John Wesley Hardin

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John Wesley Hardin, Sr.
John Wesley Hardin.gif
This ferrotype photograph is a mirror image of John Wesley Hardin.
Born(1853-05-26)May 26, 1853
Bonham, Texas, U.S.[1]
DiedAugust 19, 1895(1895-08-19) (aged 42)
El Paso, Texas, U.S.
Other names
  • "Little Arkansas"
  • "J.H. Swain"[2]
OccupationGambling/card sharp, school teacher, cowboy, cattle rustler, lawyer
Known forVery young outlaw and prolific gunfighter
  • Jane Bowen
  • Carolyn Jane "Callie" Lewis

Father: James Gibson "Gip" Hardin

Mother: Mary Elizabeth Dixson
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John Wesley Hardin, Sr.
John Wesley Hardin.gif
This ferrotype photograph is a mirror image of John Wesley Hardin.
Born(1853-05-26)May 26, 1853
Bonham, Texas, U.S.[1]
DiedAugust 19, 1895(1895-08-19) (aged 42)
El Paso, Texas, U.S.
Other names
  • "Little Arkansas"
  • "J.H. Swain"[2]
OccupationGambling/card sharp, school teacher, cowboy, cattle rustler, lawyer
Known forVery young outlaw and prolific gunfighter
  • Jane Bowen
  • Carolyn Jane "Callie" Lewis

Father: James Gibson "Gip" Hardin

Mother: Mary Elizabeth Dixson

John Wesley Hardin (May 26, 1853 – August 19, 1895) was an American outlaw, gunfighter, and controversial folk icon of the Old West. Hardin found himself in trouble with the law at an early age, and spent the majority of his life being pursued by both local lawmen and federal troops of the reconstruction era. He often used the residences of family and friends to hide out from the law. Hardin is known to have had at least one encounter with the well-known lawman, "Wild Bill" Hickok. When he was finally captured and sent to prison in 1878, Hardin claimed to have already killed 42 men,[3] but newspapers of the era had attributed only 27 killings to him up to that point.[4][5] While in prison, Hardin wrote a factually slanted autobiography, and studied law. He was released in 1894. In August 1895, Hardin was shot to death by John Selman, Sr. in the Acme Saloon, in El Paso, Texas.

Early life[edit]

Hardin was born near Bonham, Texas, in 1853 to Methodist preacher and circuit rider, James "Gip" Hardin, and Mary Elizabeth Dixson.[1][6] He is named after John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist denomination of the Christian church.[7] In his autobiography, Hardin described his mother as "blond, highly cultured... [while] charity predominated in her disposition".[8]:5 Hardin's father traveled over much of central Texas on his preaching circuit until, in 1859, he and his family settled in Sumpter, Trinity County, Texas. There, Joseph Hardin taught school, and established a learning institution that John Wesley and his siblings attended.

John Wesley Hardin was the second surviving son of 10 children. His brother, Joseph Gibson Hardin, was three years his senior. Hardin was a direct descendant of Revolutionary War hero, Col. Joseph Hardin, who was a legislator from North Carolina, the "lost" State of Franklin, and the Southwest Territory.[9]

In 1861, according to his autobiography, Hardin's first exposure to violence came when he saw a man named Turner Evans being stabbed by John Ruff. Evans died of his injuries and Ruff spent a few years in jail. Hardin later wrote "...Readers you see what drink and passion will do. If you wish to be successful in life, be temperate and control your passions; if you don't, ruin and death is the result."[8]:10–11

In 1862, Hardin tried to run off and join the Confederate army.[8]:10–11

Trouble at school[edit]

While attending his father's school, Hardin was taunted by another student, Charles Sloter. Sloter accused Hardin of being the author of graffiti on the schoolhouse wall that insulted a girl in his class. Hardin denied writing the poetry, claiming that Sloter was the author.[9] Sloter charged at Hardin with a knife but Hardin stabbed him with a knife of his own, almost killing him.[6][10] Hardin was nearly expelled over the incident.[9]

First killing[edit]

At the age of 15, Hardin challenged his uncle Holshousen's former slave, Maje, to a wrestling match that Hardin won.[3] According to Hardin, the following day, Maje hid by a path and attacked him as he rode past. Hardin drew his revolver and fired five shots into Maje. Hardin wrote in his autobiography that he then rode to get help for the wounded ex-slave (who died three days later) and that his father did not believe he would receive a fair hearing in the Union-occupied state where more than a third of the state police were ex-slaves. His father ordered Hardin into hiding.[3] Hardin claims that the authorities eventually discovered his location, and sent three Union soldiers to arrest him, at which time he "chose to confront his pursuers" despite having been warned of their approach by older brother Joseph:[11][12]

...I waylaid them, as I had no mercy on men whom I knew only wanted to get my body to torture and kill. It was war to the knife for me, and I brought it on by opening the fight with a double-barreled shotgun and ended it with a cap and ball six-shooter. Thus it was by the fall of 1868 I had killed four men and was myself wounded in the arm.[8]:14

A fugitive from justice[edit]

Hardin couldn't return home. As a fugitive from justice, Hardin initially traveled with outlaw Frank Polk in the Pisgah, Navarro County, Texas area. Polk had killed a man named Tom Brady. A detachment of soldiers sent from Corsicana, Texas pursued the duo.[13] Hardin escaped the troops, but Polk was captured.[8]:16[14] Hardin briefly taught school in Pisgah. While there, he claimed he shot a man's eye out to win a bottle of whiskey in a bet.[8]:16 Hardin also claimed that with his cousin "Simp" Dixon they encountered a group of soldiers and each killed a man [8]:17 Allegedly, Hardin killed an African-American in Leon County, Texas[15]

On January 5, 1870, Hardin was playing cards with Benjamin Bradley in Towash, Hill County, Texas. Hardin was winning almost every hand, which angered Bradley, who then threatened to "cut out his liver" if he won again. Bradley drew a knife and a six-shooter. Hardin claimed he was unarmed and excused himself, but claims that later that night, Bradley came looking for him. Bradley allegedly fired a shot at Hardin, which missed. Hardin drew both his pistols and returned fire—one shot striking Bradley's head and the other his chest.[8]:20 Dozens of people saw this fight, and from them there is a good record of how Hardin had used his guns. His holsters were sewn into his vest, so that the butts of his pistols pointed inward across his chest. He crossed his arms to draw. Hardin claimed this was the fastest way to draw, and he practiced every day. A man called "Judge Moore", who held Hardin's stakes of money and a pistol, but refused to give them up without Bradley's consent, "vanished."[8]:20[16] Later Hardin admitted killing two men in Hill County Texas.[17]

On January 20, 1870 in Horn Hill, Limestone County, Texas, Hardin claimed he killed a man in a gunfight after an argument at the circus.[8]:23 Less than a week after this incident, in nearby Kosse, Hardin was accompanying a saloon girl home when they were accosted by her pimp demanding money. Hardin threw money on the ground and shot the would-be thief when he bent over to pick it up.[8]:24[11]

Arrest and escape[edit]

Hardin was arrested in January 1871 for the murder of (Waco, Texas city marshal) Laban John Hoffman[18] which he denied having committed.[8]:30 Following his arrest, Hardin was held temporarily in a log jail in the town of Marshall, awaiting transfer to Waco for trial. While locked up, he bought a revolver from another prisoner. Texas State Policemen, Captain Edward T. Stakes, and a police officer, Jim Smalley, were assigned to escort Hardin to Waco for trial. According to Hardin, they tied him on a horse with no saddle for the trip. While making camp along the way, Hardin escaped when Stakes went to procure fodder for the horses. According to Hardin, he was left alone with Smalley, who began to taunt and beat the then 17 year-old prisoner with the butt of a pistol. Hardin says he feigned crying and huddled against his pony's flank. Hidden by the animal, he pulled out the gun; fatally shot Smalley; and used his horse to escape.[8]:30–32

After this incident, Hardin found refuge among his Clements cousins, who were then living in Gonzales (in south Texas). They suggested he could make money by driving cattle to Kansas. Thinking he could get out of Texas long enough for his pursuers to lose interest, Hardin worked with his cousins, rustling cattle for Jake Johnson and Columbus Carol.[19][20] Hardin writes that he was made trail boss for the herd.

Hardin claims that in February 1871, while the herd was being formed up for the drive to Kansas, a freedman, Bob King, attempted to cut a beef cow out of the herd. When he refused to obey Hardin's demand to stop, Hardin hit him over the head with his pistol. That same month, Hardin possibly wounded three Mexicans in an argument over a Three-card Monte card game.[8]:33–34

While driving cattle on the Chisholm Trail to Abilene, Kansas, in the summer of 1871, Hardin was reputed to have fought Mexican vaqueros and cattle rustlers.[11] Toward the end of the drive, a Mexican herd crowded in behind Hardin's and there was some trouble keeping the two herds apart. Hardin exchanged words with the man in charge of the other herd. Both men were on horseback. The Mexican fired his gun at Hardin, putting a hole through Hardin's hat. Hardin found that his own weapon, a worn-out cap-and-ball pistol with a loose cylinder, would not fire; he dismounted and managed to discharge the gun by steadying the cylinder with one hand while pulling the trigger with the other. He hit the Mexican in the thigh. A truce was declared and both parties went their separate ways. However, Hardin borrowed a pistol from a friend and went looking for the Mexican, this time fatally shooting him through the head. A fire fight between the rival camps ensued. Hardin claimed six vaqueros died in the exchanges (five of them reportedly shot by him),[7][8]:39–42[21] but this claim appears exaggerated[22][23] Hardin also claimed to have killed two Indians in separate gunfights on the same cattle drive.[8]:33, 36–37

After arrival in Abilene Hardin claimed that he and a companion named Pain got into argument in a restaurant with an anti-Texan in which the result was that Pain was wounded in one arm and Hardin shot the stranger in the mouth with the bullet exiting under the man's left ear. Hardin fled Abilene to the Cottonwood Trail.[8]:46[24]

On July 4, 1871, a Texas trail Boss named William Cohron was killed on the Cottonwood Trail (40 miles south of Abilene) by an unnamed Mexican, who "fled south"[25] and was subsequently killed by two cowboys in a Sumner County, Kansas restaurant on July 20, 1871.[26][27] Hardin admitted to being involved in the shooting of the Mexican.[8]:46–49[28]

A Texas Historical Marker notes that in the 1870s, Hardin hid out in the Pilgrim area specifically.[29]

Encounters with "Wild Bill" Hickok[edit]

Austin City Marshal Ben Thompson, 1881–1882


The Bull's Head Tavern, in Abilene, had been established by partners, ex-lawman, Ben Thompson and gambler, Phil Coe. The two entrepreneurs had painted a picture of a bull with a large erect penis on the side of their establishment as an advertisement. Citizens complained to town marshal, "Wild Bill" Hickok. When Thompson and Coe refused his request to remove the bull, Hickok altered it himself. Infuriated, Thompson tried to incite his new acquaintance, Hardin, by exclaiming to him: "He's a damn Yankee. Picks on Rebels, especially Texans, to kill." Hardin, then under the assumed name, "Wesley Clemmons" (but better known to the townspeople by the alias, "Little Arkansaw"), seemed to have had respect for Hickok, and replied, "If Bill needs killing why don't you kill him yourself?"[8]:44 Later that night, Hardin was confronted by Hickok, who told him to hand over his guns, which he did. Hickok had no knowledge of Hardin being a wanted man, and he advised Hardin to avoid problems while in Abilene.

J.B. "Wild Bill" Hickok

Hardin again met up with Marshal Hickok, while on a cattle drive in August 1871. This time, Hickok allowed Hardin to carry his pistols in Abilene—something he had never allowed others to do. For his part, Hardin (still using his alias), was fascinated by Wild Bill and reveled at being seen on intimate terms with such a celebrated gunfighter.[8]:50–51

The shooting of a "snoring" man[edit]

Hardin and several of his fellow cow herders had put up for the night at the "American House Hotel". Sometime during the evening, Hardin, and at least one other cow hand, began firing bullets through the bedroom wall and ceiling, in an attempt to stop the snoring which was coming from the next room. A sleeping stranger, Charles Cougar, was killed. (In his autobiography, Hardin claimed he was shooting at a man who was in his room to rob or kill him, and that he did not realize they had accidentally killed a man in the other room until much later.) Hardin realized he would be in trouble with Hickok for firing his gun within the city limits. Half-dressed, he and his men exited through a second story window and ran onto the roof of the hotel—just in time to see Hickok arriving with four policemen. "Now, I believed," Hardin wrote later, "that if Wild Bill found me in a defenseless condition he would take no explanation, but would kill me to add to his reputation."[8]:45–58 A contemporary newspaper report of the shooting noted: "A man was killed in his bed at a hotel in Abilene, Monday night, by a desperado called "Arkansas". The murderer escaped. This was his sixth murder."[30] Hardin leaped from the roof into the street and hid in a haystack for the rest of the night. He stole a horse and made his way back to the cow camp outside town. The next day, he left for Texas, never to return to Abilene. Years later, Hardin made a casual reference to the episode: "They tell lots of lies about me," he complained, "They say I killed six or seven men for snoring. Well, it ain't true. I only killed one man for snoring."[7] In his autobiography, Hardin claimed that following this shooting, he ambushed lawmen Tom Carson and two other deputies at a cowboy camp 35 miles outside of Abilene. He did not kill them, but he did force them to remove all their clothing and walk back to Abilene.[8]:60

In October 1871, Hardin was involved in a gunfight with two Texas State Policemen, Green Paramore and John Lackey, in which Paramore was killed and Lackey wounded. After this, Hardin claimed that about 45 miles outside Corpus Christi, Texas he was followed by two Mexicans, and that he shot one off his horse while the other "quit the fight".[8]:63–65

During the Sutton-Taylor feud[edit]

In early 1872, Hardin was in south central Texas, in the area around Gonzales County. There, he reunited with some of his Clements cousins, who had become allied with the local Taylor family, which had been feuding with the rival Sutton family for several years.

In June 1872, at Willis, Texas, Hardin claimed that some men tried to arrest him for carrying a pistol "...but they got the contents instead."[8]:63–65

On August 7, 1872, Hardin was wounded by a shotgun blast in a gambling dispute in Trinity, Texas at the Gates Saloon. He was shot by Phil Sublett, after he had lost money to Hardin in a poker game. Two buckshot pellets injured Hardin's kidney, and for a time it looked like he would die.

While recuperating from his wounds, Hardin decided he wanted to settle down. He made a sick-bed surrender to law authorities, handing over his guns to Sheriff Reagan of Cherokee County, Texas, and asking to be tried for his past crimes "to clear the slate." However, when Hardin learned of how many murders Reagan was going to charge him with, he changed his mind. A relative smuggled in a hacksaw, and Hardin escaped after cutting through the bars of a prison window.[31]

On May 15, 1873, Jim Cox and Jake Christman were killed by the Taylor faction at Tomlinson Creek. Hardin, having by then recovered from the injuries from Sublett's attack, admitted that there were reports that he had led the fights in which these men were killed, but would neither confirm nor deny his involvement: "...but as I have never pleaded to that case, I will at this time have little to say."[8]:81

In Cuero, Texas in May 1873, Hardin killed Dewitt County Deputy Sheriff, J.B. Morgan, who served under County Sheriff Jack Helms (a former captain in the Texas State Police). Both were Sutton family allies.[8]:79[32]:30

Hardin's main notoriety in the Sutton-Taylor feud was his part in the killing (on the afternoon of May 17, 1873, in Albuquerque, Gonzales County Texas) of Sheriff Helms.[33][34][35]

The simmering feud heated up with Jim and Bill Taylor gunning down Billy Sutton and Gabriel Slaughter[36] as they waited on a steamboat platform in Indianola, Texas, on March 11, 1874. Tired of the feuding, the two were planning to leave the area for good. Hardin admitted in his biography that he and his brother, Joseph, had been involved (along with both Taylors) in the killings.[8]:86–87

Hardin (who had re-settled his family—living under the assumed name of "Swain"—in Florida) later admitted that he had knocked one black man down and shot another during a disturbance outside the Alachua County jail on May 1, 1874, while he was in Gainesville, Florida. A black prisoner named "Eli" - who was held on a charge of attempted assault of a white woman - was lynched when the jail was burned down by a mob. Hardin claimed to have been part of the mob, as was the county coroner, who afterward rendered a verdict that "Eli" had died after setting fire to the jail himself.[8]:110

Hardin returned to Texas, meeting up on May 26, 1874 in a Comanche saloon with his "gang" to celebrate his upcoming 21st birthday. Hardin spotted Brown County Deputy Sheriff Charles Webb entering the premises. He asked Webb if he had come to arrest him. When Webb replied he had not, Hardin invited him into the hotel for a drink. As he followed Hardin inside, Hardin claimed Webb drew his gun, and one of Hardin's men yelled out a warning.[8]:92 However, it was reported at the time that Webb was shot as he was pulling out an arrest warrant for one of Hardin's group.[37] In the ensuing gunfight, Webb was shot dead. Two of Hardin's accomplices in the shooting were cousin Bud Dixon, and Jim Taylor.[8]:92

The death of the popular Webb resulted in the quick formation of a lynch mob. Hardin's parents and wife were taken into protective custody; while his brother Joe and two cousins, brothers Bud and Tom Dixon, were arrested on outstanding warrants. A group of local men broke into the jail in July 1874 and hanged Joe, Bud and Tom.[8]:101[38][39] After this, Hardin and Jim Taylor parted ways for good. After this, Hardin claimed that he twice drove away men who had come after him after killing a man in each encounter.[8]:105–107


John Barclay Armstrong

On January 20, 1875 the Texas Legislature authorized Governor Richard B. Hubbard to offer a $4,000 reward for the apprehension of John Wesley Hardin.[40]

The Texas Rangers finally caught up with Hardin when an undercover ranger, Jack Duncan, intercepted a letter that was sent to Hardin's father-in-law by his brother-in-law, the outlaw Joshua Robert "Brown" Bowen. The letter mentioned Hardin's whereabouts as being on the Alabama/Florida border under the assumed name of "James W. Swain". On August 24, 1877,[4] Hardin was arrested on a train in Pensacola, Florida, by the rangers and local authorities. The lawmen boarded the train to arrest Hardin. When Hardin realized what was going on, he attempted to draw a gun, but got it caught in his suspenders.[41] Hardin was knocked out, and two others arrested. During the event, Texas Ranger John B. Armstrong shot and killed one of Hardin's companions, named Mann.[42] who had a pistol in his hand[43]

Just prior to his capture, two black men (and former slaves of his father's), "Jake" Menzel and Robert Borup, had tried to capture Hardin in Gainesville, Florida. Hardin killed one and blinded the other.[44]

Trial and imprisonment[edit]

Hardin was tried for the killing of Webb, and was sentenced to Huntsville Prison for 25 years on June 5, 1878. During his prison term, he was convicted of another manslaughter charge and sentenced to a two-year sentence to be served concurrently with his unexpired 25-year sentence on February 14, 1892.[45][46] In 1892, Hardin was described as being 5 feet, 9 inches tall, 160 pounds, fair complexion, hazel eyes, dark hair and wound scars on his right knee, left thigh, right side, hip, elbow, shoulder and back. Hardin made several attempts to escape. In 1878 Hardin tried to escape from the Huntsville prison.[47] In 1879 Hardin and other convicts were stopped from taking guns from the prison armory.[48]

He eventually adapted to prison life. While there, Hardin read theological books, eventually becoming the superintendent of the prison Sunday School. He also studied law. Hardin was plagued by recurring poor health in prison, especially when the wound he had received from Sublett became re-infected in 1883, causing Hardin to be bedridden for almost two years. During Hardin's stay in prison, Jane died (on November 6, 1892).[49]

After prison life[edit]

Hardin was released from prison on February 17, 1894, after serving seventeen years of his twenty-five year sentence.[44] He was forty years old as he returned to Gonzales, Texas. Later that year, on March 16, Hardin was pardoned; and, on July 21, he passed the Texas state's bar examination, obtaining his license to practice law.[9] According to a newspaper article in 1900, shortly after being released from prison, Hardin committed negligent homicide when he made a $5 bet that he could "at the first shot" knock a Mexican man off the soap box on which he was "sunning" himself, winning the bet and leaving the man dead from the fall and not the gunshot.[44]

On January 9, 1895, Hardin married a 15-year-old girl named Callie Lewis.The marriage ended quickly, although it was never legally dissolved.[9]:214–217 Afterward, Hardin moved to El Paso, Texas.


Hardin's post mortem photo

An El Paso lawman, John Selman Jr., arrested Hardin's acquaintance and part-time prostitute, the "widow" M'Rose (or Mroz), for "brandishing a gun in public". Hardin confronted Selman, and the two men argued. Selman's 56-year-old father, Constable John Selman, Sr., (himself a well-known gunman) approached Hardin on the afternoon of August 19, 1895, and the two men exchanged heated words.[44] That night, Hardin went to the Acme Saloon, where he began playing dice. Shortly before midnight, Selman Sr. walked into the saloon. Without a word he walked up behind Hardin and shot him in the head, killing him instantly and before he could return fire. As Hardin lay on the floor, Selman fired three more shots into him.[50] Selman Sr. was arrested for murder and stood trial. He claimed he had fired in self-defense, and a hung jury resulted in his being released on bond, pending retrial. However, before the retrial could be organized, Selman was killed in a shootout with US Marshal George Scarborough on April 6, 1896, following a dispute during a card game.[51]


Hardin is buried in Concordia Cemetery, located in El Paso, Texas.[52]

Cemetery controversy[edit]

The grave of John Wesley Hardin

On August 27, 1995, there was a graveside confrontation between two groups. One group, representing the great-grandchildren of Hardin, sought to relocate the body to Nixon, Texas, to be interred next to the grave of Hardin's first wife. A group of El Pasoans sought to prevent the move. At the cemetery, the group representing the descendants of John Wesley Hardin presented a disinterment permit for the body of Hardin, while the El Pasoans presented a court order prohibiting the removal of the body. Both sides accused the other parties of seeking the tourist revenue generated by the location of the body. A subsequent lawsuit ruled in favor of keeping the body in El Paso.[53]

Known contacts with the law[edit]

Hardin had several confirmed clashes with the law:

Unconfirmed claims[edit]

In his autobiography, Hardin made several claims of having been involved in events which either cannot be confirmed or which have proven to be unreliable or fabricated:


Hardin's autobiography was published posthumously in 1925 by the Bandera publisher, historian, and journalist, J. Marvin Hunter, founder of Frontier Times magazine and the Frontier Times Museum.[78]

Guns and effects[edit]

Court records show John Wesley Hardin was carrying a Colt "Lightning" revolver.[79] He also had an Elgin watch,[80] when he was shot and killed on August 19, 1895. The revolver and the watch had been presented to Hardin in appreciation for his legal efforts on behalf of Jim Miller at his trial for the killing of ex-sheriff, George "Bud" Frazer. The Colt, (with a .38 caliber, 2½" barrel) is nickel-plated, with blued hammer, trigger and screws. The back-strap is hand-engraved: "J.B.M. TO J.W.H." and it has mother-of-pearl grips. This gun and its holster were once sold at auction for $168,000. Another Colt revolver (known as a .41 caliber "Thunderer"), which was owned by Hardin and used by him to rob the Gem Saloon, was sold at the same auction for $100,000.[67][81]

In 2002, an auction house in San Francisco, California auctioned three lots of John Wesley Hardin's personal effects. The lot containing a deck of his playing cards, one of his business cards, and a contemporary newspaper account of his death sold for $15,250. The bullet that killed Hardin sold for $80,000.[82]


  1. ^ a b 1860 U S Census of Free Inhabitants; Subdivision No. 25-Sumpter, Trinity County, Texas; 12 June 1860; P.O. at Sumpter; Pg: 1; Dwelling 6, Family 6.
  2. ^ "Wesley Clemens". Abilene Chronicle, August 10, 1871 article. Abilene Public Library. Retrieved January 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c Marohn, Richard C. (Jun 1995). "The Last Gunfighter: John Wesley Hardin (third printing)". Creative Publishing Company; College Station, TX. ISBN 978-0-932702-99-9. 
  4. ^ a b "Hardin credited with 27 killings";August 30, 1877 article; The Wichita City Eagle; p.2, col 6 (in which his arrest was reported); Transcription: Whiting, Ala., August 21. To-day as a train was leaving Pensacola, the sheriff, with a posse, boarded the cars to assist Texan officers to arrest the notorious John Wesley Hardin, who is said to have committed twenty-seven murders, and for whose body $1,000 reward has been offered by an act of the Legislature of Texas. His last murder in Texas was the killing of the sheriff of Comanche county. He has lived in Florida for several years under the name of John Swain. About twenty shots were fired in making the arrest, and Hardin's companion, named Mann, who had a pistol in his hand, was killed.
  5. ^ a b c Article; August 30, 1877 article; Dallas Daily Statesman; at Find a Grave; accessed .
  6. ^ a b Metz, Leon Claire (2003). The Encyclopedia of Lawmen, Outlaws, and Gunfighters. Checkmark Books. pp. 108–110. ISBN 0-8160-4543-7. 
  7. ^ a b c Trachtman, Paul (1974). Old West: The Gunfighters. New York: Time Life. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-8094-1481-9. ; During the description of one book in the series, The Gunfighters, the well-known claim is made: "John Wesley Hardin, so mean, he once shot a man just for snoring too loud."
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as Hardin, John Wesley (1896). The Life of John Wesley Hardin: As Written By Himself. Seguin, Texas: Smith & Moore. ISBN 978-0-8061-1051-6. Retrieved 2011-03-30. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Metz, Leon Claire (Sep 1996). John Wesley Hardin: Dark Angel of Texas. (First Edition), Mangan Books, El Paso, Texas. ISBN 0-930208-35-8. Retrieved 2013-04-25. 
  10. ^ O'Neal, Bill (1979). Encyclopedia of Western Gunfighters. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 126–131. ISBN 0-8061-1508-4. 
  11. ^ a b c James, Garry (1975). "Guns of the Gunfighters". Peterson Textbook Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8227-0095-1. 
  12. ^ Pryor, Alton (2001). "Outlaws and Gunslingers". Stagecoach Publishing. ISBN 0-9660053-6-8. 
  13. ^ Texas Historical Marker; Flickr submission; accessed ???.
  14. ^ City Marshal Charles Powers; Officer Down Memorial Page website
  15. ^ SUBSCRIPTION REQUIRED: "Dallas Morning News;" August 31, 1895; Pg. ; Col. .
  16. ^ SUBSCRIPTION REQUIRED: "Dallas Morning News;" Match 6, 1892 and August 31, 1895
  17. ^ Article; August 30, 1877 article; Dallas Democratic Statesman; at Find a Grave; accessed .
  18. '^ Laban John Hoffman; Officer Down Memorial Page website
  19. ^ Article; August 30, 1877 article; Dallas Democratic Statesman; at Find a Grave; accessed . The Statesman reported that Hardin rustled cattle to sell in Kansas, and that a brother in "Commanche" [sic] helped by preparing false bills of sale.
  20. ^ The Texas Civil Appeals Reports: Cases Argued and Determined...; Volume 29; 1903; p. 352; accessed ???. Note: Joseph Hardin was indeed found to have had State Seals in his possession after his lynching.
  21. ^ In Hardin's autobiographical version of the gunfight, he claims the first fatality was the Mexican he had previously wounded, "Hosea", and that he was the boss vaquero. He wrote that he and Jim Clements prevented the rest of the other vaqueros – aside from those who were already killed – from firing on them by deliberately stampeding the Mexican herd.
  22. ^ See "The Wichita Tribune June 1, 1871 which reports 3 cattle herders killed at Park City, Shedgwick Co Kansas
  23. ^ Article; from the Saline County Journal; June 8, 1871; p. 3, Col. 2; at Chronicling America; accessed ???. Report Which confirms that the week before, three Mexican herders were killed at Park City, Shedgwick County, Kansas.
  24. ^ a b Note: Although there are no contemporary newspaper reports of this shooting, this killing is mentioned in a 1924 account by Texas cattleman, George N. Steen, who reported: While we were there one night, a man was drinking at a bar in a saloon, and somebody fired in from outside, the bullet striking him in the mouth and instantly killing him...; from The Trail Drivers of Texas, Part One; pub. 1924; Hunter, J. Marvin; p.140.
  25. ^ "Article; July 20, 1871 article; Abilene–White Cloud–Kansas Chief newspaper; p.3; col. 4; at Chronicling America; accessed .
  26. ^ "Article; July 27, 1871 article; Abilene–White–Cloud, Kansas Chief; p.2; col. 4; at Chronicling America; accessed .
  27. ^ "Article image; August 17, 1871 article; Abilene Daily Chronicle; accessed .
  28. ^ In Hardin's version of this killing, he calls the murdered cattleman, "Billy Coran", and the Mexican, "Bideno".
  29. ^ Marker; Texas Handbook online; accessed .
  30. ^ Article; August 10, 1871 article; Saline County Journal; p. 3; col. 1; at Chronicling America; accessed .
  31. ^ Wesley Hardin & The Shootist Archetype; Legends of America; accessed .
  32. ^ The Texas Vendetta, or, the Sutton-Taylor Feud. J.J. Little & Co. 1880. Retrieved 2011-03-30. 
  33. ^ Article; Handbook of Texas on-line; accessed ???.
  34. ^ article; Texas State Historical Association on-line; accessed .
  35. ^ Image 1; July 31, 1873 article; Weekly Democratic Statesman; pg. ; Chronicling America; Note: misspells Hardin's name as "Harden".
  36. ^ Image 2; March 21, 1874 article; The Dallas Weekly Herald files at Library of Congress; Chronicling America; accessed ???.
  37. ^ tribune Article image; October 14, 1900; P. 9; image 39; New York Tribune at the Library of Congress; from Chronicling America; accessed ???.
  38. ^ Joseph Hardin; June 9, 1874 article; The Waco Daily Examiner; p.3 col.1; at Chronicling America; accessed .
  39. ^ Note:It is claimed that the hanging ropes were deliberately left too long (in order to cause death through slow strangulation), as grass was found between their toes.
  40. ^ Laws passed by the Legislature of Texas 1875; p. 189; accessed ???.
  41. ^ [In Hardin's version he was captured while smoking his pipe and Ranger Duncan found Hardin's .44 Colt cap and ball pistol under his shirt after Hardin's arrest {Hardin .p.119}]
  42. ^ Wise, Ken (March 2012). "The Trial of John Wesley Hardin". In Hunter, Michelle. Texas Bar Journal (Austin, TX: State Bar of Texas) 75 (9): 202. 
  43. ^ Hardin; September 1, 1877 article; The Iola Register filed at the Library of Congress; accessed ???.
  44. ^ a b c d Article; October 14, 1900 article; New York Tribune; p. 39; at Chronicling America; accessed .
  45. ^ Texas Convict Ledgers and Conduct Registries, 1849-1970;
  46. ^ Hardin Biography; Note: His conviction (of manslaughter) was for the shooting of J.B. Morgan in Cuero Texas.
  47. ^ Brenhan Weekly Banner; December 27, 1878; Library of Congress (at Chronicling American onlin)e; p.2; accessed December 2013.
  48. ^ San Marcos Free Press; January 18, 1879; Library of Congress (at Chronicling America online); p.4; accessed December 2013.
  49. ^ Article; November 21, 1892 article; The Daily Herald News; p. 2 col. 2; at Chronicling America; accessed .
  50. ^ Article; August 30, 1895 article; Graham Guardian; p.1; accessed .
  51. ^ Scarborough; April 6, 1896 article; Salt Lake Herald; p.2; Chronicling America; accessed .
  52. ^ John W Hardin; 1853–1895; gravestone; Concordia Heritage Association online; accessed .
  53. ^ Billings v. Concordia Heritage Association, Inc.; Find Law; accessed .
  54. ^ Texas State Police arrest reports for 1870—1871;he is listed as "Hardin, J.R."
  55. ^ Jim Smalley:Officer Down memorial Page online
  56. ^ Dallas Herald March 11, 1871 {Library of Congress}
  57. ^ a b "Daily Democrat Statesman"; August 30, 1877 article; Find-a-Grave online
  58. ^ "Abilene Daily Chronicle" August 10, 1871
  59. ^ Green Paramore; Officer Down Memorial Page online
  60. ^ Article; Handbook of Texas on-line; accessed .
  61. ^ Brenham Weekly Banner; June 13, 1879; p.1 col. 3; Chronicling America online
  62. ^ [See Dallas Mourning News March 6, 1892 and August 31, 1895 {subscription}]
  63. ^ Hardin vs The State Cases Argued and Adjudged in the Court of Appeals of the State of Texas..., Volume 4
  64. ^ "A Brace of Swindlers", article at Mobile Daily Register; November 12, 1876 article; p. 1 Col. 2; (subscription required)
  65. ^ a b See A.J.Wright "A Gunfighters Southern Vacation" Quatertly of the National Assocation and Center for Outlaw History" Vol VII #3 Autumnn 1982 pp.13-14 for difference between Hardin's version and contemporary accounts.
  66. ^ The Daily Herald; July 9, 1895; p.4; at Chronicling America online
  67. ^ a b Herring, Hal (2008). Famous Firearms of the Old West: From Wild Bill Hickok's Colt Revolvers to Geronimo's Winchester, Twelve Guns That Shaped Our History. TwoDot. p. 224. ISBN 0-7627-4508-8. 
  68. ^ "Executive Documents Printed by order of the House of Representatives, 1868–1869"; Summary of Reports for the Fifth Military District, August 1867–September 1868; reporting four soldiers killed and four wounded from the U.S. 6th Cavalry Regiment
  69. ^ Hardin Claimed that Dixon mother, sisters and brother and been tortured and killed by Union soldiers in the Civil War. In fact Dixon mother had been divorced in 1851 and a brother was killed-but in 1868 during the Lee-Peacock feud]
  70. ^ "Executive Documents Printed by order of the House of Representatives, 1868–1869"; Summary of Reports for the Fifth Military District, August 1867–September 1868, March 1868 supplement; a report against Lee's band.
  71. ^ New York Clipper; February 12, 1870; p.359]
  72. ^ See remarks on "Border Roll incident
  73. ^ See sumamry on Page 4
  74. ^ "Daily Democratic Statesman" August 30, 1877
  75. ^ .p.22
  76. ^ Mobile Daily Register ; November 12, 1876 article; at Legends Online online
  77. ^ Longley letter
  78. ^ "Wayne Gard, "John Marvin Hunter"". Handbook of Texas On-line ( Retrieved July 8, 2009. 
  79. ^ Note: The colt's serial number was 84304: the Lightning was recorded in Colt factory ledgers as shipped on July 16, 1891, to Hartley & Graham, New York City. The Colt was accompanied by a tooled leather holster, marked with a barely visible stamp of an El Paso maker.
  80. ^ serial number 4069110,
  81. ^ Spangenberge, Phil; "Hardin’s Hardware: The Texas 'shootist' loved his Colts and Smith & Wessons"; True West Magazine; Vol. ; Number ; Retrieved 07/01/2006
  82. ^ Nolte, Carl.(2002). Fastest draw at the auction house: Collectors snap up antique firearms, Old West memorabilia; San Francisco Chronicle; June 4, 2002


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