Keith Richards

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Keith Richards

Richards in February 2006
Background information
Born (1943-12-18) December 18, 1943 (age 68)
Dartford, Kent, England, United Kingdom
Origin London, England
GenresRock, blues, blues rock, rhythm and blues, rock and roll
Occupations Musician, singer-songwriter, record producer, actor
InstrumentsGuitar, vocals, bass, keyboards, percussion
Years active 1962–present
LabelsDecca, Rolling Stones, Virgin/EMI, Mindless
Associated actsThe Rolling Stones, The Dirty Strangers, The Dirty Mac, The New Barbarians, The X-Pensive Winos
Websitewww.keithrichards.com
Notable instruments
1953 Fender Telecaster "Micawber"
1959 Gibson Les Paul
Gibson ES-355
Fender Stratocaster
 
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Keith Richards

Richards in February 2006
Background information
Born (1943-12-18) December 18, 1943 (age 68)
Dartford, Kent, England, United Kingdom
Origin London, England
GenresRock, blues, blues rock, rhythm and blues, rock and roll
Occupations Musician, singer-songwriter, record producer, actor
InstrumentsGuitar, vocals, bass, keyboards, percussion
Years active 1962–present
LabelsDecca, Rolling Stones, Virgin/EMI, Mindless
Associated actsThe Rolling Stones, The Dirty Strangers, The Dirty Mac, The New Barbarians, The X-Pensive Winos
Websitewww.keithrichards.com
Notable instruments
1953 Fender Telecaster "Micawber"
1959 Gibson Les Paul
Gibson ES-355
Fender Stratocaster

Keith Richards (born 18 December, 1943) is an English musician and songwriter, and founding member of the Rolling Stones. Rolling Stone magazine said Richards had created "rock's greatest single body of riffs," and ranked him 4th on its list of 100 best guitarist. Fourteen songs Richards wrote with the Rolling Stones' lead vocalist Mick Jagger are listed among Rolling Stone magazine's "500 Greatest Songs of All Time."[1][2][3] Richards's notoriety for illicit drug use stems in part from several drug busts during the late 1960s and 1970s.

Contents

Early life

Keith Richards is the only child of Bertrand Richards and Doris Dupree Richards. He was born at Livingston Hospital in Dartford, Kent. His father was a factory worker who was injured in World War II during the Normandy invasion.[4]

Richards's paternal grandparents were socialists and civic leaders whose family originated from Wales.[5][6][7] His maternal grandfather, Augustus Theodore Dupree, who toured Britain with a jazz big band, "Gus Dupree and his Boys," fostered Richards's interest in guitar.[8]

Richards's mother bought him his first guitar and he played at home recording Billie Holiday, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington and others.[9] His father on the other hand disparaged his son's musical enthusiasm.[10] One of Richards's first guitar heroes was Scotty Moore.[11]

Richards attended Wentworth Primary School with Mick Jagger and was his neighbor until 1954, when the family moved.[12] From 1955 to 1959 he attended Dartford Technical High School for Boys.[12][13] Recruited by Dartford Tech's choirmaster R. W. "Jake" Clare, Richards sang in a trio of boy sopranos at, among other occasions, Westminster Abbey for Queen Elizabeth II.[14]

In 1959 Richards was expelled from Dartford "Tech" for truancy, and transferred to Sidcup Art College.[15] At Sidcup he was diverted from his studies proper and devoted more time to playing guitar with other students in the boys' room. At this point Richards had learned most of Chuck Berry's solos.[16]
Richards 1965
Richards met Jagger on a train as Jagger was headed to classes at the London School of Economics.[17] The mail order rhythm & blues albums from Chess Records by Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters Jagger was carrying, revealed a mutual interest and led to a renewal of their friendship. Along with mutual friend, Dick Taylor, Jagger was singing in an amateur band: "Little Boy Blue and the Blue Boys," which Richards soon joined. The Blues Boys folded when Brian Jones and Ian Stewart joined Richards, Jagger and Taylor into the just-forming Rolling Stones.[citation needed]

In mid-1962 Richards had left Sidcup Art College to devote himself to music and moved into a London flat with Jagger and Jones. His parents divorced about the same time, resulting in his staying close to his mother and remaining estranged from his father until 1982 [Richards, Keith (2010). Life].[citation needed]

After the Rolling Stones signed to Decca Records in 1963 their band manager, Andrew Loog Oldham, dropped the "s" from his surname believing "Keith Richard" in his words "looked more pop."[18] In the late 1970s Richards re-established the "s" in his surname.

Musicianship

Bandleader

Richards 1972.

Richards views his role in the Rolling Stones as "oiling the machinery," while Stewart has called him the musical leader of the band. Both Bill Wyman and Ronnie Wood have said that, unlike most other bands which usually follow the drummer, the Rolling Stones, in Wyman's words, "have no way of not following him. "[19][20][21]

Guitarist influences and sound

Richards's guitar playing shows a fascination with chords and rhythm while avoiding flamboyant virtuosity in favour of riffs described by Chris Spedding as "direct, incisive and unpretentious."[19][22] Richards prefers to play in tandem with another guitarist and has always toured with one.[23] Chuck Berry has been an inspiration for Richards,[24] and it was Richards and Jagger who introduced Berry's songs to the Rolling Stones' early repertoire. Chicago artists such as Jimmy Reed and Muddy Waters provided the basis of a style of interwoven lead and rhythm guitar. Richards had adapted that method with Brian Jones, continued with Mick Taylor, and continues with the Rolling Stones' current guitarist, Ronnie Wood.[25] In the late 1960s, Jones's declining contributions led Richards to record all guitar parts on many tracks, including slide guitar, which had been Jones's speciality in the band's early years. Jones's replacement guitarist Mick Taylor worked with the Rolling Stones from 1969 to 1974, and Taylor's virtuosity at lead guitar led to a much more pronounced separation between lead and rhythm guitar roles, notably onstage.[19] In 1975 Taylor was replaced by Wood, marking a return to the style of guitar interplay that he and Richards described as "the ancient art of weaving."[26]

The 1967-68 break in touring allowed Richards to focus on open tunings, which are commonly used for slide guitar. Instead, Richards primarily used open tunings for fingered chording, developing a distinctive style of syncopated and ringing I-IV chording heard on "Street Fighting Man" and "Start Me Up."[27] Richards has used various open tunings (while continuing to use standard tuning) but has often favoured a five-string variant of open G tuning using GDGBD unencumbered by a low sixth string. Several of his Telecasters are tuned this way (see the "Guitars" section below), and this tuning is prominent on Rolling Stones tracks and concert renditions including "Honky Tonk Women," "Brown Sugar" and "Start Me Up."[28]

Richards regards acoustic guitar as the basis for his playing,[29] believing that the limitations of electric guitar would cause him to "lose that touch" if he didn't play acoustic.[28] Richards plays acoustic guitar on many Rolling Stones' tracks including like "Not Fade Away," "Satisfaction," "Brown Sugar," and "Angie." All guitars on the studio versions of "Street Fighting Man" and "Jumping Jack Flash" feature acoustic guitars overloaded to a cassette recorder which were then reamped through a loudspeaker in the studio.[30]

Vocals and other instruments

Richards sang in a school choir - most notably for Queen Elizabeth - until adolescence's effect on his voice forced him out of it. [31] He has sung backing vocals on every Rolling Stones album. Since Between the Buttons (1967), he has sung lead or co-lead on at least one track (see list below).

During the Rolling Stones' 1972 tour Richards began singing lead vocals on "Happy," in concert, and has since then typically sung one lead vocal, progressing to two since 1986.[32] During the 2006 and 2007 Rolling Stones' tours Richards sang "You Got the Silver" (1969) without self-accompaniment.[33]

Recordings of Richards playing other instruments besides guitar are not unusual. He has played bass on several Rolling Stones studio recordings, including "Have You Seen Your Mother, Baby, Standing in the Shadow?" (1966) and "Infamy" (2005).[34] Richards regards keyboards as a songwriting tool though he has played keyboards on several Rolling Stones recordings, and live he played keyboards for two Ronnie Wood concerts, and during The New Barbarians' 1979 tour. Richards has also played percussion on select Rolling Stones tracks, including the floor tom on "Jumpin' Jack Flash"[35] and bicycle spokes on "Continental Drift" (1989).[36]

Songwriting

Richards and Jagger collaborated on songs in 1963, following the nearby example of The Beatles' Lennon–McCartney and the encouragement of Rolling Stones manager Andrew Loog Oldham, who saw little future for a cover band.[37] The earliest Jagger/Richards collaborations were recorded by other artists, including Gene Pitney, whose rendition of "That Girl Belongs to Yesterday" was their first top-ten single in the UK.[38] Richards recalls: "We were writing these terrible pop songs that were becoming Top 10 hits... They had nothing to do with us, except we wrote 'em."[39]

Richards and Jagger 1972

The Rolling Stones' first top-ten hit with a Jagger/Richards original was "The Last Time" (1965);[40] "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction" (also 1965) was their first international #1 recording. (Richards has stated that the "Satisfaction" riff came to him in his sleep; he woke up just long enough to record it on a cassette player by his bed).[41] Since Aftermath (1966) most Rolling Stones albums have consisted mainly of Jagger/Richards originals. Their songs reflect the influence of blues, R&B, rock & roll, pop, soul, gospel and country, as well as forays into psychedelia and Dylanesque social commentary. Their work in the 1970s and beyond has incorporated elements of funk, disco, reggae and punk.[39] Richards has also written and recorded slow torchy ballads, such as "All About You" (1980).

In his solo career, Richards has often shared co-writing credits with drummer and co-producer Steve Jordan. Richards has said: "I've always thought songs written by two people are better than those written by one. You get another angle on it."[39]

Richards has frequently stated that he feels less like a creator than a conduit when writing songs: "I don't have that God aspect about it. I prefer to think of myself as an antenna. There's only one song, and Adam and Eve wrote it; the rest is a variation on a theme."[39]

Richards was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1993.[42]

Record production

Richards has been active as a record producer since the 1960s. He was credited as producer and musical director on the 1966 album Today's Pop Symphony, one of manager Andrew Loog Oldham's side projects, although there are doubts about how much Richards was actually involved with it.[43] On the Rolling Stones' 1967 album Their Satanic Majesties Request the entire band was credited as producer, but since 1974, Richards and Mick Jagger have frequently co-produced Rolling Stones and other artists' records under the joint name "the Glimmer Twins," often in collaboration with other producers.

Since the 1980s Richards has chalked up numerous production and co-production credits on projects with other artists including Aretha Franklin, Johnnie Johnson and Ronnie Spector, as well as on his own albums with the X-Pensive Winos (see below). In the 1990s Richards co-produced and added guitar and vocals to a recording of nyabinghi Rastafarian chanting and drumming entitled Wingless Angels, released on Richards's own record label, Mindless Records, in 1997.

Solo recordings

Richards has released few solo recordings. His first solo single released in 1978 was versions of Chuck Berry's "Run Rudolph Run" and Jimmy Cliff's "The Harder They Come." In 1987, after Jagger pursued a solo recording and touring career, Richards formed the "X-pensive Winos" with co-songwriter, and co-producer Steve Jordan whom Richards assembled for his Chuck Berry documentary, Hail! Hail! Rock 'n' Roll.

Additional members of the X-pensive Winos included guitarist Waddy Wachtel, saxist Bobby Keys, keyboardist Ivan Neville and Charley Drayton on bass. The first Winos' record,Talk Is Cheap also featured Bernie Worrell, Bootsy Collins and Maceo Parker. Since its release, Talk Is Cheap has gone gold and has sold consistently. Its release was followed by the first of the two U.S. tours Richards has done as a solo artist. Live at the Hollywood Palladium, 15 December 1988 documents the first of these tours. In 1992 the Winos' second studio record Main Offender was released, and was also followed by a tour.[44]

Recordings with other artists

Keith Richards 2005

During the 1960s most of Richards's recordings with artists other than the Rolling Stones were sessions for Andrew Oldham's Immediate Records label. Notable exceptions were when Richards, along with Mick Jagger and numerous other guests, sang on The Beatles' 1967 TV broadcast of "All You Need Is Love;"[44] and when he played bass with John Lennon, Eric Clapton, Mitch Mitchell, Ivry Gitlis and Yoko Ono as the Dirty Mac for The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus TV special, filmed in 1968.[45]

In the 1970s Richards worked outside the Rolling Stones with Ronnie Wood on several occasions, contributing guitar, piano and vocals to Wood's first two solo albums and joining him on stage for two July 1974 concerts to promote I've Got My Own Album to Do. In December 1974 Richards also made a guest appearance at a Faces concert. In 1976–77 Richards played on and co-produced John Phillips's solo recording Pay, Pack & Follow (released in 2001). In 1979 he toured the U.S. with the New Barbarians, the band that Wood put together to promote his album Gimme Some Neck; he and Wood also contributed guitar and backing vocals to "Truly" on Ian McLagan's 1979 album Troublemaker (re-released in 2005 as Here Comes Trouble).[44]

Since the 1980s Richards has made more frequent guest appearances. In 1981 he played on reggae singer Max Romeo's album Holding Out My Love to You. He has worked with Tom Waits on three occasions, adding guitar and backing vocals to Waits's 1985 album Rain Dogs (1992); co-writing, playing and sharing the lead vocal on "That Feel" on Bone Machine ; and adding guitar and vocals to Bad As Me (2011). In 1986 Richards produced and played on Aretha Franklin's rendition of "Jumping Jack Flash" and served as musical producer and band leader (or as he phrased it "S&M director")[46] for the Chuck Berry film Hail! Hail! Rock 'n' Roll.[44]

In the 1990s and 2000s Richards has continued to contribute to a wide range of musical projects as a guest artist. A few of the notable sessions he has done include guitar and vocals on Johnnie Johnson's 1991 release Johnnie B. Bad, which he also co-produced; and lead vocals and guitar on "Oh Lord, Don’t Let Them Drop That Atomic Bomb on Me" on the 1992 Charles Mingus tribute album Weird Nightmare. He duetted with country legend George Jones on "Say It's Not You" on the Bradley Barn Sessions (1994); a second duet from the same sessions – "Burn Your Playhouse Down" – appeared on Jones's 2008 release Burn Your Playhouse Down – The Unreleased Duets. He partnered with Levon Helm on "Deuce and a Quarter" for Scotty Moore's album All the King's Men (1997). His guitar and lead vocals are featured on the Hank Williams tribute album Timeless (2001) and on veteran blues guitarist Hubert Sumlin's album About Them Shoes (2005). Richards also added guitar and vocals to Toots & the Maytals' recording of "Careless Ethiopians" for their 2004 album True Love and to their re-recording of "Pressure Drop," which came out in 2007 as the b-side to Richards's iTunes re-release of "Run Rudolph Run."[44]

Rare and unreleased recordings

In 2005 the Rolling Stones released Rarities 1971-2003, which includes some rare and limited-issue recordings, but Richards has described the band's released output as the "tip of the iceberg."[47] Many of the band's unreleased songs and studio jam sessions are widely bootlegged, as are numerous Richards solo recordings, including his 1977 Toronto studio sessions, some 1981 studio sessions and tapes made during his 1983 wedding trip to Mexico.[44]

Public image and private life

Music journalist Nick Kent attached to Richards Lord Byron's epithet of "mad, bad, and dangerous to know." Jagger thought that Richards's image had "contributed to him becoming a junkie."[48] In 1994 Richards said his image was "like a long shadow ... Even though that was nearly twenty years ago, you cannot convince some people that I'm not a mad drug addict."[49] In 2010, Peter Hitchens wrote of Richards that he is "a capering streak of living gristle who ought to be exhibited as a warning to the young of what drugs can do to you even if you're lucky enough not to choke on your own vomit."[50]

Richards has been tried on drug-related charges five times: in 1967, twice in 1973, in 1977 and in 1978.[51][52] The first trial – the only one involving a prison sentence[52] – resulted from a February 1967 police raid on Redlands, Richards's Sussex estate, where he and some friends, including Jagger, were spending the weekend.[53] The subsequent arrest of Richards and Jagger put them on trial before the British courts while also exposing them to public opinion. On 29 June 1967, Jagger was sentenced to three months' imprisonment for possession of four amphetamine tablets; Richards was found guilty of allowing cannabis to be smoked on his property and sentenced to one year in prison.[54] Both Jagger and Richards were imprisoned at that point: Jagger was taken to Brixton Prison in south London,[55] and Richards to Wormwood Scrubs Prison in west London.[56] Both were released on bail the next day pending appeal.[57] On 1 July The Times ran an editorial entitled "Who breaks a butterfly on a wheel?," portraying Jagger's sentence as persecution, and public sentiment against the convictions increased.[58] A month later the appeals court overturned Richards's conviction for lack of evidence, while Jagger was given a conditional discharge.[59]

Toronto hotel, site of his 1977 drug bust

On 27 February 1977, while Richards was staying in a Toronto hotel, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police found heroin in his room and he was charged with "possession of heroin for the purpose of trafficking" – an offence that under the Criminal Code of Canada can result in prison sentences of seven years to life.[60] His passport was confiscated and Richards and his family remained in Toronto until 1 April, when Richards was allowed to enter the United States on a medical visa for treatment for heroin addiction.[61] The charge against him was later reduced to "simple possession of heroin."[62]

For the next two years, Richards lived under threat of criminal sanction. Throughout this period he remained active with the Rolling Stones, recording their biggest-selling studio album, Some Girls, and touring North America. Richards was tried in October 1978, pleading guilty to possession of heroin.[63][64] He was given a suspended sentence and put on probation for one year, with orders to continue treatment for heroin addiction and to perform a benefit concert on behalf of the Canadian National Institute for the Blind.[65] Although the prosecution had filed an appeal of the sentence, Richards performed two CNIB benefit concerts at Oshawa Civic Auditorium on 22 April 1979; both shows featured the Rolling Stones and the New Barbarians.[66] In September 1979 the Ontario Court of Appeal upheld the original sentence.[67]

Later in 1979, Richards met his future wife, model Patti Hansen. They married on 18 December 1983, Richards's 40th birthday, and have two daughters, Theodora and Alexandra, born in 1985 and 1986 respectively.

Richards maintains cordial relations with Italian-born actress Anita Pallenberg, the mother of his first three children; although they were never married, Richards and Pallenberg were a couple from 1967 to 1979. Together they have a son, Marlon (named after the actor Marlon Brando), born in 1969,[68] and a daughter, Angela (originally named Dandelion), born in 1972.[69] Their third child, a boy named Tara (after Richards's and Pallenberg's friend Guinness heir Tara Browne), died on 6 June 1976, less than three months after his birth.[70]

Richards still owns Redlands, the Sussex estate he purchased in 1966, as well as a home in Weston, Connecticut and another in Turks & Caicos.[71] His primary home is in Weston.[72] He is an avid reader with a strong interest in history and owns an extensive library.[73][74] An April 2010 article revealed that Richards yearns to be a librarian.[75]

21st century

On 27 April 2006, Richards, while in Fiji, suffered a head injury after falling out of a tree; he subsequently underwent cranial surgery at a New Zealand hospital.[76] The incident caused a six-week delay in launching the Rolling Stones' 2006 European tour and the rescheduling of several shows; the revised tour schedule included a brief statement from Richards apologising for "falling off his perch."[77] The band made up most of the postponed dates in 2006, and toured Europe in the summer of 2007 to make up the remainder.

In August 2006 Richards was granted a pardon by Arkansas governor Mike Huckabee for a 1975 reckless driving citation.[78][79]

Tributes for other artists

Richards paying tribute to fellow musicians Chuck Berry and Leonard Cohen at the first annual PEN Awards in the JFK Presidential Library in Boston, Massachusetts, 16 February, 2012

From the start of his career Richards has made appearances to pay tribute to those artists with whom he has formed friendships and those which have inspired and encouraged him. After the earliest success of the band, who played cover songs of American blues artists, while he and Jagger were just beginning their own songwriting, the Rolling Stones visited the States to pay back, in his words, "that's where that fame bit comes in handy". Since that time, he has performed on many occasions to show appreciation toward them. Among these, he has appeared with Norah Jones in a tribute concert for Gram Parsons in 2006 playing guitar and singing a duet, "Love Hurts". On 12 March 2007 Richards attended the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame ceremony to induct the Ronettes; he also played guitar during the ceremony's all-star jam session.[44] On 26 February 2012, Richards paid tribute to fellow musicians Chuck Berry and Leonard Cohen who were the recipients of the first annual PEN Awards for songwriting excellence at the JFK Presidential Library in Boston, Massachusetts.[80]

In an April 2007 interview for NME magazine, music journalist Mark Beaumont asked Richards what the strangest thing he ever snorted was,[81] and quoted him as replying: "My father. I snorted my father. He was cremated and I couldn't resist grinding him up with a little bit of blow. My dad wouldn't have cared ... It went down pretty well, and I'm still alive."[82][83] In the media uproar that followed, Richards's manager said that the anecdote had been meant as a joke;[84] Beaumont told Uncut magazine that the interview had been conducted by international telephone and that he had misquoted Richards at one point (reporting that Richards had said he listens to Motörhead, when what he had said was Mozart), but that he believed the ash-snorting anecdote was true.[81][85] Musician Jay Farrar from the band Son Volt wrote a song titled 'Cocaine And Ashes', which was inspired by Richards's drug habits.[86]

Doris Richards, Richards's 91-year-old mother, died of cancer in England on 21 April 2007. An official statement released by a family representative stated that Keith kept a vigil by her bedside during her last days.[87][88]

Richards made a cameo appearance as Captain Teague, the father of Captain Jack Sparrow (played by Johnny Depp), in Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End, released in May 2007,[89] and won the Best Celebrity Cameo award at the 2007 Spike Horror Awards for the role.[90] Depp has stated that he based many of Sparrow's mannerisms on Richards.[89] Richards reprised his role in Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides, released in May 2011.

In March 2008 fashion house Louis Vuitton unveiled an advertising campaign featuring a photo of Richards with his ebony Gibson ES-355, taken by photographer Annie Leibovitz. Richards donated the fee for his involvement to the Climate Project, an organisation for raising environmental awareness.[91]

On 28 October 2008 Richards appeared at the Musicians' Hall of Fame induction ceremony in Nashville, Tennessee, joining the newly inducted Crickets on stage for performances of "Peggy Sue," "Not Fade Away" and "That'll Be the Day."[92][93]

In August 2009, Richards was ranked #4 in Time magazine's list of the 10 best electric guitar players of all time.[94] In September 2009 Richards revealed to Rolling Stone magazine that in addition to anticipating a new Rolling Stones album, he has done some recording with Jack White: "I enjoy working with Jack," he said. "We’ve done a couple of tracks."[95] On 17 October 2009, Richards received the Rock Immortal Award at Spike TV’s Scream 2009 awards ceremony at the Greek Theatre in Los Angeles; the award was presented by Johnny Depp.[96] "I liked the living legend, that was all right," Richards said, referring to an award he received in 1989,[97] "but immortal is even better."[98]

In 2009, a book of Richards's quotations was published, titled What Would Keith Richards Do?: Daily Affirmations from a Rock 'n' Roll Survivor.[99]

In August 2007 Richards signed a publishing deal for his autobiography,[100] Life, which was released 26 October 2010.[101] On 15 October 2010, the Associated Press published an article stating that Richards refers to Mick Jagger as "unbearable" in the book and notes that their relationship has been strained "for decades."[102]

Musical equipment

Guitars

Richards playing Micawber, a 1953 Telecaster, 2006.

Richards has a collection of approximately 3,000 guitars.[103] Even though he has used many different guitar models, in a 1986 Guitar World interview Richards joked that no matter what model he plays, "give me five minutes and I'll make 'em all sound the same."[19] However, Richards has often thanked Leo Fender, and other guitar manufacturers for making the instruments, as he did during the induction ceremony of the Rolling Stones into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Some of his notable instruments are:

Amplifiers

Richards's amplifier preferences have changed repeatedly, but some of his notable amplifiers are:

Effects

Richards, Rolling Stones Voodoo Lounge World Tour, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1995.

In 1965 Richards used a Gibson Maestro fuzzbox to achieve the distinctive tone of his riff on "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction;"[119] the success of the resulting single boosted the sales of the device to the extent that all available stock had sold out by the end of 1965.[120] In the 1970s and early 1980s Richards frequently used guitar effects such as a wah-wah pedal, a phaser and a Leslie speaker,[121] but he mainly relies on combining "the right amp with the right guitar" to achieve the sound he wants.[122]

Discography

Studio albums

Year Title Chart positions Certifications
(sales thresholds)
U.K.U.S.
1988 Talk Is Cheap
  • Released: 3 October 1988
  • Label: Virgin
37

[3 wks]

24

[23 wks]

1992 Main Offender
  • Released: 19 October 1992
  • Label: Virgin
45

[2 wks]

99

[10 wks]

Other releases

Singles

Release date Title US Mainstream Rock
December 1978 "Run Rudolph Run" b/w "The Harder They Come"
October 1988 "Take It So Hard" 3
November 1988 "You Don't Move Me" 18
February 1989 "Struggle" 47
October 1992 "Wicked As It Seems" 3
January 1993 "Eileen" 17
December 2007 "Run Rudolph Run" b/w "Pressure Drop"
"—" denotes releases that did not chart

Guest appearances on other artists' releases

Lead vocals on Rolling Stones tracks

Below is a list of the officially released Rolling Stones tracks on which Richards sings lead vocals or shares lead-vocal duties:

Filmography

Film
Year Title Role Notes
1969 Man on Horseback
2007 Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's EndCaptain Teague
2011 Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger TidesNominated—People's Choice Award for Favorite Ensemble Movie Cast
Nominated—Scream Award for Best Cameo

References

  1. ^ "Researcha". Web.researcha.com. http://web.researcha.com/iccquery/detail/?did=9109465&c=uk. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  2. ^ "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time". Rolling Stone (931). 22 September 2003. ISBN 0-634-04619-5. http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/5945/32609/32672. 
  3. ^ "The RS 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Rolling Stone. 9 December 2004. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/coverstory/500songs. Retrieved 8 March 2008. 
  4. ^ "Sex, drugs and guns: As rocker Keith Richards releases his memoirs, how much can the hellraiser really remember?". Daily Mail. 30 July 2007. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-471351/Sex-drugs-guns-As-rocker-Keith-Richards-releases-memoirs-hellraiser-really-remember.html. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  5. ^ Bockris, Victor (2003). Keith Richards: The Biography (2nd ed.). Da Capo Press. pp. 17–18. ISBN 0-306-81278-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=P_lzbHj_jS0C. 
  6. ^ Rowland, Paul (30 October 2006). "Exhibition of Welsh pirate portrait based on Rolling Stone". Western Mail. http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/wales-news/tm_headline=exhibition-of-welsh-pirate-portrait-based-on-rolling-stone&method=full&objectid=18011959&siteid=50082-name_page.html. Retrieved 24 January 2011. 
  7. ^ Richards, Life, p. 500.
  8. ^ Bockris 1993. pp. 29–30.
  9. ^ Bockris 1993. p. 33.
  10. ^ St. Michael, Mick (1994). In His Own Words: Keith Richards. Omnibus Press. p. 75. ISBN 0-7119-3634-X. 
  11. ^ Richards, Life, p. 72.
  12. ^ a b Bockris 1993. p. 22.
  13. ^ "The Archives: Famous Old Boy Keith Richards". Old Dartechs' & Wilmingtonians' Association. http://www.odwa.co.uk/archives/archives.htm. Retrieved 2 March 2008. 
  14. ^ Bockris 1993. pp. 27–28
  15. ^ Bockris 1993. p. 30.
  16. ^ Bockris 1993. pp. 34–35.
  17. ^ Bockris 1993. p. 38.
  18. ^ Bockris 1993. p. 63.
  19. ^ a b c d Santoro, Gene (1986). "The Mojo Man Rocks Out". Guitar World, March 1986, reprinted (2006) in Guitar Legends: The Rolling Stones (Future plc). 
  20. ^ McPherson, Ian. "A Heart Engraved in Stone". http://www.timeisonourside.com/keithstones.html. Retrieved 26 July 2009. 
  21. ^ McPherson, Ian. accessdate=26 July 2009 "The World's Greatest Rock & Roll Band". http://www.timeisonourside.com/keithstones.html accessdate=26 July 2009. 
  22. ^ "Keith on keeping on – interview with Keith Richards". Chrisspedding.com. http://www.chrisspedding.com/jour/kr.htm. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  23. ^ "Sabella Recording Studios: Keith Richards Interview". Sabellastudios.com. http://www.sabellastudios.com/tips_krichards.php. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  24. ^ Wyman, Bill (2002). Rolling With the Stones. DK Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 0-7894-9998-3. 
  25. ^ Jagger, Mick; Richards, Keith; Watts, Charlie; Wood, Ronnie (2003). According to the Rolling Stones. Chronicle Books. p. 39. ISBN 0-8118-4060-3. 
  26. ^ Jagger, Richards, Watts & Wood 2003. p. 180.
  27. ^ Guitar World October 2002. Interview:"Heart Of Stone"
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  30. ^ McPherson, Ian. "Track Talk: Street Fighting Man". http://www.timeisonourside.com/SOStreetFighting.html. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
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2. http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/100-greatest-guitarists-20111123/keith-richards-19691231

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