Boeing KC-97 Stratotanker

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KC-97 Stratotanker
KC-97 in Ohio Air National Guard markings
RoleStrategic tanker
ManufacturerBoeing
Introduction1950
Retired1978
Primary usersUnited States Air Force
Spanish Air Force
Number built816
Developed fromC-97 Stratofreighter
 
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KC-97 Stratotanker
KC-97 in Ohio Air National Guard markings
RoleStrategic tanker
ManufacturerBoeing
Introduction1950
Retired1978
Primary usersUnited States Air Force
Spanish Air Force
Number built816
Developed fromC-97 Stratofreighter

The Boeing KC-97 Stratotanker was a United States strategic tanker aircraft based on the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter. It was succeeded by the Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker.

Contents

Design and development

The KC-97 Stratotanker was an aerial refueling tanker variant of the C-97 Stratofreighter (which was itself based on the B-29 Superfortress), greatly modified with all the necessary tanks, plumbing, and "flying boom". The cavernous upper deck was capable of accommodating oversize cargo accessed through a very large right-side door. In addition, transferrable jet fuel was contained in tanks on the lower deck (G-L models). Both decks were heated and pressurized for high altitude operations.

Operational history

Two USAF A-7 Corsair IIs refueling from a KC-97

The USAF began operating the KC-97 in 1950. It purchased a total of 816 KC-97s from Boeing, as opposed to only 74 of the C-97 cargo version. The KC-97 used piston engines, fueled by aviation gasoline, but it carried jet fuel for its refueling mission. It therefore used independent (transfer valves) systems for both types of fuel, and was able to transfer its avgas 145 to off-load to the receiver in an emergency. (known as a SAVE)

These tankers were vitally important to the world-wide B-47 Stratojet strategic operations. An example was the support of Arctic reconnaissance flights from Thule Air Base.

While it was an effective tanker, the KC-97's slow speed and low operational altitude complicated refueling operations with jet aircraft. B-52s typically lowered their flaps and rear landing gear to slow the aircraft enough to refuel from the KC-97. In addition, a typical B-52 refueling engagement profile would involve a descent that allowed the aircraft pair to maintain a higher airspeed (220-240 knots). In the early 1960s, the Tactical Air Command added J-47 jet pods from retired KB-50 tankers to produce the KC-97L. The jet pods increased performance and made the KC-97 more compatible with jet aircraft.

In 1956, SAC began phasing out the KC-97 in favor of the KC-135. KC-97s continued operating with TAC, the Air Force Reserve, and the Air National Guard. The KC-97 was finally retired completely in 1978, when the Texas and Utah Air National Guards exchanged their KC-97Ls for C-130s and KC-135s, respectively.

Variants

Source: AIRTime[1]
XC-97
prototype, 3 built.
YC-97
cargo transport, 6 built.
YC-97A
troop carrier, 3 built.
YC-97B
fitted with 80 airliner-style seats, one in 1954 redesignated VC-97D, retired to MASDC 15 December 1969.
C-97A
transport, 50 built.
KC-97A
Three C-97As were converted into aerial refueling tankers with rear loading door removed and a flight refueling boom added. After the design was proven, they were converted back into the standard C-97A.
C-97C
medical evacuation transports, 14 C-97As converted during the Korean War (also designated MC-97).
VC-97D
staff transport conversions, 1 YC-97A, 2 C-97As converted, plus the YC-97B. Later designated C-97D.
C-97E
KC-97Es converted to transports.
KC-97E
aerial refueling tankers with rear loading doors permanently closed, 60 built.
C-97F
KC-97Fs converted to transports.
KC-97F
3800hp R-4360-59B engines and minor changes, 159 built.
C-97G
135 KC-97Gs converted to transports.
EC-97G
ELINT conversion of three KC-97Gs. 53-106 was operated by the CIA for covert ELINT operations in the West Berlin Air Corridor.
KC-97G
dual-role aerial refueling tankers/cargo transportation aircraft. KC-97G models carried underwing fuel tanks. 592 built.
GKC-97G
Five KC-97Gs were used as ground instruction airframes.
JKC-97G
One aircraft was modified to test the underwing General Electric J47-GE-23 jet engines, and was later designated KC-97L.
HC-97G
KC-97Gs converted for search and rescue operations, 22 converted.
KC-97H
One KC-97F was experimentally converted into a hose-and-drogue refueling aircraft.
YC-97J
two KC-97G conversion with four 4250 kW Pratt & Whitney YT34-P-5 turboprops, dropped in favour of the Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker.
C-97K
KC-97Gs converted to troop transports.
KC-97L
81 KC-97Gs modified with two J47 turbojet engines on underwing pylons.

Operators

Spanish Boeing KC-97L Stratotanker at Albacete
KC-97L Zeppelinheim
 Spain
 United States

The following USAF wing organizations flew the various KC-97 models at some time during their existence:[2]

Active duty

Air National Guard

Accidents and incidents involving the KC-97

Survivors

A number of KC-97s survive, at least two of which are potentially airworthy: 52-2718 / N117GA Angel of Deliverance operated by the Berlin Airlift Historical Foundation, and N1365N known as Tanker 97 and operated until recently as an aerial firefighting airtanker by Hawkins & Powers.

Static displays include:

In popular culture

The Stratotanker is shown in Strategic Air Command, refuelling a B-47 and in Bombers B-52 refueling B-52s.

Photo gallery

Specifications (KC-97L)

Data from USAF Museum [18] and FAS.[19]

General characteristics

Performance

See also

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References

  1. ^ for KC-97: AIRTime Publishing. (2006). International Air Power Review, Vol 20. ISBN 1-880588-91-9
  2. ^ Rarenstein, Charles. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings: Lineage and Honors Histories 1947-1977. ISBN 0-912799-12-9
  3. ^ http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19570509-1
  4. ^ Strategic-air-command.com: Plattsburgh AFB, NY - SAC - 380th Bomb Wing - B-47, B-52, FB111A Retrieved on 2011-12-1.
  5. ^ http://www.joebaugher.com/usaf_serials/1952.html
  6. ^ JoeBaugher.com: 1952 USAF Serial Numbers, Retrieved on 2011-12-1
  7. ^ Smithsonian Institute, "All That Remains", Air & Space Magazine, Washington, D.C., November 2002. Retrieved on 2011-12-1
  8. ^ AircraftArchaeology.com: KC-97G, #52-2711 crashed 29 Oct 1957, 35 miles north of Flagstaff., Retrieved on 2011-12-1
  9. ^ Associated Press, "Two Chutists Found Safe", Lincoln Evening Journal and Nebraska State Journal, Tuesday 15 December 1959, page 3.
  10. ^ Aviation-Safety.net Accident: 14 Dec 1959 KC-97G Stratotanker, Retrieved on 2011-12-1
  11. ^ http://www.joebaugher.com/usaf_serials/1952.html
  12. ^ http://www.lincolnkings.com/lafb/crashdigest.htm
  13. ^ http://www.307bwassoc.org/memberphotos2.htm
  14. ^ MeWreckchasers.com: REMEMBERING THE CREW OF KC-97G 52-2728, by Peter Noddin, Dirago Flyer, October 2001
  15. ^ Langeveld, M.Dirk, Staff Writer, "The ultimate sacrifice; wreck sites a reminder of military plane disasters", Sun Journal, Lewiston, Maine, 12 September 2010. Retrieved on 2011-12-1
  16. ^ SunJournal.com: Oxford Hills The ultimate sacrifice; wreck sites a reminder of military plane disasters, Retrieved on 2011-12-1
  17. ^ http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19710917-1
  18. ^ "Boeing KC-97L". USAF Museum. http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=374. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 
  19. ^ "KC-97 Stratotanker". Federation of American Scientists WMD Resources. http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/bomber/kc-97.htm. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 

External links