Killer whales (or orcas) are powerful predators capable of killing prey much larger than humans, such as leopard seals and great white sharks. They have also been recorded preying on usually terrestrial species such as moose swimming between islands. However, wild orcas are not considered a real threat to humans, as there are few documented cases of wild orcas attacking people, and none of the recorded attacks have been fatal. There have been about two dozen cases of orcas attacking humans since the 1970s, almost exclusively perpetrated by captive animals. Experts are divided as to whether the injuries and deaths caused by captive killer whales have been accidents or deliberate attempts to cause harm.
Wild orca attacks
There are few recorded cases of wild orcas threatening humans; none of these have been fatal.
Point Sur, seen from the north on Highway 1
- In the 1910s the Terra Nova Expedition recorded that killer whales had attempted to tip ice floes on which an expedition photographer and a sled dog team were standing. In this case the whales may have mistaken the dogs' barking for seal calls and grown curious.
- On September 9, 1972, a Californian surfer named Hans Kretschmer reported being bitten by a killer whale at Point Sur; most maintain that this remains the only fairly well-documented instance of a wild orca biting a human. His wounds required 100 stitches.
- In August 2005, while swimming in four feet of water in Helm Bay, near Ketchikan, Alaska a 12-year-old boy named Ellis Miller was "bumped" in the shoulder by a 25-foot transient killer whale. The boy was not bitten or injured in any way. The bay is frequented by harbor seals, and it is possible that the whale misidentified him as prey.
- During the filming of the third episode of the BBC documentary "Frozen Planet" (2011) a group of orcas were filmed trying to 'wave wash' the film crews’ 18-foot zodiac boat as they were filming. The crew had earlier taped the group hunting seals in the same fashion. It was not mentioned if any of the crew were hurt in the encounter. The crew described the orcas as being very tolerant of the film makers’ presence. Over the course of 14 days they filmed over 20 different attacks on seals, many of which the film’s series producer Vanessa Berlowitz describe as training exercises for the young calves in the group. 
Captive orca attacks
There have been several attacks on humans by captive killer whales, with some of them being fatal.
- In 1968, the young female orca, Lupa, of the New York Aquarium chased her trainers out of the tank, snapping her jaws threateningly. Trainers were cleaning the tank at the time of the incident.
- In 1970, Cuddles, a male orca who resided in both the Dudley Zoo and Flamingo Park (now Flamingo Land) in England, became so aggressive towards his trainers, having attacked them twice, that his keepers were forced to clean his pool from the safety of a shark cage.
- On April 20, 1971, SeaWorld secretary Annette Eckis was talked into riding the park's main attraction, a 10-year-old female orca named Shamu, at the park in San Diego, California as a publicity stunt. As the ride was coming to an end Eckis was suddenly thrown off the whale's back. The orca seized the woman by her leg and began pushing her through the water. Trainers on the side of the tank grabbed the young woman and attempted to pull her out of the water but the whale again grabbed a hold of the woman's leg and refused to let go. Shamu's jaws had to be pried apart with a pole in order to free her. Eckis was carried away on a stretcher and required 100 stitches to close the wounds she suffered. Shamu may have done this out of curiosity, as Eckis was wearing a bikini while riding the orca, instead of the traditional wet suit that is usually worn.
- In the early 1970s, a Marine World California trainer, Jeff Pulaski, while riding a young female orca named Kianu during performances, was thrown off and chased out of the tank.
- In the early 1970s, trainer Manny Velasco recalls both Hugo and Lolita of the Miami Seaquarium becoming aggressive, lunging and snapping at the trainers standing on the center work island ending the training session for the day.
- In the early 1970s, during a water work session Hugo refused to allow trainer Chip Kirk to get out of the water, Kirk explains to a journalist from the Palm Beach Post. Hugo bit him several times on the arm bad enough to leave a scar which he showed to the reporter.
- In the early 1970s, Hugo grabbed trainer Bob Pulaski by the wetsuit and began thrashing him, Pulaski struggled but it only made things worse, then Hugo's tank mate Lolita joined in to and began a tug of war. Pulaski managed to free himself from the tangled wetsuit and get to safety. Pulaski did not mention if he sustained any injuries. In both incidents Kirk and Pulaski believe the orcas were only playing.
- In the 1970s, another Marine World California trainer, Dave Worcester, was dragged to the bottom of the tank by the park's young male orca, Nepo.
- In the early 1970s, an unidentified Marineland of the Pacific (USA) trainer was seized by the young male, Orky II, and held at the bottom of the tank until the man nearly lost consciousness.
- On May 2, 1978, another Marineland of the Pacific trainer, 27-year-old Jill Stratton, had an incident with Orky II. Stratton was nearly drowned when the 10-year-old Orky II suddenly grabbed the young woman and dragged her to the bottom of the tank, holding her there for nearly 4 minutes.
- In the 1970s, a Vancouver Aquarium trainer, Doug Pemberton, recalls that "Skana once showed her dislike by dragging a trainer around the pool. Her teeth sank into his wetsuit but missed his leg." Pemberton described both young female Skana and her male companion Hyak II as "moody", but states that Skana was the dominant animal in the pool. "She is capable of changing moods in minutes".
- On February 23, 1984, a 7-year-old female orca by the name of Kandu V grabbed a Sea World California trainer, Joanne Hay, and pinned her against a tank wall during a performance.
- In 1986, an unidentified MarineLand, Ontario trainer was taken to the hospital after he fell off the park's male killer whale, Kandu 7 (not to be confused with Kandu V), and was dragged by his leg around the pool during a trick.
- In 1986, a 4-year-old female orca, Nootka V (not to be confused with Nootka IV), whacked an unidentified MarineLand, Ontario trainer in the head with her pectoral during a show. According to a former trainer, the whale had a habit of leaping out of the water in an attempt to strike trainers by the pool in the chest.
- On March 4, 1987, 20-year-old SeaWorld San Diego trainer, Jonathan Smith, was grabbed by one of the park’s 6-ton killer whales. The orca dragged the trainer to the bottom of the tank, then carried him bleeding all the way back to the surface and then spat him out. Smith gallantly waved to the crowd when a second orca slammed into him. He continued to pretend he was unhurt as the whales repeatedly dragged him to the bottom of the stadium pool. Smith was cut all around his torso, had a ruptured kidney and a six-inch laceration of his liver, yet he managed to escape the pool with his life. Later reports indicate that the whales involved in the attack had been 10-year-old female Kenau and 9-year-old female Kandu V.
- On June 15, 1987, a 29-year-old Sea World San Diego trainer, Joanne Webber, suffered a fractured neck when Kandu V, a 9-year-old female orca, landed on top of her and pushed her to the bottom of the pool during a training session. Webber had five years of experience working with orcas.
- On April 1, 1989 Nootka IV of Sealand of the Pacific pulled her trainer, Henrietta Huber, into the whale tank after the 6-year-old female bit down while the trainer had her hand in the mouth of the orca in order to scratch its tongue. Huber needed several stitches in order to close her wounds.
- Later that same year (1989), Nootka IV of Sealand of the Pacific grabbed a tourist's camera that was accidentally dropped into the whale’s tank. Head trainer Steve Huxter attempted to retrieve the camera but was pulled into the pool when the orca refused to give up its new toy. The orca grabbed a hold of the trainer’s leg but Huxter was pulled to safety by fellow trainer Eric Walters.
- On February 20, 1991, the three orcas that resided at Sealand of the Pacific in Victoria, British Columbia (Haida II, Nootka IV, and Tilikum) killed a young part-time trainer named Keltie Byrne when she accidentally slipped and fell into the tank. This facility did not allow the trainers to get in the water with the animals so the orcas were not accustomed to having people in their tank. It is unclear which orca initiated the assault but what is known is that one of the whales grabbed the trainer by the foot and dragged her deeper into the pool, the other two quickly joined in, pushing and throwing the young woman around the pool. All three animals barred her escape, continuously blocking her path and dragging her back into the center of the tank. Sealand staff tried unsuccessfully to distract the orcas with fish, noise, voice and hand commands. It was several hours before Ms. Byrne's body could be recovered. SeaLand of the Pacific soon closed after the incident and sold all of their orcas to the SeaWorld franchise; Haida II and her calf Kyuquot (who was born sometime after the incident) were both moved to SeaWorld Texas, Haida II eventually died in 2001. Nootka IV and Tilikum were both transferred to the SeaWorld in Florida. Nootka IV passed away in 1994.
- In 1993, 14-year-old female Kasatka tried to bite an unidentified Sea World California trainer (not Kenneth Peters).
- On July 5, 1999, at SeaWorld Orlando Florida, a deceased man by the name of Daniel Dukes was found nude and in one of the orca tanks draped across the back of the park’s largest male orca, Tilikum. This was one of the three Orcas involved in the death of Sealand trainer Keltie Byrne in 1991. An autopsy revealed that the man died of a combination of hypothermia and drowning. Dukes was covered in bruises, abrasions and bite marks, indicating that Tilikum had clear contact with the victim but whether or not Tilikum actually caused the man's death could not be determined. Dukes had apparently hidden himself in the park until after closing and then jumped or fell into the orca’s tank. It is thought that Dukes may have been mentally unstable or under the influence of drugs. Dukes had been reported by Seaworld staff to have "dived" with other sea mammals, earlier that year he had to be removed from the manatee tank, which is warmer and host much more docile creatures. A joint of marijuana was found in the pile of clothes he left next to the tank. No Seaworld admission ticket was found, but staff made it well known that this man did not fall into Tilikum's tank. He had to hop a 3 foot plexiglass barrier, several guardrail fences and descend the steps into the 80X100 tank. The autopsy shows the scratches and "bites" he received were post mortem, and a local animal behaviorist and pyschologist says "I do not believe Tilikum knew the consequence of his actions...[Tilikum] had been cut off almost completely from humans and was not allowed any swim time with them, thusly he did not have the knowledge to sustain human life. I believe Tilikum thought Mr.Dukes was a toy, not a fragile human. However, that Mr.Dukes was found at all presents evidence that Tilikum was not aggresive with this tank intruder, and it almost seems from how the man was found [draped across Tilikums back] that maybe the whale was attempting to save the man from drowning. The whale had no way to tell that if a human sinks to the bottom of a tank, it is dead. It can only judge from what it does, in which case being underwater for 20 minutes is normal behavior."
- On June 12, 1999, 22-year-old Kasatka grabbed her trainer Ken Peters by the leg and attempted to throw him from the pool during a public show at SeaWorld San Diego.
- On July 8, 2002, a trainer by the name of Tamaree was hospitalized for a broken arm and several minor injuries after an incident occurred in Shamu Stadium at SeaWorld Florida. The 28-year-old trainer was doing poolside work with two of the park's orcas, Orkid and Splash. "She was playing with the whales, talking to them… the next thing we know, as it appears from the video, she was pulled into the water" said SeaWorld spokesperson Darla Davis after reviewing security and visitor footage of the incident. Park officials said the trainer exited the pool without assistance and was taken to a local hospital, where a pin was needed to reset her arm.
- In late July 2004, during a show at the SeaWorld park in San Antonio, Texas, a male orca named Kyuquot (nickname Ky) repeatedly jumped on top of his trainer, Steve Aibel, forcing him underwater and barred the trainer from escaping the water. After several minutes the trainer was able to calm the animal and he exited the pool unhurt. “Veterinarians believe the whale… felt threatened by the trainer, perhaps a result of the effects of adolescent hormones.”
- On April 4, 2005, Sea World Florida trainer Sam Davis was repeatedly “bumped” by an 11-year-old male orca named Taku. The show continued uninterrupted but the trainer was later taken to Sand Lake Hospital for unspecified minor injuries and released the same day. Additional eyewitness account: "The trainer and Taku were about to slide on the slide out at the end of the show when Taku completely stopped and started "bumping" the trainer. The trainer was male and he finally swam out of the tank. I knew something was wrong because none of the whales except Kalina wanted to perform. Then they finally got Taku out to splash people at the end of the show, when this incident took place."
- On November 15, 2006, a SeaWorld California trainer was injured when the park's 18-year-old female killer whale, Orkid, grabbed veteran trainer Brian Rokeach by the foot and pulled him to the bottom of the tank, refusing to release him for an extended period of time. Orkid released Rokeach only after heeding fellow trainer Kenneth Peters's repeated attempts to call the animal’s attention back to the stage. Rokeach suffered a torn ligament in his ankle but was not taken to the hospital. In response to the incident, SeaWorld increased the number of trainers who must be available during performances and in water training to five staff members but this however was ineffective because no less than two weeks later trainer Kenneth Peters was involved in a similar incident with different orca.See next bullet for Peters attack.
- On November 29, 2006, Kasatka, one of SeaWorld San Diego's seven orcas, grabbed her trainer, Ken Peters, by the foot and dragged him to the bottom of the tank not once but twice during an evening show at Shamu Stadium. The senior trainer escaped only after staff members managed to separate the two with safety nets. This was the second documented incident of Kasatka attacking Peters and is the third most widely reported of all the SeaWorld incidents.
- On October 6, 2007 at the Loro Parque a 29-year-old trainer, Claudia Vollhardt who had worked at the park since 2003, was hospitalized after she was injured during a training session with one of the park’s killer whales. The Canarias 7 newspaper says the incident happened at the pre-show warm up on Saturday, when the orca crashed into the trainer, injuring her right lung and breaking her forearm in two places. OME News writes that it was a male orca that hit the trainer and dragged her down after the impact. Then that same animal dragged her back up to the surface. She was rescued by two colleagues after the incident. The trainer was in a stable condition after surgery on Saturday. Vollhardt trained mostly with 6-year-old male Tekoa and some news refers to him as the orca involved in this incident.
- On September 9, 2008, during a show at Marineland Antibes in France, a 26-year-old female orca named Freya began acting oddly in the middle of the show then pulled an unidentified trainer under the water. The trainer resurfaced after a few seconds only for Freya to return and begin jumping on top of the man. After landing on top of her trainer twice, she began to push him through and under the water. The trainer tried to regain control of the situation by climbing on the orca’s back but was thrown off. The trainer eventually managed to get to the edge of the pool and climb out, seemingly unhurt.
- In the spring of 2009 a 5 year old female orca named Skyla turned on an unidentified trainer while performing in one of Loro Parque Tenerife's daily shows. Skyla started pushing her trainer through the water and up against the sides of the pool. "Water work" has been suspended with her and only senior trainers are allowed to work with her now.
- On December 24, 2009, 29-year-old Alexis Martínez died during a rehearsal for a Christmas Day show at the Loro Parque Park in Spain. The 14-year-old male orca, Keto, who was born at SeaWorld Orlando Florida, reportedly rammed Martínez in the chest, rendering him unconscious. Martinez supposedly drowned before fellow trainers could rescue him. The park repeatedly asserted that this was not an attack but an unfortunate accident caused by roughhousing, however the park also describe Keto as “not... (being) completely predictable.” The subsequent autopsy report revealed that Alexis died due to the serious injuries he sustained from the orca attack, including multiple compression fractures and tears to his vital organs with the bite marks all over his body. Martinez was considered one of the most experienced trainers in Loro Parque, having worked at the park since 2004.
Tilikum, who has been involved in 3 deaths, swims in the Dine with Shamu exhibit in Orlando, Florida.
- On February 24, 2010, the orca Tilikum killed an experienced trainer at the end of a "Dine with Shamu" show at SeaWorld Orlando. SeaWorld officials confirmed that Tilikum grabbed Dawn Brancheau by her ponytail and pulled her into the water, drowning her. The autopsy determined that the trainer died of "multiple traumatic injuries and drowning". SeaWorld has since been fined by OSHA for $75,000 for "willfully" endangering its employees. OSHA stated that the company "(shows) Plain indifference to or intentional disregard for employee safety and health." SeaWorld has challenged OSHA's claims stating that "OSHA's allegations in this citation are unsupported by any evidence or precedent and reflect a fundamental lack of understanding of the safety requirements associated with marine mammal care."  SeaWorld has taken OSHA to court to challenge the fine and safety report. All three of SeaWorld’s parks have not allowed their trainers in the water with the animals since the incident between Dawn and Tilikum. In late May of 2012 Judge Ken S. Welsch formally sided with OSHA over SeaWorld's killer whale safety practices following the death of Dawn Brancheau. Welsch was sharply critical of SeaWorld's assertion that it was unaware that working with killer whales posed a hazard to employees. Welsch stated it is ‘implausible’ and ‘difficult to reconcile’ with comments repeatedly made by management and with the litany of trainer incidents and injuries that have occurred over the years. Welsch did, however, agree that the fine classification was too severe and had it downgraded– from ‘willful’ ($75,000) to ‘serious’ ($12,000) –stating that the company had emphasized trainer safety even if the safety procedures weren’t effective. Welsch made it clear that his ruling only applies “to the work trainers do during shows and not at other times, such as during medical procedures or ‘relationship-building’ sessions.” “As a custodian SeaWorld has an ethical duty to provide for the whales needs . . . husbandry activities require a certain amount of contact between the trainers and whales . . . unlike performances, which can successfully continue without the trainers in the water.” OSHA did state that they would accept other means of protection as long as it provided equal or greater safety as the physical barriers. SeaWorld is currently testing quick rising pool floors and ‘spare air’ systems in an attempt to get their staff back in the water during shows. They have also started the appeals process to have Judge Welsch’s ruling over turned. But there has already been a set back because on July 17 of the same year an independent review commission in Washington refused to look over the case. SeaWorld has yet to decide on their next course of action. "SeaWorld will decide within the next 60 days whether to appeal to the United States Court of Appeals."
Note: Previous Tilikum incidents, February 20, 1991 and July 5, 1999.
Incidents involving unidentified captive orcas
- In the mid-1970s Karen Pryor reports, "I have since heard... of at least one killer whale which launched an unprovoked attack on a favorite trainer, in normal circumstances, savaged him very badly, and nearly killed him."
- On August 12, 1984 two unidentified killer whales grabbed trainer Bud Krames by the legs and pinned him against a wall during a performance. Krames, a trainer at Sea World California, suffers minor injuries. (Even though the orcas involved in the incident above were never officially identified, it could be assumed that it was two of three particular animals, Kandu V, Winston or Kenau.)
- In 1987 several of San Diego's newspapers reported on a "white paper" discloser of at least 14 different injuries suffered by the trainers of Sea World California, all of varying severity, while working with orcas within a five-month period in 1987. Only a few of the incidents ever made it into the news.
- On September 28, 1987 an unidentified killer whale bit trainer Mark McHugh on the hand during training.
- On September 30, 1987 during a performance a 24-year-old SeaWorld San Diego trainer named Chris Barlow was rammed in the stomach by an unidentified orca. Barlow was hospitalized with minor injuries.
Notable orcas involved in incidents
While Tilikum has perhaps the most infamous reputation of all captive orcas, there have been several other orcas that have harmed people whether intentionally or unintentionally on more than one occasion.
- Tilikum: responsible for 2 documented attacks and 1 undetermined incident, all 3 resulted in the death of a person.
- Nootka IV: responsible for 3 documented attacks, 1 resulted in the death of a trainer.
- Kandu V: responsible for 5 documented attacks. Kandu V was also known for being aggressive towards her tank-mates, particularly with Corky II.
- Kasatka: responsible for 3 documented attacks.
- Hugo: responsible for 3 documented attacks and 1 incident in which he bit his trainers head during a trick, Anthony Toran Administrative Director for the Seaquarium also said Hugo made "what appeared to be direct efforts to harm human performers."
- Orky II: responsible for 2 documented attacks and 1 incident in which he crushed a trainer because of a badly timed cue and blindness in one eye that was not revealed to his trainers.
- Orkid: responsible for 2 documented attacks and 1 incident that was, most likely, an accident but resulted in a trip to the hospital with minor injuries.
- Cuddles: responsible for 2 documented attacks.
- Winston/Ramu: responsible for at least 2 attacks and 1 near miss according to his former trainer Doug Cartlidge.
Two other orcas have killed a trainer.
- Haida II: responsible for 1 documented attack that resulted in the death of a trainer.
- Keto: responsible for 1 documented attack that resulted in the death of a trainer.
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- ^  Video account
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- ^ View topic - Captive orca aggression - The Plankton Forums: online community of marine life enthusiasts, students, and scientists
- ^ St. Petersburg Times - Google News Archive Search