Kimba the White Lion

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Kimba the White Lion
Kimba.JPG
Artwork created for the recent Kimba Ultra Edition DVD set.
ジャングル大帝
(Janguru Taitei)
GenreComing of age, Adventure, Drama
Manga
Written byOsamu Tezuka
Published byGakudosha
Kobunsha
Kodansha
DemographicShōnen
MagazineManga Shōnen
Original runNovember 1950April 1954
Volumes3
Anime television series
Directed byEiichi Yamamoto
Music byIsao Tomita
Toriro Miki (Theme Song Composition)
StudioMushi Production
NetworkFuji TV (1965-1966)
Tokyo MX
Cartoon Network (2009)
Original runOctober 6, 1965September 28, 1966
Episodes52
Anime film
Directed byEiichi Yamamoto
StudioMushi Production
ReleasedJuly 31, 1966
Runtime75 minutes
Anime television series
New Jungle Emperor: Go Ahead Leo!
Directed byShingo Araki
Rintaro
Produced byEiichi Yamamoto
Music byIsao Tomita
StudioMushi Productions
NetworkFuji TV
English network
Original runOctober 5, 1966March 29, 1967
Episodes26
Anime television series
The New Adventures of Kimba The White Lion
Directed byTakashi Ui
Rintaro
Produced byTakashi Yui
Written byTakashi Yui
Music byTomoyuki Asakawa
StudioTezuka Productions
Licensed by
NetworkTV Tokyo (1989-1990)
Original runOctober 12, 1989October 11, 1990
Episodes52
Anime film
Directed byYoshio Takeuchi
Produced byMinoru Kubota
Sumio Udagawa
Chiharu Akiba
Written byYoshio Takeuchi
Music byIsao Tomita
StudioMushi Production
Shochiku
Licensed by
ReleasedAugust 1, 1997
Runtime100 minutes
Anime television film
Jungle Taitei - Yūki ga Mirai wo Kaeru
Directed byGorō Taniguchi
Written byOsamu Suzuki
StudioTezuka Productions
NetworkFuji TV
ReleasedSeptember 5, 2009
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Kimba the White Lion
Kimba.JPG
Artwork created for the recent Kimba Ultra Edition DVD set.
ジャングル大帝
(Janguru Taitei)
GenreComing of age, Adventure, Drama
Manga
Written byOsamu Tezuka
Published byGakudosha
Kobunsha
Kodansha
DemographicShōnen
MagazineManga Shōnen
Original runNovember 1950April 1954
Volumes3
Anime television series
Directed byEiichi Yamamoto
Music byIsao Tomita
Toriro Miki (Theme Song Composition)
StudioMushi Production
NetworkFuji TV (1965-1966)
Tokyo MX
Cartoon Network (2009)
Original runOctober 6, 1965September 28, 1966
Episodes52
Anime film
Directed byEiichi Yamamoto
StudioMushi Production
ReleasedJuly 31, 1966
Runtime75 minutes
Anime television series
New Jungle Emperor: Go Ahead Leo!
Directed byShingo Araki
Rintaro
Produced byEiichi Yamamoto
Music byIsao Tomita
StudioMushi Productions
NetworkFuji TV
English network
Original runOctober 5, 1966March 29, 1967
Episodes26
Anime television series
The New Adventures of Kimba The White Lion
Directed byTakashi Ui
Rintaro
Produced byTakashi Yui
Written byTakashi Yui
Music byTomoyuki Asakawa
StudioTezuka Productions
Licensed by
NetworkTV Tokyo (1989-1990)
Original runOctober 12, 1989October 11, 1990
Episodes52
Anime film
Directed byYoshio Takeuchi
Produced byMinoru Kubota
Sumio Udagawa
Chiharu Akiba
Written byYoshio Takeuchi
Music byIsao Tomita
StudioMushi Production
Shochiku
Licensed by
ReleasedAugust 1, 1997
Runtime100 minutes
Anime television film
Jungle Taitei - Yūki ga Mirai wo Kaeru
Directed byGorō Taniguchi
Written byOsamu Suzuki
StudioTezuka Productions
NetworkFuji TV
ReleasedSeptember 5, 2009
Portal icon Anime and Manga portal

Jungle Emperor (ジャングル大帝 Janguru Taitei?) is a Japanese Shōnen manga series created by Osamu Tezuka which was serialized in the Manga Shōnen magazine from November 1950 to April 1954. An anime based on the manga was created by Mushi Production and was broadcast on Fuji Television from 1965 to 1966. It was the first color animated television series created in Japan.[1] The later series was produced by Tezuka Productions.[2]

The anime series has enjoyed popularity worldwide—including in the United States, Australia, Europe (where it has been translated into several languages such as French, Italian, Catalan, Spanish, German, Dutch etc.) and the Middle East.

A new TV special premiered September 5, 2009 on Fuji TV. Produced in commemoration of Fuji TV's 50th anniversary, it was directed by Gorō Taniguchi, written by noted novelist and drama writer Osamu Suzuki, and featuring character designs from noted illustrator Yoshitaka Amano.

Plot[edit]

In Africa during the mid-20th century, as mankind encroaches, the white lion Panja (Caesar in the English dub) gives the jungle's wild animals a safe haven. However, he angers nearby villagers by stealing their cattle and their food to feed the jungle carnivores. (In the English dub he merely frees the cattle.) A professional hunter, Ham Egg (Viper Snakely in the English dub), is called in to stop these raids. He avoids directly attacking Panja. Instead, he records the sounds of Panja and uses them to trap his mate, Eliza, who then becomes bait in a trap for Panja. Panja is killed for his hide, and the pregnant Eliza is put on a ship, destined for a zoo. Leo (Kimba in the English dub) is born on the boat. Eliza teaches him his father's ideals. As a huge tropical storm nears, she urges her cub out through the bars of her cage. The storm wrecks the boat, and he flounders in the ocean. The fish help him learn to swim. As he begins to despair, the stars in the sky form the face of his mother, who encourages him. Guided by butterflies, he makes it to land. Leo lands far from his ancestral home and is found and cared for by some people. He learns the advantages of human culture, and decides that when he returns to his wild home he will bring culture to the jungle and stand for peace like his father. The show follows Leo's life after he returns to the wild, still a young cub, and how he learns and grows in the next year. Leo soon learns that only communication and mutual understanding between animals and humans will bring true peace.

Broadcast history[edit]

The animated series was first broadcast in Japan, in October 1965.[3] It was broadcast, with English-dubbed voices, in the United States and other English-speaking markets, beginning in September 1966. It was first commissioned for U.S. development by NBC Enterprises, and adapted by Fred Ladd, for syndicated broadcast.[4]

Broadcast countries[edit]

Japan Japan (Original)

United States United States

Australia Australia

Canada Canada

Mexico Mexico

Sri Lanka Sri Lanka

Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

France France

Spain Spain

Iran Iran

Indonesia Indonesia

Philippines Philippines

Croatia Croatia

Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina

Italy Italy

An entirely new series with a different cast performing the voice-overs was produced in 1994. It carried exactly the same name.[5]

Cast and characters[edit]

Leo (レオ Reo?) / Kimba
Voiced by (Japanese): Yoshiko Ota (1965 anime), Takashi Toyama (Go Ahead Leo!), Megumi Hayashibara (1989 anime, kid), Shinnosuke Furumoto (1989 anime, adult), Masane Tsukayama (1997 movie), Taeko Kawada (2009 special)
Voiced by (English): Billie Lou Watt (1965 anime), Enzo Caputo (Go Ahead Leo!), Yvonne Murray (1965 anime redub), Brad Swaile (1989 anime), Dan Green (1997 movie)
The protagonist of the story who, in the original manga, is followed from birth to death. He believes that there would be peace between animals and humans if each understood the other. In the 1997 movie, the lion leads Dr. Moustache and his assistant to Mt. Moon, and he sacrifices himself by falling on Dr. Moustache's kris so that Dr. Moustache will have food and shelter from the cold.
Panja (パンジャ Panja?) / Caesar
Voiced by (Japanese): Asao Koike (1965 amime), Isao Sasaki (1989 anime), Saburō Tokitō (2009 special)
Voiced by (English): Ray Owens (1965 anime)
A white Masai Lion, Leo's father, and Emperor of the Jungle. He is killed by Ham Egg while trying to rescue his wife and queen. His skin is in his son Leo's lair and under his care. Leo uses his hide as an attraction for a festival in episode 24. He was Specklerex's rival. He appears in certain episodes in flashbacks.
Eliza (エライザ Eraiza?) / Snowene
Voiced by (Japanese): Noriko Shindo (1965 anime)
Voiced by (English): Billie Lou Watt (1965 anime)
Leo's mother, used as bait by Ham Egg and Kutter. While on the ship, she gives birth to Leo and urges him to escape due to the tropical storm; she is then drowned.
Leona (リョーナ Ryōna?)
Voiced by (Japanese): Sumi Shimamoto (1989 anime)
Leo's older sister. In the 1989 remake, she was Leo's aunt and something of a foster mother to Lyre.
Lyre (ライヤ Raiya?) / Kitty
Voiced by (Japanese): Keiko Matsuo (1965 anime), Haruko Kitahama (Go Ahead Leo!), Sakiko Tamagawa (1989 anime), Chieko Baisho (1997 movie)
Voiced by (English): Sonia Owens (1965 anime), Kelly Sheridan (1989 anime), Veronica Taylor (1997 movie)
A lioness who would later be Leo's mate and bear him a son and daughter. She is the niece of the old marozi (spotted lion) Specklerex and lives with him after her parents are slain by hunters. She notices things that Leo sometimes overlooks. She is always there when Leo needs advice, a "better nature" to calm him down in anger, a shoulder to cry on, or a warrior at his side. In the movie, Lyre falls victim to the speckled fever and slowly dies.
Lune (ルネ Rune?)
Voiced by (Japanese): Kyoko Satomi (Go Ahead Leo!), Mifuyu Hiragi (1997 movie)
Voiced by (English): Jose Alvarez (Go Ahead Leo!), Tara Sands (1997 movie)
Leo and Lyre's son. He resembles Leo when he was a cub.
Lukio (ルッキオ Rukkio?)
Voiced by (Japanese): Eiko Masuyama (Go Ahead Leo!), Hekiru Shiina (1997 movie)
Voiced by (English): Elizabeth Williams (1997 movie)
Leo and Lyre's daughter. She resembles Lyre when she was a cub.
Tommy (トミー Tomī?) / Bucky
Voiced by (Japanese): Hajime Akashi (1965 anime), Sukekiyo Kameyama (1989 anime), Naoki Tatsuta (1997 movie)
Voiced by (English): Ray Owens (1965 anime), Frank Fontaine (1965 anime), Michael Sinterniklaas (1997 movie)
A Grant's gazelle that always gets into mischief. He almost always seen wearing a straw hat, which Leo had used to appoint him Secretary of the Jungle Economy. He is known as "Tony" (トニー Tonī?) in the 1989 series.
Coco (ココ Koko?) / Pauly Parrot
Voiced by (Japanese): Kinto Tamura (1965 anime), Shigeru Chiba (1989 anime), Kaneta Kimotsuki (1997 movie)
Voiced by (English): Gilbert Mack (1965 anime), David Wills (1997 movie)
A green parrot who spent some time living with humans and believes that he should be put in charge of mentoring Leo.
Burazza (ブラッザー Burazzā?) / Dan'l Baboon
Voiced by (Japanese): Hisashi Katsuta (1965 anime), Kei Tani (1997 movie)
Voiced by (English): Ray Owens (1965 anime), Kayzie Rogers (1997 movie)
A wise old mandrill, Leo's mentor. His name was changed to "Mandy" (マンディ Mandi?) for the original anime series, but changed back in the 1997 movie.
Bongo (ボンゴ Bongo?) / Speedy Cheetah
One of Leo's cubhood friends (a leopard cub in the original Japanese version).
Keruru (ケルル Keruru?)
Voiced by (Japanese): Mayumi Tanaka (1989 anime)
Amuji (アムジ Amuji?)
Voiced by (Japanese): Yō Inoue
Pagura (パグラ Pagura?) / Kelly Phunt
Voiced by (Japanese): Masatō Ibu (1997 movie)
Voiced by (English): David Brimmer (1997 movie)
A stubborn African bush elephant who never trusts humans or human culture.
Bubu (ブブ Bubu?) / Claw
Voiced by (Japanese): Tesshō Genda
The main antagonist, this one-eyed Barbary lion with a jagged scar on his face wants Leo and his family dead so that he may take the role of Jungle Emperor for himself. Bubu tries to capture Lyre so that she would become his queen and shows affection toward her. This romantic interest was not in the 1989 remake.
Toto (トット Totto?) / Cassius / Sylvester
Voiced by (Japanese): Seizō Katō (1965 anime), Ryusei Nakao (1989 anime)
Voiced by (English): Ray Owens (1965 anime)
A black panther working with Bubu to dethrone Leo and the white lions. He often acts as Bubu's advisor.
Dick (ディック Dikku?) / Tom
Voiced by (Japanese): Kazuo Kumakura (1965 anime)
Voiced by (English):
A tall, lanky hyena, almost always seen with his confederate Bo, who works with Bubu and Sylvester in their fiendish plans. He was created for the TV series to provide comic relief.
Bo (ボウ ?) / Tab
Voiced by (Japanese): Kiyoshi Kawakubo (1965 anime)
Voiced by (English):
A short, squat hyena, almost always seen with Dick, who works with Bubu and Sylvester. Along with Tom, he was created for the TV series to provide comic relief.
Kenichi (ケン一 Kenichi?) / Roger Ranger
Voiced by (Japanese): Nobuaki Sekine (1965 anime), Kappei Yamaguchi (1989 anime)
Voiced by (English): Hal Studer (1965 anime)
Shunsaku Ban's nephew who takes Leo in after he washes ashore. After a year living with Leo in human civilization, he decides to go to the jungle with Leo and live with him and the other animals. He teaches the animals how to speak to humans. In the 2009 movie, he is one of the main heroes and helps Leo return all the animals back to the "real" Jungle from the human created preserve called "Neo-Earth."
Mary (メリー Merī?)
Voiced by (Japanese): Yoshiko Yamamoto (1965 anime), Tomoko Nakajima (1997 movie)
Voiced by (English): Stephanie Sheh (1997 movie)
A young girl who was in love with Kenichi, but who then lost her memory for a while. During this time, she was the animal hunter Tonga. She regained her memory and left the jungle with Roger and Mr. Pompous. In the movie, Mary was the circus girl who lost her parents and takes good care of Rune, Leo's son.
Dr. Mustache (ヒゲオヤジ Higeoyaji?) / Mr. Pompous
Voiced by (Japanese): Junji Chiba (Go Ahead Leo!), Mahito Tsujimura (1989 anime), Kōsei Tomita (1997 movie)
Voiced by (English): Gilbert Mack (Go Ahead Leo!), Mike Pollock (1997 movie)
Kenichi's uncle who helps take care of Leo on the Arabian peninsula. He then helps return Leo to the jungle and is one of the first to discover Mt. Moon. He often tries to get his nephew Kenichi to return to human civilization. Dr. Moustache has appeared in many of Tezuka's works as a detective under his real name of "Shunsaku Ban." In the movie, he saves Lukyo, Bizo, and other animals from the dreaded speckled fever (a.k.a. the great plague).
Lamp (ランプ Ranpu?)
Voiced by (Japanese): Rokuro Naya (1989 anime)
Ronmel (ロンメル Ronmeru?)
Voiced by (Japanese): Tooru Oohira (1965 anime), Tōru Ōhira (1989 anime)
Ramune (ラムネ Ramune?)
Voiced by (Japanese): Yasunori Matsumoto
Voiced by (English): Jamie McGonnigal
Bizo (ビゾー Bizō?)
Voiced by (Japanese): Ranran Suzuki (1997 movie)
Voiced by (English): Michelle Newman (1997 movie)
Plus (プラス Purasu?)
Voiced by (Japanese): Gorō Naya (Go Ahead Leo!), Yasuo Muramatsu (1997 movie)
Voiced by (English): Lex Woutas (1997 movie)
A head of the Science and Technology Agency who will to pay Ham Egg for leading them to the source of the Moon Stones. He has also gathered information on Ham Egg's activities and will blackmail him if necessary.
Minus (マイナス Mainasu?)
Voiced by (Japanese): Kōzō Shioya (1997 movie)
Voiced by (English): Zachary Alexander (1997 movie)
A member of the Science and Technology Agency who hopes to use the Moon Stone to provide a clean and potent energy source for the planet. His assistant is Mr. Lemonade.
Ham Egg (ハム・エッグ Hamu Eggu?) / Viper Snakely / Jake
Voiced by (Japanese): Kei Tomiyama (1989 anime), Danshi Tatekawa (1997 movie)
Voiced by (English): Gilbert Mack (1965 anime), Ted Lewis (1997 movie)
A poacher who will do anything for money. He causes most of the death in Leo's jungle. He wants the Moon Stone so he might make a fortune from it. Ham Egg has appeared as a villain in many of Tezuka's works.
Kutter (クッター Kuttā?) / Tubby
Voiced by (Japanese): Seizo Kato, Hiroshi Masuoka (1989 anime)
A sidekick to Ham Egg who has reservations about what the two of them are doing.
Specklerex
An old marozi (spotted lion) and Lyre's uncle, he lives in the mountains with a small pride of his own. He misjudges Leo, for the cub's father Panja was his rival. He went insane, causing havoc in a city. Because of his age, his mane is almost pale blonde.
Makoba / Silvertail the Renegade
A timid masai lion who was rumored to be stealing village livestock. He is often afraid of hunters who would kill him because of this rumor. He is an old lion like Specklerex, though he is two years younger and lacks the leopard rosettes. He only appears in the last episode.
Conga (コンガ Konga?)
Voiced by (Japanese): Masako Katsuki
Puffyadder
A Maltese python who once lived and ruled among humans. He is a warlock, able to use magic to control other animals. He flees due to the offensive stench from the timid reeking bird named Rancid. He and Rancid only appear in episode 17.
Gargoyle T. Warthog
A warthog who is the laughing stock of every other animal except Leo. He hates his primitive warts and wants to kill himself, but is prevented from doing so by Wildey. He attacks a gang of vicious mandrills in a small woodplain north of Leo's Jungle and wins the medal that belonged to a champion. His mother, Ms. Warthog, only appears in episode 18, but he appears as a background character in later episodes.
Gypsy
An African Scops owl, an old alchemist who lives in Descelation Grotto. She had been Sylvester's friend, but she could do no more potions until she gave Leo a potion that changed his color from snow-white to lavender, knocking him into a coma. She afterwards saves his life and attends the festival with the skin of Panja as the main attraction. She only appears in episode 24.
Pop Wooly
An Iberian ibex who leads a herd of his own. He is old but he can still run. He once falls victim to the speckled fever, but Leo, with help from Panja, saves his life. Pop Wooly and his herd only appear in episode 22.
Newton
An iguana/chameleon hybrid who wants to have friends. Because of his insanity, he always tells stories about problems, like Kitty's encounters with Claw. His alarms also save everyone's lives from a pack of African wild dogs. He only appears in episode 27.
Wily
a serval who lost his mother to hunters. He is also accused of stealing and abuse. When he understands Leo's words "united we stand, divided we fall", he joins with the lion to fight hunters. He appears in episode 28 and as a background character in a few other episodes.
Fancy Prancy
A female cheetah with a Southern accent who had lived in the city until she is sent home by her owner and rejoins her brother, Dash. She worries that Dash will get slaughtered when an impala tells Kimba that the jungle was raided by over a million ants. She only appears in one episode, but her brother appears in other episodes.
Flyger
A flying Bengal tiger who was created by a crazy scientist. He was once a feared animal but turns good and returns to the jungles of India with his master. He only appeared in the episode Flying Tiger.
Floppo
A South African fur seal that Leo accompanies on his travels to see the world. Boss Rhino refers to him as a "Toadstool" and he only appears in episode 50.

Other voice casts[edit]

Original Japanese voices (1965)[edit]

1966 English dub (United States)[edit]

1993 English dub (Canada)[edit]

Chronicle[edit]

Image of Kimba (Leo) from the anime, Kimba the White Lion

Episodes[edit]

Home media[edit]

On July 9, 2013 Bayview Entertainment/Widowmaker released a complete collection of the 1965 - 1966 series containing all 52 episodes as a region 1 release.

In other languages[edit]

The Lion King controversy[edit]

Screenshot from an early presentation reel of The Lion King that shows a white lion cub and a butterfly.

As a number of media journalists and fans watched Disney's animated feature film The Lion King they noticed characters and events in the story resembled those of Kimba. Although The Lion King has a different screenplay, there are a number of strong artistic similarities, including scenes that appear to be copied from those in Kimba. One similarity is the protagonists' names: Kimba and Simba. Although the pronunciations of the two names are similar, the word simba means "lion" in Swahili.

With regard to the controversies, Disney stated that the similarities are all coincidental. Additionally the filmmakers have said the story of The Lion King was inspired by the Biblical stories of Moses and Joseph as well as William Shakespeare's Hamlet.[9][10]

Matthew Broderick has said that when he was hired as the voice of Simba in The Lion King, he presumed the project was related to Kimba the White Lion.[11][12][13][14] "I thought he meant Kimba, who was a white lion in a cartoon when I was a little kid," said Broderick. "So I kept telling everybody I was going to play Kimba. I didn't really know anything about it, but I didn't really care."[15]

The Tezuka-Disney connection extends back decades before the movie. Tezuka met Walt Disney at the 1964 New York World's Fair, and Disney said he hoped to "make something just like" Tezuka's Astro Boy.[citation needed] Earlier, Tezuka had asked for and got the license to adapt Disney's Bambi into a manga for the Japanese audience which was published in 1951. More recently, Disney animators were hired to train Tezuka's crew in the use of color when production was started on the Jungle Emperor/Kimba the White Lion TV series.[citation needed] It was said that an animated film of Kimba the White Lion was planned but later scrapped.[citation needed]

The controversy has been referenced in a number of national newspapers in the United States, including a June 2007 Los Angeles Times article.[16] In the episode "'Round Springfield" of The Simpsons, a parody of the Lion King's Mufasa says to Lisa Simpson, "You must avenge my death, Kimba...er, I mean Simba!".

Zira, the antagonist in The Lion King II: Simba's Pride is a close resemblance to Belladonna who claimed to be Kimba's aunt in the 1967 episode "The Hunting Ground", but later asked forgiveness from her wrongdoings to Kimba.[citation needed]

Music[edit]

The series uses several themes. The 1966 Japanese version uses an opening theme and a closing theme. The opening is called "Jungle-Taitei" (ジャングル大帝 Janguru-Taitei?, "Jungle Emperor"). The end song is "Leo no Uta" (レオのうた Reo no Uta?, "Leo's Song"). For the Japanese remake, the opening song is "Savanna o Koete" (サバンナを越えて Sabanna wo Koete?, "Past the Savanna") sung by Ichiro Mizuki, and the ending is "Yūbae ni Nare" (夕映えになれ?) sung by Tomoko Tokugai. Its American theme was written and performed by Bernie Baum, Bill Giant and Florence Kaye. The opening song for the sequel series is "Go Ahead Onward Leo!" written by Isao Tomita and sung by Mieko Hirota. The US-American theme song known as "Leo the Lion" was written by Mark Boccaccio and Susan Brunet of Miami, Florida's SONIC-Sound International Corporation in 1984.

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kimba Boxed Set : DVD Talk Review of the DVD Video". Dvdtalk.com. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  2. ^ "Kimba the White Lion Dub.DVD - Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2012-03-21. 
  3. ^ "Jungle Emperor (1965–1967) "Janguru taitei" (original title)". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  4. ^ "Kimba The White Lion: History of the original series". Kimbawlion.com. Retrieved 2014-07-19. 
  5. ^ "Kimba the White Lion (1994–)". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  6. ^ "Allen Kosonic - Hire voice actor for your voice over project". Voice123.com. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  7. ^ "TAF 2009: Osamu Tezuka’s "Kimba the White Lion" to be renewed in summer 2009 - GIGAZINE". En.gigazine.net. 2009-03-19. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  8. ^ "Kimba the White Lion: The Complete Series". 
  9. ^ Welkos, Robert W. (July 13, 1994). "A 'Kimba' Surprise for Disney : Movies: The Lion King is a hit, but reported similarities to the Japanese-created American cartoon of the '60s are raising some questions.". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  10. ^ Hong, Peter (2002-05-19). "The Lion King/Kimba controversy". Los Angeles Times. pp. L4. Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
  11. ^ Peter Schweizer and Rochelle Schweizer, "Disney: The Mouse Betrayed", pp. 167-168.
  12. ^ Trish Ledoux and Doug Ranney, "The Complete Anime Guide: Japanese Animation Video Directory and Resource Guide", p. 16.
  13. ^ Buress, Charles. "Uproar Over 'The Lion King'", The San Francisco Chronicle, July 11, 1994, pp. A1, A13.
  14. ^ "Did Japanese Animator Inspire 'Lion King'?", The Washington Times, July 15, 1994, p. C15.
  15. ^ Arar, Yardena (June 15, 1994). "Disney studios roar into action for `Lion King'". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  16. ^ Ybarra, Michael J. (June 6, 2007). "Osamu Tezuka has been called Japan's Walt Disney. But his drawings aren't happy fantasies.". Los Angeles Times. p. 1. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  17. ^ "Jungle Emperor appears on the uniform of Seibu Lions! : News : TezukaOsamu.net(EN):". TezukaOsamu.net. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  18. ^ "Designer Hiroaki Ohya Speaks on LACOSTE L!VE x Osamu Tezuka Collaboration". lifeandtimes.com. Retrieved 24 March 2014. 
  19. ^ "Crunchyroll - VIDEO: Leo Ieiri Collaborates with Osamu Tezuka's "Jungle Emperor" in the Latest PV". Crunchyroll. Retrieved 2014-03-13. 
  20. ^ - VIDEO: Honest Trailers - The Lion King (feat. AVbyte) "Honest Traliers - The Lion King". youtube.com. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]