Kaliningrad

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Kaliningrad (English)
Калининград (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Map of Russia - Kaliningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia
Kaliningrad is located in Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad
Location of Kaliningrad in Kaliningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 54°43′N 20°31′E / 54.717°N 20.517°E / 54.717; 20.517Coordinates: 54°43′N 20°31′E / 54.717°N 20.517°E / 54.717; 20.517
KGD.svg
KGD flag.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
City DayJuly 4; observed on the first Saturday of July[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of November 2011)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKaliningrad Oblast
Administratively subordinated tocity of oblast significance of Kaliningrad[1]
Administrative center ofKaliningrad Oblast,[2] city of oblast significance of Kaliningrad[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2009)
Urban okrugKaliningrad Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center ofKaliningrad Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed]Alexander Yaroshuk[citation needed]
Representative bodyCity Council of Deputies[citation needed]
Statistics
Area (urban okrug) (February 2012)223.03 km2 (86.11 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census)431,402 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 201040th
Density(February 2012)1,900 /km2 (4,900 /sq mi)[4]
Time zoneUSZ1 (UTC+03:00)[6]
Founded1255[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[7]236000
Dialing code(s)+7 4012[citation needed]
Official website
Kaliningrad on WikiCommons
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Kaliningrad (English)
Калининград (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Map of Russia - Kaliningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia
Kaliningrad is located in Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad
Location of Kaliningrad in Kaliningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 54°43′N 20°31′E / 54.717°N 20.517°E / 54.717; 20.517Coordinates: 54°43′N 20°31′E / 54.717°N 20.517°E / 54.717; 20.517
KGD.svg
KGD flag.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
City DayJuly 4; observed on the first Saturday of July[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of November 2011)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKaliningrad Oblast
Administratively subordinated tocity of oblast significance of Kaliningrad[1]
Administrative center ofKaliningrad Oblast,[2] city of oblast significance of Kaliningrad[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2009)
Urban okrugKaliningrad Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center ofKaliningrad Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed]Alexander Yaroshuk[citation needed]
Representative bodyCity Council of Deputies[citation needed]
Statistics
Area (urban okrug) (February 2012)223.03 km2 (86.11 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census)431,402 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 201040th
Density(February 2012)1,900 /km2 (4,900 /sq mi)[4]
Time zoneUSZ1 (UTC+03:00)[6]
Founded1255[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[7]236000
Dialing code(s)+7 4012[citation needed]
Official website
Kaliningrad on WikiCommons

Kaliningrad (Russian: Калининград, IPA: [kəlʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat]), formerly called Königsberg (German: Königsberg; Russian: Кёнигсберг; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; Polish: Królewiec), is a seaport city and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. The territory borders on NATO and European Union members Poland and Lithuania, and is geographically separated from the rest of Russia.

The locality was a site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement/fort Twangste. In 1255, a new fortress was built on this site by the Teutonic Knights during the Northern Crusades, and was named "Königsberg" in honour of King Ottokar II of Bohemia. The town was part of the State of the Teutonic Order, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Russian Empire, Prussia and Germany (until 1945). Until the end of World War II, the area formed the northern part of the former East Prussia. The city was largely destroyed during World War II; its ruins were captured by the Red Army in 1945 and its German population fled or was removed by force. It was named Kaliningrad in 1946 in honor of Mikhail Kalinin. In 2005 Kaliningrad celebrated its 750 years of existence[8]

According to the 2010 Census, its population was 431,902[5]—an increase from 430,003 recorded in the 2002 Census.[9]

Geography[edit]

This photograph from the ISS captures two great lagoons to the north and south of Kaliningrad. From an astronaut's perspective in low-Earth orbit, land surfaces usually appear brighter than water. But in this image, reflected sunlight, or sunglint, inverts this pattern.

Kaliningrad is located at the mouth of the navigable Pregolya River, which empties into the Vistula Lagoon, an inlet of the Baltic Sea.

Sea vessels can access Gdańsk Bay/Bay of Danzig and the Baltic Sea by way of the Vistula Lagoon and the Strait of Baltiysk.

Until around 1900 ships drawing more than 2 meters (6 ft 7 in) of water could not pass the bar and come into town, so that larger vessels had to anchor at Pillau (now Baltiysk), where merchandise was moved onto smaller vessels. In 1901 a ship canal between Königsberg and Pillau was completed at a cost of 13 million German marks which enabled vessels of a 6.5 meters (21 ft) draught to moor alongside the town (see also Ports of the Baltic Sea).

Khrabrovo Airport is located 24 kilometers (15 mi) north of Kaliningrad, and has a few scheduled and charter services to several destinations throughout Europe. There is the smaller Kaliningrad Devau Airport for general aviation. Kaliningrad is also home to Kaliningrad Chkalovsk naval air base.

History[edit]

Königsberg[edit]

Old Königsberg amid the modern Kaliningrad

Kaliningrad was previously the East Prussian city of Königsberg. Founded in 1255 by the Teutonic Knights on the site of the Old Prussian settlement of Twangste (Tuwangste, Tvankste), the city was named in honor of the Bohemian King Ottokar II. Through the periods of Germanisation and colonisation over the following centuries, German culture became dominant, with sizable Polish and Lithuanian minorities. During World War II the city of Königsberg was largely destroyed.

Soviet Union[edit]

At the end of World War II in 1945, the city became part of the Soviet Union pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement (as part of the Russian SFSR) as agreed upon by the Allies at the Potsdam Conference:

VI. CITY OF KÖNIGSBERG AND THE ADJACENT AREA
The Conference examined a proposal by the Soviet Government that pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement the section of the western frontier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which is adjacent to the Baltic Sea should pass from a point on the eastern shore of the Bay of Danzig to the east, north of Braunsberg and Goldap, to the meeting point of the frontiers of Lithuania, the Polish Republic and East Prussia.

The Conference has agreed in principle to the proposal of the Soviet Government concerning the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the city of Koenigsberg and the area adjacent to it as described above, subject to expert examination of the actual frontier.

Ruins of Königsberg Castle in the 1950s

The President of the United States and the British Prime Minister have declared that they will support the proposal of the Conference at the forthcoming peace settlement.[10]

Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after the death of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Mikhail Kalinin, one of the original Bolsheviks. The survivors of the German population were forcibly expelled and the city was repopulated with Soviet citizens. The German language was replaced by the Russian language. The city was rebuilt, and, as the westernmost territory of the USSR, the Kaliningrad Oblast became a strategically important area during the Cold War. The Soviet Baltic Fleet was headquartered in the city in the 1950s. Because of its strategic importance, Kaliningrad was closed to foreign visitors.

In 1957 an agreement was signed and later came into force which delimited the border between Poland and the Soviet Union.[11][12]

Russia[edit]

Kaliningrad is the only Russian Baltic Sea port that is ice-free all year round and hence plays an important role in maintenance of the Baltic Fleet.

Due to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Kaliningrad Oblast became an exclave, geographically separated from the rest of Russia. This isolation from the rest of Russia became even more pronounced politically when Poland and Lithuania became members of NATO and subsequently the European Union in 2004. All military and civilian land links between the region and the rest of Russia have to pass through members of NATO and the EU. Special travel arrangements for the territory's inhabitants have been made through the Facilitated Transit Document (FTD) and Facilitated Rail Transit Document (FRTD).[13][14]

In July 2005, the 750-year jubilee of the city was widely celebrated.

In July 2007, Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov declared that if US-controlled missile defense systems were deployed in Poland, then nuclear weapons might be deployed in Kaliningrad. On November 5, 2008, Russian leader Dmitry Medvedev said that installing missiles in Kaliningrad was almost a certainty.[15] These plans were suspended, however, in January 2009.[16]

But during late 2011, a long range Voronezh-DM radar Voronezh radar was commissioned to monitor missile launches within about 6,000 kilometres (3,728 miles). It is situated in the settlement of Pionersky (formerly German Neukuhren) in Kaliningrad Oblast.[17]

Changing Kaliningrad's name[edit]

Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after the death of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Mikhail Kalinin, one of the original Bolsheviks. Today, there is some debate as to whether to change the name of the city back to "Königsberg" in the same way that several other Russian cities have reverted to their pre-Soviet names, e.g. Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, and Tver, which were known in the Soviet era as Leningrad, Sverdlovsk, and Kalinin, respectively. "Kyonig" (Кёниг, a shortened form of "Königsberg" via Russian) is often used in advertisements for tourism companies in the region. Another possibility would be to give it a Russian name based on its historic designation in other Slavic languages, such as "Korolevets".

Others have suggested slightly modifying the city's name to "Kalinograd", thus removing its overtly Soviet connotation. The Kalina, or Guelder Rose, is a plant which possesses sacred connotations within Slavic folklore. The Kalina is a common motif found in scores of traditional folk songs, particularly those symbolizing youth and innocence, as well as those associated with weddings and funerals.

Kantgrad is an alternative name for the city. The name of Kantgrad (the city in honour of the great philosopher Immanuel Kant) had been promoted by critical intellectuals and media around the globe.[18] Kant was born in this city in 1724 and never left the city until the end of his creative life in 1804. In 2008, a new circle of international academicians living in Kaliningrad led by M. Dar & N. Djadjuk (both were academicians of the Klaus Mehnert Institute in Kaliningrad) founded the Kantgrad International Society,[19] to promote the rebirth of Kantian spirit.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Kaliningrad is the administrative center of the oblast.[2] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Kaliningrad—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Kaliningrad is incorporated as Kaliningrad Urban Okrug.[3]

City districts[edit]

As of 2011, the city is divided into three administrative districts:

City district
Russian nameInhabitants
2010 Census[5]
Notes
MoskovskyМосковский152,165Named after the Russian capital, Moscow
LeningradskyЛенинградский159,771named after Leningrad, now Saint Petersburg
TsentralnyЦентральный119,966lit. central, as it lies to the northwest of the historical city center

Two administrative districts were abolished in June 2009:

City district
Russian nameInhabitants
2002 Census[9]
Notes
BaltiyskyБалтийский68,664named after the Baltic Sea
OktyabrskyОктябрьский43,252named after the October Revolution

Climate[edit]

Kaliningrad has a temperate climate, with cold, cloudy, moderate winters and mild summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. Average temperatures range from −1.5 to 18.1 °C (29.3 to 64.6 °F) and rainfall varies from 36.0 millimeters (1.42 in)/month to 97.0 millimeters (3.82 in)/month. In general, it is a maritime climate and therefore damp, variable and mild.

The seasons are clearly differentiated. Spring starts in March and is initially cold and windy, later becoming pleasantly warm and often very sunny. Summer, which begins in June, is predominantly warm but hot at times (with temperature reaching as high as 30–35 °C (86–95 °F) at least once per year) with plenty of sunshine interspersed with heavy rain. The average annual hours of sunshine for Kaliningrad are 1700, similar to other northern cities. July and August are the hottest months. Autumn comes in September and is at first warm and usually sunny, turning cold, damp and foggy in November. Winter lasts from December to March and includes periods of snow. January and February are the coldest months with the temperature sometimes dropping as low as −15 °C (5 °F).

Climate data for Kaliningrad
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)12.7
(54.9)
15.6
(60.1)
23.0
(73.4)
31.7
(89.1)
30.6
(87.1)
33.5
(92.3)
36.3
(97.3)
36.5
(97.7)
31.2
(88.2)
26.4
(79.5)
19.4
(66.9)
13.3
(55.9)
36.5
(97.7)
Average high °C (°F)0.7
(33.3)
1.5
(34.7)
5.6
(42.1)
12.3
(54.1)
18.0
(64.4)
20.5
(68.9)
23.0
(73.4)
22.6
(72.7)
17.6
(63.7)
12.1
(53.8)
5.6
(42.1)
1.9
(35.4)
11.8
(53.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)−1.5
(29.3)
−1.1
(30)
2.0
(35.6)
7.3
(45.1)
12.5
(54.5)
15.5
(59.9)
18.1
(64.6)
17.6
(63.7)
13.1
(55.6)
8.4
(47.1)
3.3
(37.9)
−0.3
(31.5)
7.9
(46.2)
Average low °C (°F)−3.8
(25.2)
−3.5
(25.7)
−1.1
(30)
2.9
(37.2)
7.5
(45.5)
10.9
(51.6)
13.6
(56.5)
13.1
(55.6)
9.3
(48.7)
5.2
(41.4)
1.1
(34)
−2.5
(27.5)
4.4
(39.9)
Record low °C (°F)−32.5
(−26.5)
−33.3
(−27.9)
−21.7
(−7.1)
−5.4
(22.3)
−3.1
(26.4)
0.7
(33.3)
4.5
(40.1)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
−11.2
(11.8)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−33.3
(−27.9)
Precipitation mm (inches)68
(2.68)
49
(1.93)
52
(2.05)
36
(1.42)
54
(2.13)
79
(3.11)
77
(3.03)
97
(3.82)
74
(2.91)
82
(3.23)
83
(3.27)
73
(2.87)
824
(32.44)
Avg. rainy days141314141416151617181816185
Avg. snowy days151510300000171364
 % humidity85837872717475768183868779
Mean monthly sunshine hours34.161.6120.9171.0254.2264.0257.3229.4159.096.139.024.81,711.4
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[20]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory [21]
Museum of History and Arts, formerly Königsberg's Stadthalle

Cityscape[edit]

Museums[edit]

Kaliningrad has many museums. A few examples are the Immanuel Kant museum on the Kneiphof island, the Regional Museum of History and Arts, which has parts of Königsberg Castle's Prussia Museum of local archaeological findings, and the Kaliningrad Amber Museum, which is situated in the Dohna Tower near the Rossgarten Gate. The city also has an art gallery with eight exhibition rooms.

The Museum of the World's Oceans is located on the former research vessel Wityaz on the shore of the Pregel river. The museum displays the newest technologies on sea research and also shows the diversity of the flora and fauna of the world's oceans. An anchored Foxtrot-class submarine next to the museum, the B-413, hosts an exhibit about the Russian submarine fleet.

Theater[edit]

The Kaliningrad Philharmonic Orchestra is accommodated in the former Catholic Church of the Holy Family of Königsberg, built in 1907. The church was destroyed during World War II, but rebuilt afterwards. The building, which has noted acoustics, functions as an organ hall since re-opening in 1980.

The Kaliningrad Regional Drama Theater is located in the former Königsberg Neues Schauspielhaus, which was opened in 1910. The building was rebuilt after the war using earlier plans for the theater and opened in 1960. The colonnade in front of the entrance was modeled after the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow.

The regionally notable Kaliningrad Puppet Theater has had its seat since 1975 in the Queen Louise Remembrance Church. This neo-romantic church, designed by architect Fritz Heitmann, was built in 1901.

Architecture[edit]

The pre-war city center (Altstadt and Kneiphof) currently consists of parks, broad avenues, a square on the site of the former Königsberg Castle, and only two buildings: the House of Soviets ("Dom Sovyetov"), roughly on the site of the former castle, and the restored Königsberg Cathedral on the Kneiphof island (now "Kant island"). Immanuel Kant's grave is situated next to the cathedral. The new city center is concentrated around Victory Square. The Cathedral of Christ the Savior, consecrated in 2005, is located on that square.

The oldest building in Kaliningrad is the Juditten Church (built before 1288). Also worth seeing are the former Stock Exchange, the surviving churches, and the remaining city gates. In counter-clockwise order these gates are: the Sackheim Gate, King's Gate, Rossgarten Gate, Attack Gate (German: Ausfallstor, or Sally Port), Railway Gate (Eisenbahntor), Brandenburg Gate, and Friedland Gate (Friedländer Tor). Apart from the already mentioned Dohna Tower, which houses the Amber Museum, the Wrangel Tower also remains as a reminder of the former Königsberg city walls. Only the gate of the former Fort Friedrichsburg remains.

Monuments[edit]

Notable monuments include the statue of Immanuel Kant in front of the Immanuel Kant State University of Russia. The statue was made by notable sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch and unveiled in 1864. The statue was destroyed in 1945, but was remoulded in 1992 on the initiative of Marion Dönhoff. Also worth seeing is the Cosmonaut monument, which honours the Kaliningrad cosmonauts Alexei Leonov, Yuri Romanenko and Aleksandr Viktorenko. Other statues and monuments include the statue for Duke Albert, the statue for Friedrich Schiller, the statue for Tsar Peter the Great, Vladimir Vysotsky, the "Mother Russia" monument, and the Monument for the 1200 Guardsmen, remembering the Battle of Königsberg.

Parks[edit]

The Kaliningrad Zoo was opened as the Königsberg Zoo in 1896. The collection, which extends over 16.5 ha, comprises 315 species with a total of 2,264 individual animals (as of 2005). The Kaliningrad Zoo is also an arboretum.

Ponds[edit]

Centrally located in the city is Lower Pond, an artificial lake. Lower Pond is surrounded by a promenade and is an area for recreation especially in summer. North of the Lower Pond is the larger Upper Pond in northern Kaliningrad.

Education[edit]

An important education centre in Kaliningrad is the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University. It is the successor to Albertina, which was the old university of Königsberg founded in 1544. One of its best known professors was Immanuel Kant.

Culture[edit]

Music[edit]

The modern city of Kaliningrad is home to the Kaliningrad Regional Philharmonic and Symphony Orchestra, the Lik male chamber choir and the Garmonika Russian music ensemble,[22] as well as the Kaliningrad Chamber Orchestra.[23]

Rossgarten Gate, now a restaurant
Kaliningrad central railway station
A Kaliningrad tram
Baltic Fleet headquarters

Cuisine[edit]

Kaliningrad has its own vodka and beer brands, Stari Königsberg and Ostmark respectively. Since the early 1990s many new restaurants have opened in the city. These restaurants offer culinary specialities of former East Prussia, like Königsberger Klopse, but also many fish and salad dishes, Italian pizza and sushi, which is as popular in Kaliningrad as in the rest of Russia. Königsberger Fleck, a bovine tripe soup and yet another culinary specialty from former Königsberg, no longer belongs to the eating culture of Kaliningrad.

The people of Kaliningrad generally imported their respective culinary traditions to the region when they settled in the area after 1945. Borshch and okroshka may be served as in the rest of Russia. Many Italian and Asian restaurants (or fusions of both traditions) are in operation all over the city. Pizza and sushi are among the most popular dishes today. Fast food is widely available from various chains, including those of foreign origin: McDonald's and Subway began operations in Kaliningrad in 2011. Shawarma is also gaining considerable prominence.

Transportation[edit]

Kaliningrad's Khrabrovo Airport is located near Khrabrovo. The airport mainly connects Kaliningrad to other Russian cities, but also offers flights to other cities in Europe. In Baltiysk, one can take a ferry to St. Petersburg, Copenhagen, Riga, and Kiel. Kaliningrad's international railway station is Kaliningrad Passazhirsky, which in German times was known as Königsberg Hauptbahnhof. Trains depart in the directions of Malbork, Berlin, Baltiysk, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Minsk, Kharkiv, Anapa, and Bagrationovsk. A unique feature of the Kaliningrad railway is that some tracks in the direction of Poland and Berlin have a standard gauge of 1,435-millimeter (56.5 in) track parallel to the commonly Russian broad gauge of 1,520 millimeters (60 in) mostly for strategic reasons during the Cold War and nowadays for goods traffic. One platform at the Passzhirsky station can be reached on standard gauge over the former Ostbahn main line from Elbing (Elblag) making passenger through traffic from Berlin possible.

Regional trains depart from Kaliningrad Severny, the former Königsberg Nordbahnhof, which is situated on Victory Square, the current city center. Trains depart to Zelenogradsk and Svetlogorsk and also once a day to Sovetsk. The lines to the north and northwest have been electrified. Many local pre-war lines have been broken up or are no longer in use, also because the new border with Poland completely disrupted the former traffic flows.

In 1881, the Königsberg tramway was opened, and it still functions to this day. In 1975, a trolleybus system was also introduced.

Economy[edit]

In 1996, Kaliningrad was designated a Special Economic Zone. Manufacturers based there get tax and customs duty breaks on the goods they send back to Russia. Although corruption was an early deterrent, that policy means the region is now a manufacturing hub. One in three televisions in Russia is made in Kaliningrad (producers "Telebalt" Ltd., which produces TVs under the brand Erisson, and holding "Polar", located in the city of Chernyakhovsk produces TVs under its own brand Polar). [1], and it is home to Cadillac, Hummer and BMW related car plants (produced at the company's plants Avtotor). Currently, Kaliningrad's major industries are manufacturing, shipping, fishing and amber products. Moscow has declared it will turn the region into "the Russian Hong Kong".[24]

The European Commission provides funds for business projects under its special programme for Kaliningrad. The region has begun to see increasing trade with the countries of the EU as well as increasing economic growth and rising industrial output. With an average GDP growth of more than 10% per year for three years to 2007, Kaliningrad is growing faster than any other region in Russia, even outstripping the success of its EU neighbours.[25]

Military[edit]

Kaliningrad Oblast used to be the most heavily militarized area of what is now the Russian Federation, and the density of military infrastructure was the highest in Europe. It was the headquarters of the former Soviet Baltic Military District. Kaliningrad also functions as the headquarters of the Russia's Baltic Fleet, circled by Chernyakhovsk (air base), Donskoye (air base) and Kaliningrad Chkalovsk (naval air base).

Soviet era[edit]

Access and control to the Baltic Sea was imperative because of Soviet perceptions that this meant that the hegemonic power had "influence on European and global affairs". Russia had replaced Sweden as the hegemon since the 18th century, but during the late 19th and early 20th century it was increasingly ousted by Germany's growing naval power.[26] At any point in time during the Soviet era, there would be at least 100,000 troops stationed in Kaliningrad (though there are some estimates that run up to 300,000). Therefore, the population of the city was fluid and almost always temporary. Many military officers and their families would refer to the Kaliningrad Oblast as "the West". The Soviet Union also kept nuclear weapons for use in case a war were to occur.[27]

Poles in Kaliningrad[edit]

In the 1940s and 1950s the Soviets resettled Poles from Belarus, the Baltic states, Ukraine, and Russia to Kaliningrad.[28] According to Wacław Podbereski after the Second World War and the takeover of the administration in these areas by the Soviets, the development of the Polish element in this region effectively ceased.[29] The oldest church in Königsberg was the Polish church of St. Nicholas, which had been founded with the city in 1255 in the historic district of Steindamm and was dismantled in 1950.[29] Change came with the disintegration of the Soviet Union, due mainly to pastoral activities that began the repolonization of the Poles in Russia. The first steps were made by a Polish priest from Grodno (Hrodna), Fr. Jerzy Steckiewicz.[30]

The "Polish Cultural Community in Kaliningrad" operates as the main Polish organization among Kaliningrad's Polonia, one of six such Polish organizations within Kaliningrad Oblast.[30] Wspolnota Polska estimates that there is likely to be between 15,000 to 20,000 Poles living in the entire oblast. The "Polish Cultural Community in Kaliningrad" organizes poetry contests and is the publisher of the local Polish language newspaper "The Voice from the Pregel".[31] In the entire Kaliningrad Oblast there are six Polish organizations.[31] The whole Kaliningrad Oblast has witnessed an increase in Polish cultural activity since the fall of the Soviet Union, partly due to the emigration of Polish families from Kazakhstan, who had been deported by Stalin during the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939.[28]

Sports[edit]

Kaliningrad is home to the football club FC Baltika Kaliningrad, which plays in the Football Championship of the National League (formerly Russian First Division). It played in the Russian Premier League between 1996-1998 (3 seasons).

Kaliningrad will be the host of some games in the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

Notable residents[edit]

International relations[edit]

Small border traffic law[edit]

Poland and Russia have an arrangement whereby residents of Kaliningrad and the Polish cities of Olsztyn, Elbląg and Gdańsk may obtain cards permitting repeated travel between the two countries, crossing the Polish-Russian border. As of July 2013, Poland had issued 100,000 of the cards. The musical group Parovoz sings about Russians visiting Poland to shop at the Biedronka and Lidl supermarkets.[32]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Kaliningrad is twinned with[33]

Partner cities[edit]

Kaliningrad is also partnered with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Resolution #640
  2. ^ a b Law #463
  3. ^ a b c Law #397
  4. ^ a b Official website of Kaliningrad. Passport of Kaliningrad Urban Okrug. (Russian)
  5. ^ a b c "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  8. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/03/world/europe/03iht-web.0703kalin.html?_r=0
  9. ^ a b "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. ^ "THE POTSDAM DECLARATION". Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  11. ^ "Russia (USSR) / Poland Treaty (with annexed maps) concerning the Demarcation of the Existing Soviet-Polish State Frontier in the Sector Adjoining the Baltic Sea 5 March 1957". Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  12. ^ For other issues of the frontier delimitation see "Maritime boundary delimitation agreements and other material". Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  13. ^ "Transit from/to Kaliningrad Region, www.euro.lt". Euro.lt. Retrieved 2013-12-21. 
  14. ^ "Council Regulation (EC) No 693/2003, eur-lex.europa.eu". Retrieved 2013-12-21. 
  15. ^ "Medvedev Says Russia to Deploy Missiles Near Poland" Associated Press via Yahoo News[dead link]
  16. ^ Luke Harding in Moscow (2009-01-28). ""Russia scraps plans to deploy nuclear-capable missiles in Kaliningrad" The". Guardian. Retrieved 2013-12-21. 
  17. ^ 28.11.2011 (2011-11-28). ""Russia's new radar to monitor all Europe including Britain" Pravda 28.11.2011". English.pravda.ru. Retrieved 2013-12-21. 
  18. ^ See e.g. Newspaper Koenigsberger Express, Kaliningrad, 12. Edition, 2002
  19. ^ See Kantgrad website in exile: http://kantgrad.eu.pn/
  20. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  21. ^ Climatological Norms of Kaliningrad [1]. Retrieved on: August 24, 2011.
  22. ^ "Russia's Daily Online". Kommersant. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  23. ^ http://www.classicstoday.com/review.asp?ReviewNum=1983
  24. ^ Sheeter, Laura (2006-10-16). "'Kaliningrad erases stains of past' 16 October 2006". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-12-21. 
  25. ^ "'Regions and territories: Kaliningrad' 18 December 2007". BBC News. 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2013-12-21. 
  26. ^ Knudsen, Olav F. (1999). Stability and Security in the Baltic Sea Region. Portland, OR: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 0-7146-4932-5. 
  27. ^ Krickus, Richard (2002). The Kaliningrad Question. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 42. 
  28. ^ a b Wspólnota Polska (2012-12-17). "Stowarzyszenie Wspólnota Polska". Archiwum.wspolnotapolska.org.pl. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  29. ^ a b Wacław Podbereski, Sąsiedzi: Królewiec – Koenigsberg – Kaliningrad [w:] "Znad Wilii" nr 4(44) 2010, s. 113-117
  30. ^ a b "Placówki Dyplomatyczne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej". Kaliningradkg.polemb.net. Retrieved 2013-12-21. 
  31. ^ a b "Consulate General in Kaliningrad". Kaliningradkg.polemb.net. Retrieved 2013-12-21. 
  32. ^ A.C. (2013-10-08). "Poland and Kaliningrad: Small Border Traffic". Economist blog. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  33. ^ a b c "Kaliningrad – Partner Cities". © 2000-2006 Kaliningrad City Hall. Retrieved 2008-12-08. [dead link]
  34. ^ "Aalborg Twin Towns". Europeprize.net. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  35. ^ "Kaliningrad information". E-gorod.ru. Retrieved 2013-12-21. 
  36. ^ Korolczuk, Dariusz (12 Jan 2010). "Foreign cooperation - Partner Cities". Białystok City Council. City Office in Białystok. Retrieved 2013-03-22. 
  37. ^ "Ireland and Russia build a stragic partnership". Retrieved 2008-12-08. 
  38. ^ "Elbląg - Podstrony / Miasta partnerskie". Elbląski Dziennik Internetowy (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2011-03-15. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  39. ^ "Elbląg - Miasta partnerskie". Elbląg.net (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  40. ^ "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish & English). © 2009 Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. Retrieved 2009-07-11. 
  41. ^ "Groningen - Partner Cities". © 2008 Gemeente Groningen, Kreupelstraat 1,9712 HW Groningen. Retrieved 2008-12-08. 
  42. ^ "Biogas - on the "peaceful" purposes". Press service city hall. Retrieved 2003-12-29. [dead link]
  43. ^ "Miasta partnerskie - Urząd Miasta Łodzi [via WaybackMachine.com]". City of Łódź (in Polish). Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  44. ^ "Vänorter" (in Swedish). Malmö stad. Retrieved 6 November 2013. 
  45. ^ "Miasta bliźniacze Torunia" [Toruń's twin towns]. Urząd Miasta Torunia [City of Toruń Council] (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  46. ^ "Yerevan - Partner Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am. Retrieved 2013-11-04. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]