wellness facilities, and industry.
Kinesiologists work with individuals with disabling conditions to assist in regaining their optimal physical function. They work with individuals in their home, fitness facilities, rehabilitation clinics, and at the worksite. They also work alongside physiotherapists and occupational therapists.
Kinesiologists work in industry to assess suitability of design of workstations and provide suggestions for modifications and assistive devices.
Kinesiologists are involved in consulting with industry to identify hazards and provide recommendations and solutions to optimize the health and safety of workers.
Kinesiologists recommend and provide a plan of action to return an injured individual to their optimal function in all aspects of life.
Kinesiologists frequently fulfill roles in all above areas, perform research, and manage businesses.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Welcome to the Ontario Kinesiology Association". Oka.on.ca. http://oka.on.ca/. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  2. ^ "CKA - Canadian Kinesiology Alliance - Alliance Canadienne de Kinésiologie". Cka.ca. http://www.cka.ca/kinesiology.php. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  3. ^ Bodo Rosenhahn, Reinhard Klette and Dimitris Metaxas (eds.). Human Motion - Understanding, Modelling, Capture and Animation. Volume 36 in 'Computational Imaging and Vision', Springer, Dordrecht, 2007
  4. ^ Ahmed Elgammal, Bodo Rosenhahn, and Reinhard Klette (eds.) Human Motion - Understanding, Modelling, Capture and Animation. 2nd Workshop, in conjunction with ICCV 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 4814, Springer, Berlin, 2007
  5. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd "These are empirical claims and have been tested and shown to be false". "Applied Kinesiology". The Skeptics Dictionary. http://skepdic.com/akinesiology.html. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
  6. ^ Atwood KC (2004). "Naturopathy, Pseudoscience, and Medicine: Myths and Fallacies vs Truth". MedGenMed 6 (1): 33. PMC 1140750. PMID 15208545. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/471156.
  7. ^ Haas, Mitchell; Robert Cooperstein, and David Peterson (2007-08). "Disentangling manual muscle testing and Applied Kinesiology: critique and reinterpretation of a literature review". Chiropractic & Osteopathy 15 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-15-11. PMC 2000870. PMID 17716373. http://www.chiroandosteo.com/content/15/1/11. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
  8. ^ Citations supporting considering it a chiropractic technique:
  9. ^ http://www.ahs.uwaterloo.ca/kin/
  10. ^ "Welcome to the Ontario Kinesiology Association". Oka.on.ca. http://www.oka.on.ca. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  11. ^ Dr. Michael Yessis (2006). Build A Better Athlete. Ultimate Athlete Concepts. ISBN 978-1930546783.
  12. ^ Hoffman, S. J. (2008). Shirl J. Hoffman. ed (in English). Introduction to Kinesiology (3 ed.). Human Kinetics. ISBN 0736076131, 9780736076135. http://books.google.com/?id=cBPOgAlarKcC&printsec=frontcover.
  13. ^ "Kinesiology Act, 2007, S.O. 2007, c. 10 , Sched. O". E-laws.gov.on.ca. 2007-06-04. http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_07k10_e.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  14. ^ "American Kinesiology Association". Americankinesiology.org. 2001-01-06. http://www.americankinesiology.org/. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  15. ^ "CKA - Canadian Kinesiology Alliance - Alliance Canadienne de Kinésiologie". Cka.ca. http://www.cka.ca/kinesiology_kinesiologistservices.php. Retrieved 2009-07-25.

External links