Jos

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Jos
Downtown Jos
Jos is located in Nigeria
Jos
Location in Nigeria
Coordinates: 9°56′N 8°53′E / 9.933°N 8.883°E / 9.933; 8.883Coordinates: 9°56′N 8°53′E / 9.933°N 8.883°E / 9.933; 8.883
CountryNigeria
StatePlateau State
Government
 • ChiefJacob Gyang Buba
Population (2006)
 • Total900,000
 • Density1,010/sq mi (391/km2)
 [1]
 
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Jos
Downtown Jos
Jos is located in Nigeria
Jos
Location in Nigeria
Coordinates: 9°56′N 8°53′E / 9.933°N 8.883°E / 9.933; 8.883Coordinates: 9°56′N 8°53′E / 9.933°N 8.883°E / 9.933; 8.883
CountryNigeria
StatePlateau State
Government
 • ChiefJacob Gyang Buba
Population (2006)
 • Total900,000
 • Density1,010/sq mi (391/km2)
 [1]

Jos 9°56′N 8°53′E / 9.933°N 8.883°E / 9.933; 8.883 is a city in the Middle Belt of Nigeria.The city has a population of about 900,000 residents based on the 2006 census.[1] Popularly called "J-town" or "Jesus Our Saviour" by the residents, it is the administrative capital of Plateau State.

The city is located on the Jos Plateau at an elevation of about 1,238 metres / 4,062 feet high above sea level. During British colonial rule, Jos was an important centre for tin mining. In recent years it has suffered violent religious clashes between its Muslim and Christian populations in 2001, 2008, 2010, and 2011.

Contents

History

The earliest known Nigerians were the Nok people (around 3000 BC), skilled artisans from around the Jos area who mysteriously vanished in the late first millennium.

According to the historian, Sen Luka Gwom Zangabadt,[2] the area known as Jos today was inhabited by indigenous tribes who were mostly farmers and according to Billy J. Dudley,[3] the British colonialist used direct rule for the indigenous tribes on the Jos plateau since they were not under the fulani emirates where indirect rule was used,according to the historian Samuel N Nwabara,[4] the Fulani empire involved most of northern Nigeria except the Plateau province, Tiv, Jukun and Idoma tribes. It is the discovery of tin by the British that led to the influx of other tribes such as the Hausa, Igbo, Urhobo and Yoruba thus making it a cosmopolitan city.

According to the white paper of the commission of inquiry into the 1994 crisis, Ames, the British administrator during the colonial period said that the original name for Jos was Gwosh which was a village situated at the current site of the city, according to Ames, the Hausa wrongly pronounced Gwosh as Jos and it stuck.[5] Another version was that "Jos" was an acronym of the word "Jasad" meaning Body to distinguish it from the hill tops, it was called "Jas" which was mis-pronounced by the British as "Jos". (An alternative etymology is that "Jos" is an acronym for Jesus Our Savior, established by missionaries.)[6][7] It grew rapidly after the British discovered vast tin deposits in the vicinity. Both tin and columbite were extensively mined in the area up until the 1960s. They were transported by railway to both Port Harcourt and Lagos on the coast, then exported from those ports. Jos is still often referred to as "Tin City". In 1967 it was made capital of Benue-Plateau State, becoming the capital of the new Plateau State in 1975.

Jos has become an important national administrative, commercial, and tourist centre. Tin mining has led to the influx of migrants, mostly Igbos, Yorubas and Europeans who constitute more than half of the population of Jos. This "melting pot" of race, ethnicity and religion makes Jos one of the most cosmopolitan cities in Nigeria. For this reason, Plateau State is known in Nigeria as the "home of peace and tourism". Despite this, in 2001, the city witnessed violent riots between the divided Muslim and Christian populations in which several thousand people died. In 2004, the former governor of Plateau State, Joshua Dariye, was suspended for six months for failing to control the violence. In November 2008, clashes between Christians and Muslims killed almost 400 and wounded many. In spite of the communal clashes, visitors are surprised at the amount of activities still going on in the city. There is still an influx of people into the city and the cost of accommodation and land is still going up daily. This shows that the city is still one of the most desirable cities in Nigeria, despite the communal clashes.

In January 2011 there were almost daily clashes between Christian and Muslim mobs in villages around Jos since a series of bombs had been detonated during Christmas Eve celebrations a month earlier, killing scores of people.[8]

Administrative divisions

The city is divided into 3 local government areas of Jos north, Jos south and Jos east.The city proper lies between Jos north and Jos south.Jos east houses the prestigious National Center For Remote Sensing. Jos north is the state capital and the area where most commercial activities of the state takes place although due to the recent communal clashes a lot of commercial activities are shifting to Jos south. The Governor's office is located in an area in Jos North called "Jise" in Berom language,"Gise" in Afizere(Jarawa) language or "Tundun-Wada" in Hausa language. Jos south is the seat of the Deputy Governor i.e. the old Government House in Rayfield and the industrial centre of Plateau State due to the presence of industries like the NASCO group, Standard Biscuits,Grand Cereals and Oil Mills, Zuma steel west Africa, aluminium roofing industries, Jos International Breweries among others. Jos south also houses prestigious institutions like the National Institute of Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS), the highest academic awarding institution in Nigeria, the National Veterinary Research Institute, the Police Staff College, the NTA television college and the Nigerian Film Corporation. Jos north is the location of the University of Jos and its teaching hospital.The city has formed an agglomeration with the town of Bukuru to form the Jos-Bukuru metropolis(JBM).

Geography and climate

Jos
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.4
 
27
13
 
 
2.8
 
29
15
 
 
30
 
30
18
 
 
93
 
30
18
 
 
160
 
28
18
 
 
199
 
27
17
 
 
304
 
24
17
 
 
290
 
24
17
 
 
198
 
26
17
 
 
38
 
28
17
 
 
0.3
 
28
15
 
 
0.5
 
27
13
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Jos, Nigeria: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data [1]

With an altitude of 4,062 feet (1,217 m) above sea level, it enjoys a more temperate climate than much of the rest of Nigeria (average monthly temperatures range from 70° to 77°F or 21° to 25°C),[9] from mid November to late January, night time temperatures drop as low as 11 degrees Celsius resulting in chilly nights.There is presence of hail stones during the rainy season due to the cool high altitude weather.[citation needed] These cooler temperatures have meant that from colonial times until present day, Jos is a favourite holiday location for both tourists and expatriates based in Nigeria.[citation needed] Situated almost at the geographical centre of Nigeria and about 179 km (111 mi) from Abuja, the nation's capital, Jos is linked by road, rail and air to the rest of the country.

The city of Jos receives about 1,400 mm (55.1 in) of rainfall annually,coming from both convectional and orographic sources due to its location on the jos plateau.[10]

Features

Visitors to the city will notice the massive road projects embarked on by the state government. The city boundaries have extended into the town of Bukuru to form the JOS-BUKURU METROPOLIS(JBM). The city is home to the University of Jos (founded in 1975), St Luke's Cathedral, an airport and a railway station. Jos is served by several teaching hospitals including ECWA Evangel Hospital and Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), a federal government-funded referral hospital.[citation needed] The Nigerian College of Accountancy, with over 3,000 students in 2011, is based in the Dogon-Dutse area of Jos.[11]

The National Museum in Jos was founded in 1952 by Bernard Fagg,[12] and was recognized as one of the best in the country. It has unfortunately been left to fall to ruin as is the case with most of the cultural establishments in Nigeria. The Pottery Hall is a museum that has an exceptional collection of finely crafted pottery from all over Nigeria and boasts some fine specimens of Nok terracotta heads and artifacts dating from 500 BC to AD 200. It also incorporates the Museum of Traditional Nigerian Architecture with life-size replicas of a variety of buildings, from the walls of Kano and the Mosque at Zaria to a Tiv village. Articles of interest from colonial times relating to the railway and tin mining can also be found on display. A School for Museum Technicians is attached to the museum, established with the help of UNESCO. The Jos Museum is also located beside the zoo.

Jos has two golf courses, Rayfield and Plateau, plus a polo club, a stadium and other sports/entertainment offerings. Hillcrest School, an international missionary school, is also located in Jos. The school has been running for more than fifty years (since 1942) and contains a large international student population.

Covering roughly 3 square miles (7.8 km2) of savannah bush, the Jos Wildlife Park is a popular local attraction and includes animals such as lions, pythons and pygmy hippopotami.

Other local enterprises include food processing, beer brewing, and the manufacture of cosmetics, soap, rope, jute bags, and furniture. Heavy industry produces cement and asbestos cement, crushed stone, rolled steel, and tire retreads. Jos also is a centre for the construction industry and has several printing and publishing firms. The Jos-Bukuru dam and reservoir on the Shen River provide water for the city's industries.

The Jos Airport situated at Heipang has one of the most modern buildings in the country with a long enough runway for the jet airlines.[citation needed] The airport is served at the moment[when?] by a private airline—Arik Air—which operates one flight daily between Lagos and Jos.

Jos is a great base for exploring the beauty of Plateau State. The Shere Hills, seen to the east of Jos, offer a prime view of the city below. Assop Falls is a small waterfall which makes a pleasant picnic spot on a drive from Jos to Abuja. Riyom Rock is a dramatic and photogenic pile of rocks balanced precariously on top of one another, with one resembling a clown's hat, observable from the main Jos-Akwanga road.[citation needed]

Popular Nigerians associated with Jos.

Jos is not only one of the most popular cities in Nigeria but also served as the spring board for the following Nigerians. Segun Odegbami; popular Nigerian footballer had his childhood years in Jos, Bez (musician); Nigerian alternative soul singer was born and raised in Jos, Mikel Obi; international footballer had his childhood years in Jos, Obinna Nsofor; popular Nigerian footballer started his career in Jos, Kevin Pam; first Nigerian to win Big Brother Africa lives in Jos, P Square; popular musical duo had their childhood years in Jos, MI; popular Nigerian musician had his childhood years in Jos, Ice Prince (Nigerian Rapper); popular Nigerian musical artist well known for his hit single "Oleku" grew up in Jos, Jesse Jagz a musician, grew up in Jos, Panam Percy Paul; popular Christian musician lives in Jos, Bongos Ikwe; popular musician grew up in Jos, Jeremiah Gyang; popular Christian musician grew up in Jos.


Dayo Okeniyi, actor most known for playing Thresh in the Hunger Games movie was born in Jos.

Chiefs of Jos

The area known today as Jos is a city of commerce and a cluster of villages with indigenous peoples. Before it became a traditional settler town by the township, it was convenient for the British to administer colonial rule over unexplored native lands through the Hausa—who had some resemblance of political control through their Islamic religion. The Hausa population in Jos had a Hausa Chief in the native town and all other Tin Mine settlements, which they answered to. The indigenous tribe primarily the Berom felt the need to also organize themselves politically, especially after converting to Christianity. Under the influence of British Missionaries the British Administration felt the need to administer indirect rule through a Native Chief rather than a Hausa Chief because of their religious and ethnic peculiarities. This occurred in the late 1940s, when the title of any Chief of Jos became Gbong Gwom Jos.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b http://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng/nbsapps/Connections/Pop2006.pdf
  2. ^ History of Jos and political development of Nigeria; Sen Luka Gwom Zangabadt
  3. ^ Billy J. Dudley. Parties and politics in Northern Nigeria
  4. ^ Samuel N Nwabara; The Fulani conquest and the rule of the Hausa kingdom of Northern Nigeria(1804-1900)
  5. ^ 1994 Jos crisis judicial enquiry , www.petitiononline.com
  6. ^ Scott Baldauf (2010-01-19). "What's behind Christian-Muslim fighting in Nigeria?". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/2010/0119/What-s-behind-Christian-Muslim-fighting-in-Nigeria. Retrieved 2010-01-20.
  7. ^ http://www.canadianchristianity.com/cgi-bin/na.cgi?mf_fall_05/04peace
  8. ^ Buildings burn, death toll mounts in central Nigeria, http://af.reuters.com/article/nigeriaNews/idAFLDE70T05120110130
  9. ^ http://tutiempo.net tutiempo.net Historical weather reports for Jos
  10. ^ http://iahs.info/redbooks/a281/iahs_281_277.pdf
  11. ^ "History The College". ANAN. http://anan.org.ng/test1/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=28&Itemid=51. Retrieved 2011-06-11.
  12. ^ Man, Vol. 52, Jul., 1952 (Jul., 1952), pp. 107-108 via Jstor

External links