Kentucky Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Kentucky Kingdom
The New Kentucky Kingdom and Hurricane Bay logo.jpg
LocationLouisville, Kentucky, United States
Coordinates38°11′44″N 85°44′50″W / 38.195427°N 85.747245°W / 38.195427; -85.747245Coordinates: 38°11′44″N 85°44′50″W / 38.195427°N 85.747245°W / 38.195427; -85.747245
OwnerKentucky State Fair Board
Operated byKentucky Kingdom, LLLP[1]
General ManagerJohn Shanrock[1]
Opened1987
Closed2009
Previous namesSix Flags Kentucky Kingdom
Operating seasonMay–October (planned for 2014)
Area58 acres (23 ha)
Rides
Total50
Roller coasters5
Water rides2
Websitewww.kentuckykingdom.com
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Kentucky Kingdom
The New Kentucky Kingdom and Hurricane Bay logo.jpg
LocationLouisville, Kentucky, United States
Coordinates38°11′44″N 85°44′50″W / 38.195427°N 85.747245°W / 38.195427; -85.747245Coordinates: 38°11′44″N 85°44′50″W / 38.195427°N 85.747245°W / 38.195427; -85.747245
OwnerKentucky State Fair Board
Operated byKentucky Kingdom, LLLP[1]
General ManagerJohn Shanrock[1]
Opened1987
Closed2009
Previous namesSix Flags Kentucky Kingdom
Operating seasonMay–October (planned for 2014)
Area58 acres (23 ha)
Rides
Total50
Roller coasters5
Water rides2
Websitewww.kentuckykingdom.com

Kentucky Kingdom and Hurricane Bay (previously known as Six Flags Kentucky Kingdom) is an amusement park that is standing but not operating and is currently undergoing renovation in Louisville, Kentucky. The park is located on 58 acres (23 ha)[2] of land which includes a collection of 50 amusement rides and a water park named Hurricane Bay.[3] Plans have been announced for the park to re-open on May 24, 2014.[4]

History[edit]

Foundation (1987–1988)[edit]

Kentucky Kingdom opened on May 23, 1987, leasing 10 acres (4.0 ha) at the Kentucky Exposition Center property.[5] The park was started by out of state Texas investors as an extension of the Kentucky State Fair. One of the original rides was a roller coaster named Starchaser. The park also had other rides such as Bumper Cars and a log flume. However, the 10 acre park closed and filed for bankruptcy after only one season of operation. Most of the contractors and vendors were unpaid. Most of the rides were auctioned off to other parks. Only a few rides stayed at the park. The park had four themed areas called "Carousel Plaza", "Old Louisville", "Kentucky Frontier" and "The Enchanted Forest" the kiddie area which would later become "King Louie's Playground" and then "Looney Tunes Movie Town".

Ed Hart era (1989–1997)[edit]

Thunder Run

The park remained closed through 1989 after the rights to operate it were purchased by Ed Hart and a group of investors. Hart's first step was paying the 227 vendors and contractors that were unpaid before. It reopened for the 1990 season with the new operators and management team.[5] Despite the Starchaser being sold it had remained on-site at the amusement park allowing Hart to purchase it back.[2] Additionally new rides were added including Tin Lizzies, The Enterprise, Whirling Dervish (later renamed "Breakdance"), and The Vampire. In 1992, the Kentucky Kingdom made a large expansion and opened the Hurricane Bay water park (which was later renamed Splashwater Kingdom).

Through the 1990- 1998 seasons, the park was said to be one of the fastest growing amusement parks in the United States at this time.

Ed Hart also put rides in the park over the years he was operating the park. Thunder Run (wooden roller coaster), The Quake, T2 (Terror to the Second Power), Twisted Twins (Twisted Sisters), Mile High Falls, Chang (stand up roller coaster), Hellevator (Drop Tower), Roller Skater Kids coaster, Chaos, and Kingdom Go Carts. These rides were added during 1990 to 1999 seasons.

Premier Parks/Six Flags era (1997–2010)[edit]

At the end of 1997, the rights to operate Kentucky Kingdom were sold to Premier Parks for $64 million.[5] At the time, Kentucky Kingdom was one of the main tourism attractions for Louisville, receiving more visitors than Churchill Downs.[5] On April 1, 1998, Premier Parks purchased Six Flags from Time Warner, and as such, on June 21, 1998, Kentucky Kingdom became known as Six Flags Kentucky Kingdom.[5] It became the ninth amusement park to use the Six Flags name.[6]

In 1999, Six Flags planned to re-theme the one side of the park as "Gotham City", renaming and repainting several rides. Later that year, the idea was shelved and the rides retained their original names despite many of them having a different coat of paint.[2]

During the Six Flags years, Six Flags would remove rides and not replace them with any other types of rides or attractions. Examples of this can be seen with the removal of Falling Star in 2008, The Top Elminator Dragsters which had been SBNO since 2005, and the number of other rides removed to other Six Flags parks.

In 2002, the Twisted Sisters roller coaster was forced to be renamed to Twisted Twins upon a threat of a lawsuit from the band Twisted Sister.[2] Before the opening of the 2007 season, Hurricane Bay was rebranded as Splashwater Kingdom. It was called Hurricane Bay from 1992-2007 and then Splashwater Kingdom from 2007-2010. According to current plans for the future, it will return to the name Hurricane Bay when the park reopens.[citation needed]

Chang

On September 21, 2009, Kentucky Kingdom confirmed that the park's main attraction Chang was being removed for the addition of Bonzai Beach, a new water park region that has a separate theme from the existing Splashwater Kingdom.[7]

Amid a corporate bankruptcy, on February 4, 2010, Six Flags announced the park would cease operations immediately due to the rejection of an amended lease by the Kentucky State Fair Board.[8] This left the fair board and Six Flags to negotiate the ownership of rides and attractions. On July 25, 2010, this dispute was settled with Six Flags receiving a ride of their choice (Road Runner Express), and $2.8 million in lease related payments owed by Six Flags were forgiven, in exchange for Six Flags' property rights which included the offices, furniture, fixtures and equipment relating to the park, as well as all intellectual property. The Kentucky State Fair Board also used $2.35 million from Ed Hart to purchase Six Flags' 20-acre (8.1 ha) stake in the park.

Six Flags added rides during its 10-year operation of the park. These rides were Road Runner Express, Greezed Lightnin' (shuttle launch coaster), Sky Coaster, Sling Shot, Tornado (water ride), Deluge (water roller coaster) and Mega Wedgie (water bowl).

Attempts to revive Kentucky Kingdom (2010-2012)[edit]

In May 2010, the former operator of Kentucky Kingdom, Ed Hart, along with several other investors formed the Kentucky Kingdom Redevelopment Company. Their aim was to reopen the park by Memorial Day Weekend the year after funding and their plans were approved.[9][10][11] After 16 months trying to get funding approved,[12][13][14] the Kentucky Kingdom Redevelopment Company announced on September 30, 2011, that the fair board had ended negotiations and that their company would no longer take part in re-opening the park.[15] On November 4, 2011, Ed Hart sued the state of Kentucky in an attempt to recoup $1.4 million that he claimed had been spent as part of the failed effort to reopen the amusement park.[16]

Logo formerly proposed for the Bluegrass Boardwalk rebranding

On January 16, 2012, the owners of Holiday World & Splashin' Safari in Santa Claus, Indiana announced they were involved in talks about the future of Kentucky Kingdom. Their media release stated they were in a fact-finding stage and that they hadn't made any decisions about whether to move forward in pursuing an opportunity to run the theme park.[17] On February 7, 2012, four members of the Koch family, who also own Holiday World & Splashin' Safari, formed a new company, Bluegrass Boardwalk, Incorporated, to negotiate a lease agreement with the Kentucky State Fair Board and to apply for economic development incentives from the Commonwealth of Kentucky.[18] On February 23, 2012, the Kentucky Fair Board approved a lease agreement for the former Kentucky Kingdom property to the Koch family. It was announced that Kentucky Kingdom would be renamed Bluegrass Boardwalk and would reopen on May 11, 2013 and employ 25 full-time and 800 seasonal workers. Also if Bluegrass Boardwalk would have opened, they would have removed T2 and Twisted Twins roller coasters for old age and safety.[19][20] However, later that month the plans began to unravel.[20] On May 30, 2012, it was confirmed that the park would not reopen in 2013.[21] On June 15, 2012, it was announced that the Koch family would not reopen the park at all, with Bluegrass Boardwalk CEO Natalie Koch stating that "many layers of governmental regulations and stipulations ultimately caused them to withdraw."[22]

Ed Hart's latest return (2012-Present)[edit]

On August 15, 2012, it was announced that Ed Hart and Themeparks LLC[citation needed] and the Kentucky Kingdom Redevelopment Company would be working to open the park by 2014. On October 22, 2012, Hart said the company planned to eventually invest $120 million by using $50 million to reopen the park and gradually investing another $70 million later over the term of the lease. He also said the company would not require startup funding from the state.[23] Hart said that all rides but Greezed Lightnin' would be in operation and that his company would add a $15 million roller coaster plus three other new rides and would double the size of the "Hurricane Bay" water park.[23] Hart said that his goal was to have Kentucky Kingdom open in 2014 and be Kentucky's number one paid tourist attraction and that that he hoped the reopened park would produce, on average, 2,150 full-time jobs each year.[23] In January 2013, The Kentucky Fair Board granted preliminary approval for a lease and the Kentucky Tourism Development Finance Authority gave preliminary[24] approval for government incentives for a plan to reopen the park in May 2014 with Ed Hart and his investors running the park. However, the park's web site has stated that the financing package for the reopening plan has not yet been finalized.[25] The park is to reopen (along with Hurricane Bay) on May 24, 2014.[4] Since Six Flags has the rights to the name "Splashwater Kingdom", under current plans the water park will change its name back to "Hurricane Bay", like it was from 1992-2007.[citation needed] On March 25, 2013, Hart announced that it will take more money than he previously expected to repair the park, but said his goal is still to reopen the park in May 2014.[26] He estimated that the park would employ about 50 full-time staff and up to 1,000 seasonal employees if operation resumes.[26] The investment plan previously approved under the terms of the lease reportedly consisted of $20 million in partner equity and $25 million in borrowed money, and the city and its convention and visitors bureau would be expected to provide subsidies and tax incentives up to $200,000 per year for five years and $100,000 per year for another five years.[26] While operating, proprietors would be under a contract obligation to invest at least $1 million per year on park upgrades.[26] On April 10, 2013, the Kentucky Tourism Development Finance Authority approved up to $10 Million dollars in sales tax rebates over the next 10 years for Kentucky Kingdom. A later report said the goal was to create about 60 full-time jobs and 800 part-time jobs.[27] On June 27, 2013, Hart announced that $28.5 million in financing had been secured ($18.5 million equity and a $10 million loan), that the necessary agreements had been signed for reopening the park on Saturday, May 24, 2014,[28] and that the park would undergo "the biggest expansion in Kentucky Kingdom's 25-year history".[29] Ed Hart has said that a $7 million steel roller coaster and expanded Hurricane Bay water park will be added in the reopening year.[29] As of July 2013, major work was underway to refurbish the park.[30] Three new children's rides are to be placed in King Louie's Playhouse which is located in the front of the park. Details on all of the new rides for Kentucky Kingdom which included a new $7 million roller coaster "Lighting Run" Many new rides to be included in Hurricane Bay Water Park. A new Sea lion show featured rescued sea lions. And many new rides for the kiddie section of the park, were all released to the Public in late November.


Kentucky Kingdom Reopening In May 2014

Rides and attractions[edit]

All rides and attractions have been in testing stage since August 2013.

Roller coasters[edit]

RideOpenedManufacturerDescription
Thunder Run1990Dinn CorporationA wooden roller coaster, designed by Curtis D. Summers and John Fetterman. Known as a classic wooden roller coaster made by the Dinn Corporation.
Roller Skater1994VekomaA junior roller coaster, with roller skate shaped cars. A Vekoma Roller Skater roller coaster. The other Vekoma roller coaster is T2 that was added a year later.
1995VekomaA Suspended Looping Coaster. It was the first installation of its kind in the United States and the second in the world.
Twisted Twins1998Custom Coasters, Inc.A dueling wooden roller coaster. The ride was originally named Twisted Sisters with the two sides are named Lola & Stella. The ride name changed due to a legal dispute however the track names remained. SBNO since 2008.
Lightning Run2014Chance RidesA new 7 million dollar steel roller coaster will be added for the 2014 season when the park reopens. It will be the first Chance Rides Hyper GT-X Coaster.

Other rides and attractions[edit]

RideOpenedManufacturerDescription
Breakdance1990HUSSA Breakdance. Ride spins on a platform with a group of pods that spin in addition to the platform.
Bluebeard's Bounty1990HUSSSwinging pirate ship.
Tin Lizzies1990Arrow DynamicsAntique cars that run along a track. The ride was remodeled due to the construction of the rollercoaster Greezed Lightning.
Enterprise1990HussRide starts out flat, has an enclosed carrier with little restraints, ride begins spinning and lifts up onto its side like a Ferris wheel and then back down.
Himalaya1990Reverchon Industries
Flying Dutchman1991IntaminRide was previously located at Kings Island for the 1973-1990 seasons of the park. Opened at Kentucky Kingdom in 1991.
The Giant Wheel1992Vekoma150 ft (46 m) tall Ferris wheel
Mile High Falls1994Hopkins RidesIt was the first ride of its kind. Closed with Twisted Twins for the 2008 and 2009 seasons of Kentucky Kingdom due to money problems from Six Flags.
International Carousel1996Chance RidesThe park's main Carousel.
Raging Rapids River Ride1999IntaminA white water raft ride. Parts of the ride were moved from the closed Opryland theme park. First ride added by Six Flags. Formerly The Penguin's Blizzard River.
Fearfall2014Larson InternationalA drop tower ride
Professor John's Flying Machines2014Larson InternationalA Flying Scooters ride
5D Cinema - Movies You Ride2014
Bumper Cars2014

King Louie's Playground[edit]

RideOpenedManufacturerDescription
Big Foot Trucks1990Kids battery powered jeeps.
Sun & Moon Ferris Wheel1990Preston & BarbieriKids Ferris wheel. Formerly Daffy's Star Parade.
Musical Carousel1990Chance RidesKids Carousel. Formerly Bugs Bunny's Big Band Carousel.
Samba Balloon Ride1990ZamperlaSamba Balloons. Formerly A' Wound the World in 80 Seconds.
Zeppelin1991ZamperlaZeppelin themed spinning ride
Free Falling Fire Engine1995ZamperlaCrazy Bus
Rio Grande1998ZamperlaRio Grande kiddie train ride. Opened at new location in 2001.
Speedway1998ZamperlaKids spinning car ride.
Pounce and Bounce2000ZamperlaJumpin' Star kids drop tower
Rock-A-Bye Swings2014ZamperlaSwing ride
Jump Around2014ZamperlaJump Around
Whirl-A-Round Swings2014Swing ride
Imagination Playhouse2014

Hurricane Bay[edit]

RideOpenedManufacturerDescription
The Big Kahuna1992WhiteWater WestWave pool. Formerly Big Surf Wave Pool.
Mt. Slide Hai1993WhiteWater West4 slides named - Voodoo Express, Forbidden Passage, Conquistador Canyon and Vanishing Falls. Added in 1993 to the park with Castaway Creek, which is also in the water park with the slides.
Lazy River1993Water TechnologyName changed from Lazy River to Castaway Creek, before being reverted to Lazy River. Runs around Hurricane Bay and also around the park's roller coaster, Thunder Run and the water park's Tornado ride. Added in 1993 to the water park.
Splash Zone1998SCS InteractiveDiscovery Treehouse for kids. Kids play area. Formerly Hook's Lagoon.
Tornado2005ProSlide TechnologyTornado Rattler - funnel shaped tube slide that uses four person "cloverleaf" or two person "whirly wheel" tubes. Replaced "The Quake" at the park in 2005.
Deluge Water Coaster2007ProSlide TechnologyHydroMagnetic Rocket slide. The ride itself, is a Water coaster with dips and curves like a Roller Coaster. The last "major" attraction when Six Flags owned the park.
The Mega Wedgie2008ProSlide TechnologyBullet Bowl. Last ride added by Six Flags.
Kids Cove2014Large kids play area. Built on the site of former Buccaneer Beach kids play area.
Plummet Summit2014Family Raft ride that is 52 ft. tall
Speed Slide Complex2014ProSlide TechnologyTwo body slides: Deep Water Dive and Wave Runner. The former will feature a 121-foot (37 m) drop, while the latter will feature a 66-foot (20 m) drop.
Wikiwiki Wai Slide Complex2014ProSlide TechnologyThree raft slides: Wailele Run, a circular raft ride; Waikiki Wipe Out, a cannon bowl slide; and Kilauea, a tantrum tornado slide.

Former attractions[edit]

While the park is closed many or most of the rides are going through their testing stages for the 2014 opening season.

RideOpenedClosedDescription
Smash-Crash-Bash'em19871988Kentucky Kingdom's first Bumper Cars ride. Closed in 1987 with the park. While the ride is gone, the building still stands as an arcade in the park. A new Bumper Cars ride opened in 1990 in the park. The bumper cars will be returning to their original location when the park reopens in 2014.
Kentucky Whirl19871988A Zierer Wave Swinger ride in the park. Closed in 1987 and removed and replaced by Bumper Cars in 1990.
Ohio River Adventure19871988A Log Flume ride in the park. Opened and Closed with the park in 1987 but was on the site until 1990 when it was taken out and replaced with "The Vampire" and other rides.
Tornado19871988Not the Tornado water slide, a flat ride that only operated during the 1987 season. It was removed from the park in 1990 when the park reopened and to make room for new rides at the park.
Whirlaway19871988A ChanceTrabant Ride. Closed in 1987 and removed from the park in 1990. Relocated to Michigan's Adventure in Muskegon, MI
Ranger19901994Huss Ranger – replaced by Rainbow
Round Up19871995Hrubetz Round Up
Starchaser19871995An enclosed Anton Schwarzkopf Jet Star roller coaster.[31] It was removed in 1995[31] due to a pending lawsuit from guests who were injured on the ride in 1994.[32] The ride was originally located in Beech Bend Park before being moved to Kentucky Kingdom.[33] It was then moved to Darien Lake in 1996[34] before moving to its final location at Great Escape, where it was called Nightmare at Crack Axle Canyon. The ride is now defunct.[35]
The Squid199019974 wet/dry water slides, Located where Road Runner express is.
The Vampire19901999A Vekoma Boomerang roller coaster.[36] It was removed in 1999[36] because of multiple breakdowns.[citation needed] It was moved to Six Flags New England where it is now known as Flashback.[37]
Jester's June Bugs19902001Moved to Six Flags Worlds of Adventure (Geauga Lake). All Geauga Lake rides could be at Cedar Point
Starcastle Voyage19972001Kids Carousel – moved to Six Flags Worlds of Adventure (Geauga Lake)
Mini Tea Cups19982001Tea cup ride – moved to Six Flags Worlds of Adventure (Geauga Lake)
Thriller Bees19982001Huss swing ride – moved to Six Flags Worlds of Adventure (Geauga Lake)
The Quake19922004Vekoma Waikiki Wave – ride was replaced by Tornado water slide
Slingshot20022004Extra charge Funtime Sling Shot – portable – moved to Six Flags Elitch Gardens.
Chaos19982005Chance Chaos – replaced by a smoking area in 2006, replaced by Deluge in 2007.
Top Eliminator Dragsters199620053/4 scale dragsters. SBNO from 2005 to 2010. Manufactured by ThrillTime Entertainment International.
The Great Race19982006Spinning kids ride – Replaced by Deluge in 2007 (The ride is however still in storage somewhere at the park and may reopen in 2014)
Superman: Tower of Power19952008Intamin 177 ft (54 m) giant drop – Closed due to serious accident that resulted in a 13-year-old girl losing her feet; was located just inside the entrance to the park; originally named Hellevator (1995–2006).
Rainbow19952008Removed following a serious malfunction of the Rainbow at Liseberg in Gothenburg, Sweden. Many Huss Rainbow rides were dismantled following the 2008 incident at Liseberg.
Turbo Bungy20002008Extra-Charge attraction
Chang19972009A Bolliger & Mabillard stand-up roller coaster.[38] It opened in 1997 as the tallest, fastest and longest stand-up coaster in the world but has since been bumped down to second. It was one of Kentucky Kingdom's main attractions. Chang has been relocated to Six Flags Great Adventure and will begin to operate as the Green Lantern replacing Great American Scream Machine for their 2011 season.[39]
Road Runner Express20002009A Maurer Söhne wild mouse roller coaster retained by Six Flags as part of the settlement.[40] It was relocated to Six Flags New England for the 2011 season and re-themed into their 10th roller coaster.It is called Gotham City Gauntlet: Escape from Arkham Asylum.[41]
Skycoaster20012010A skycoaster up-charge attraction stood at 180 ft (55 m) tall. It was the tallest attraction in the park.
Greezed Lightnin'20032010An Anton Schwarzkopf Shuttle Loop roller coaster. On the site of Kentucky Kingdom from 2003-2010 and SBNO from 2010-2013. Taken out to make way for Lightning Run in 2014.
Bumper Cars19902010Majestic Manufacturing bumper cars. Known as the Road Rage Cage in October for October fest.
Thrill Park Theater19962010Motion picture simulator, Hydraulic pods/seats move in accordance with a movie.
Looney Tunes Acme Fun Factory19972010A SCS Interactive kids foam ball play area
Taz's Filmworks19902010Sartori Rides kids swing ride
Yosemite Sam's Hollywood Flight School19902010Allan Herschell kids biplane ride
The Wall19992010Climbable rock wall
Thrill Karts19972010J&J Amusements Go-Karts

Incidents[edit]

Two major incidents occurred at the park that both resulted in serious injury. The rides involved in the incidents were Starchaser (in 1994) and Superman: Tower of Power (in 2007). Both incidents resulted in the rides being closed and removed from the park.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Shafer, Sheldon (January 29, 2013). "Ed Hart to check out Kentucky Kingdom". Retrieved January 29, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d Cowan, Chris (May 13, 2006). "Six Flags Kentucky Kingdom". Theme Park Timelines. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Splashwater Kingdom at Kentucky Kingdom". Six Flags. Archived from the original on May 2, 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "Kentucky Kingdom operators announce expansion plans for amusement park reopening in 2014". Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Associated Press. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Kleber, John E. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Louisville. University Press of Kentucky. p. 32. ISBN 0-8131-2100-0. 
  6. ^ Marden, Duane. "Kentucky Kingdom". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Chang Comes Down At Kentucky Kingdom; Ride Removed As Part Of Water Park Expansion". WLKY. September 21, 2009. Retrieved February 5, 2010. 
  8. ^ "Kentucky Kingdom Rejects Lease Park to Close". RCDB. February 4, 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Kentucky Kingdom will not re-open until 2012". WDRB. October 28, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2010. 
  10. ^ "Kentucky Kingdom gets a new boss". Fox 41. May 28, 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  11. ^ "New Owner Approved For Kentucky Kingdom". News Channel 5. Associated Press. May 28, 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  12. ^ Karman, John R. (July 26, 2010). "Fair board strikes deal for Kentucky Kingdom property". Business First. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  13. ^ Shafer, Sheldon S. (July 25, 2010). "Kentucky fair board OKs deal to get Six Flags land, rides". Courier Journal. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  14. ^ Shafer, Sheldon (August 24, 2011). "Kentucky Kingdom gets boost". Courier-Journal. Retrieved September 1, 2011. 
  15. ^ Hart, Edward (October 5, 2011). "Collapse of Kentucky Kingdom Discussions". Kentucky-Kingdom. Retrieved October 5, 2011. [dead link]
  16. ^ Karman, John (November 4, 2011). "Company sues state to recoup Kentucky Kingdom investment". Business First. Retrieved November 4, 2011. 
  17. ^ Gazaway, Charles (January 16, 2012). "Holiday World owners involved in Kentucky Kingdom talks". Wave 3 News. Retrieved January 16, 2012. 
  18. ^ Smith, Heather (February 7, 2012). "Holiday World family forms new company to explore Kentucky Kingdom options". Wave 3 News. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  19. ^ Brown, Joey (February 23, 2012). "Kentucky Kingdom reopening as Bluegrass Boardwalk in May 2013". Wave 3 News. Retrieved February 23, 2012. 
  20. ^ a b Gazaway, Charles. "Tentative opening date for Bluegrass Boardwalk - wave3.com-Louisville News, Weather & Sports". Wave3.com. Retrieved 2012-10-29. 
  21. ^ [1][dead link]
  22. ^ Marcus Green (June 15, 2012). "Bluegrass Boardwalk drops plan to reopen Kentucky Kingdom". www.courier-journal.com. Gannett Company. Retrieved June 15, 2012. 
  23. ^ a b c Karman III, John R. (October 22, 2012). "Hart pledges $120M investment to reopen Kentucky Kingdom". Business First. Retrieved October 29, 2012. 
  24. ^ "Kentucky Kingdom Group Gets Preliminary Approval of Tourism Incentives", Courier-Journal, January 31, 2013.
  25. ^ Kentucky Kingdom Redevelopment Company official web site (accessed Feb. 17, 2013)[dead link]
  26. ^ a b c d Sheldon S. Shafer, Kentucky Kingdom rehab will cost more than first thought, Louisville Courier-Journal, March 25, 2013.
  27. ^ Metro Council Approves Kentucky Kingdom Development Area, WHAS Television, June 20, 2013.
  28. ^ Frequently-asked questions on official web site.
  29. ^ a b Press page on official web site.
  30. ^ "Major work underway at Kentucky Kingdom". WRDB. 13 July 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013. 
  31. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Starchaser  (Kentucky Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  32. ^ Wall, Barbara (November 29, 2007). "Kentucky Supreme Court Reinstates $3 Million Defamation Verdict". Gannett. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  33. ^ Marden, Duane. "Starchaser  (Beech Bend)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  34. ^ Marden, Duane. "Nightmare at Phantom Cave  (Darien Lake)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  35. ^ Marden, Duane. "Nightmare at Crack Axle Canyon  (Great Escape & Splashwater Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  36. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "The Vampire  (Bluegrass Boardwalk)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  37. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flashback  (Six Flags New England)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 16, 2010. 
  38. ^ Marden, Duane. "Chang  (Kentucky Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 16, 2010. 
  39. ^ Marden, Duane. "Green Lantern  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 16, 2010. 
  40. ^ Marden, Duane. "Road Runner Express  (Kentucky Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 16, 2010. 
  41. ^ Marden, Duane. "Gotham City Gauntlet  (Six Flags New England)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 16, 2010. 

External links[edit]