John Tavener

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Sir John Tavener in 2005

Sir John Kenneth Tavener (28 January 1944 – 12 November 2013) was a British composer, known for his extensive output of religious works, including The Whale, The Protecting Veil, Song for Athene and "The Lamb", a choral composition that was included in the soundtrack for Paolo Sorrentino's film The Great Beauty.[1] He began as a prodigy;[2] in 1968, at the age of 24, he was described by The Guardian as "the musical discovery of the year",[3] while The Times said he was "among the very best creative talents of his generation."[4] During his career he became one of the best known and popular composers of his generation, most particularly for The Protecting Veil, which as recorded by cellist Steven Isserlis became a bestselling album, and Song for Athene which was sung at the funeral of Princess Diana.[5] Tavener was knighted in 2000 for his services to music and won an Ivor Novello Award.[6]

Early life and education[edit]

Tavener was born on 28 January 1944 in Wembley, London.[7] His parents ran a family building firm[5] and his father was also an organist at St Andrew's Presbyterian Church in Frognal, Hampstead.[8] At the age of 12, Tavener was taken to Glyndebourne to hear Mozart's Die Zauberflöte, a work he loved for the rest of his life.[9] The same year he heard Stravinsky’s most recent work, Canticum Sacrum, which he later described as "the piece that woke me up and made me want to be a composer".[9]

Tavener became a music scholar at Highgate School (where a fellow pupil was John Rutter).[10] The school choir was often employed by the BBC in works requiring boys' voices and so Tavener gained choral experience singing in Mahler's Third Symphony and Orff's Carmina Burana.[9] He started to compose at Highgate and also played the piano, performing Beethoven's Fourth Piano Concerto and, in 1961 with the National Youth Orchestra, Shostakovich's Piano Concerto No. 2.[9] He also became organist and choirmaster in 1961 at St John's Presbyterian Church, Kensington, a post he held for 14 years.[9]

Tavener entered the Royal Academy of Music in 1962, where his tutors included Sir Lennox Berkeley.[5][9] During his studies there he decided to give up the piano and devote himself to composition.[9]

The Whale and early career[edit]

Tavener first came to prominence in 1968 with his dramatic cantata The Whale, based on the Old Testament story of Jonah.[5] It was premièred at the London Sinfonietta's début concert,[5] which was also the opening concert of the Queen Elizabeth Hall.[11] Tavener's younger brother, Roger, was then doing some building work on Ringo Starr's home and, gaining the musician's interest, persuaded the Beatles to have The Whale recorded by Apple Records and released in 1970.[5] The following year Tavener began teaching at Trinity College of Music, London.[8] Other works by Tavener released by Apple included his Celtic Requiem, which impressed Benjamin Britten enough to persuade Covent Garden to commission an opera from Tavener:[5] the ultimate result, to a libretto by playwright Gerard McLarnon, was Thérèse. When staged in 1979 the opera was thought too static to be a successful drama.[5]

Tavener had also been deeply affected by his brief 1974 marriage to the Greek dancer Victoria Maragopoulou.[5][9] His chamber opera A Gentle Spirit (1977), with a libretto by McLarnon based on a story by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, concerns a pawnbroker whose marriage fails to the extent that his wife commits suicide. It has been deemed "far superior to Thérèse, with the internal drama more suited to the stage".[5] Significantly, it also touched on Russian Orthodoxy, to which McLarnon had been a convert for several years.[5]

Conversion to Orthodoxy[edit]

Tavener converted to the Russian Orthodox Church in 1977.[8] Orthodox theology and liturgical traditions became a major influence on his work. He was particularly drawn to its mysticism, studying and setting to music the writings of Church Fathers and completing a setting of the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, the principal eucharistic liturgy of the Orthodox Church: this was Tavener's first directly Orthodox-inspired music.[12]

Later career[edit]

Tavener's subsequent explorations of Russian and Greek culture resulted in Akhmatova Requiem: this failed to enjoy success either at its Edinburgh Festival premiere in 1981, or at its Proms' performance the following week where many of the audience left before it finished.[9] Of more lasting success was Tavener's short unaccompanied four-part choral setting of William Blake's poem The Lamb, written one afternoon in 1982 for his nephew Simon's third birthday.[13] This simple homophonic piece is usually performed as a Christmas carol. Later prominent works include The Akathist of Thanksgiving of 1987, written in celebration of the millennium of the Russian Orthodox Church; The Protecting Veil, first performed by cellist Steven Isserlis and the London Symphony Orchestra at the 1989 Proms; and Song for Athene (1993). The two choral works were settings of texts by Mother Thekla, a Russian Orthodox abbess who was Tavener's long-time spiritual adviser until her death in 2011.[12] Song for Athene in particular gained world-wide exposure when performed at the funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997.[5]

Tavener's Fall and Resurrection, first performed in 2000, used instruments such as ram's horn, ney flute and kaval. It was dedicated to the Prince of Wales, with whom Tavener formed a lasting friendship.[5] In 2003 Tavener composed the exceptionally large work The Veil of the Temple (which was premièred at the Temple Church, London), based on texts from a number of religions. Identified by Tavener as "the supreme achievement of my life",[12] it is set for four choirs, several orchestras and soloists and lasts at least seven hours.[10] Prayer of the Heart, written for and performed by Björk, was premiered in 2004.[14] In 2007 Tavener composed The Beautiful Names, a setting of the 99 names of God in the Muslim tradition, sung in Arabic.[12]

It had been reported, particularly in the British press, that Tavener left Orthodox Christianity to explore a number of other different religious traditions, including Hinduism and Islam, and became a follower of the Traditionalist philosopher Frithjof Schuon.[15][16] In an interview with The New York Times, conducted by British music journalist Michael White, Tavener said: "I reached a point where everything I wrote was terribly austere and hidebound by the tonal system of the Orthodox Church, and I felt the need, in my music at least, to become more universalist: to take in other colors, other languages." The interviewer also reported at the time that he "hasn’t abandoned Orthodoxy. He remains devotedly Christian."[17] Speaking on the BBC Four television programme Sacred Music in 2010, Tavener described himself as "essentially Orthodox".[18] He reiterated both his desire to explore the musical traditions of other religions, and his adherence to the Orthodox Christian faith, on Start the Week,[19] recorded only days before his death and broadcast on 11 November 2013.

Personal life[edit]

In 1974 he married the Greek dancer Victoria Maragopoulou, but it only lasted eight months.[5][9] In 1991 he married Maryanna Schaefer with whom he had three children, Theodora, Sofia and Orlando.[5] He suffered from considerable health problems throughout his life. He had a stroke in his thirties, heart surgery and the removal of a tumour in his forties,[20] and suffered two successive heart attacks which left him very frail.[21] He was diagnosed with Marfan syndrome in 1990.[5][22][23] Lady Tavener broadcast a charity appeal on BBC Radio 4 in October 2008 on behalf of the Marfan Trust.[24]

Death[edit]

Tavener died, aged 69, on 12 November 2013 at his home in Child Okeford, Dorset.[25] In the music world, composers John Rutter[25] and Sir Peter Maxwell Davies,[25][26] cellist Steven Isserlis,[25] Neil Portnow, president of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, Roger Wright, controller of BBC Radio 3 and director of the Proms, and soprano Patricia Rozario, paid tribute. A tribute was also received from Charles, Prince of Wales.[25][26] Tavener's funeral was held at the Anglican Cathedral in Winchester on 28 November 2013. The service was Orthodox, and presided over by Archbishop Gregorios of Thyateira, the representative of the Ecumenical Patriarch, and the most senior Orthodox bishop currently in the UK. Some 700 mourners attended.[27]

Music[edit]

John Rutter describes Tavener as having the "very rare gift" of being able to "bring an audience to a deep silence."[25] According to Steven Isserlis, "he had his own voice. He wasn't writing to be popular – he was writing the music he had to write."[25]

Style and development[edit]

While Tavener's earliest music was influenced by Igor Stravinsky and Olivier Messiaen – often invoking the sound world of Stravinsky, in particular Canticum Sacrum,[5] and the ecstatic quality found in various works by Messiaen – his later music became more sparse, using wide registral space and was usually diatonically tonal.[8] Tavener recognised Arvo Pärt as "a kindred spirit" and shared with him a common religious tradition and a fondness for textural transparency.[10]

Career highlights[edit]

Selected works[edit]

  • Setting of the "Credo" (1961)[8]
  • Genesis (1962)[8]
  • Three Holy Sonnets of John Donne (1962; song cycle)[8]
  • The Cappemakers (1964; one-act opera)[8]
  • Cain and Abel (1965; cantata)[8]
  • The Whale (1965–66; soloists, speaker, SATB choir, children's choir, orchestra)[8]
  • In alium (1968)[8]
  • Celtic Requiem (1969; soprano solo, SATB choir, children's choir, ensemble)[8][31]
  • In memoriam Igor Stravinsky (1971)[8]
  • Responsorium in Memory of Annon Lee Silver (1971)[8]
  • Ultimos ritos (1972)[8]
  • Canciones españolas (1972)[8]
  • Requiem for Father Malachy (1973)[8]
  • Thérèse (1973–76; opera)[8]
  • Canticle of the Mother of God (1976)[8]
  • Liturgy of St John Chrysostom (1977)[8]
  • A Gentle Spirit (1977; chamber opera)[5]
  • Kyklike Kinesis (1977)[5]
  • The Immurement of Antigone (1978)[8]
  • Palintropos (1978)[5]
  • Akhmatova: Requiem (1979–80)[5][8]
  • Sappho: Lyrical Fragments (1980; song cycle)[8]
  • Funeral Ikos (1981)[8]
  • The Great Canon of St Andrew of Crete (1981)[8]
  • Trisagion (1981; brass ensemble)[8]
  • Mandelion (1981; organ)[8]
  • Towards the Son (1982)[8]
  • To a Child Dancing in the Wind (1983)[5][8]
  • Ikon of Light (1984; choir, string trio)[5][8]
  • Vigil Service (1984)[8]
  • Sixteen Haiku of Seferis (1984)[8]
  • A Mini Song Cycle for Gina (1984)[8]
  • The Lamb (1984)[5]
  • Eis thanaton (1986; cantata)[5][8]
  • Akathist of Thanksgiving (1986–87)[5][8]
  • The Protecting Veil (1987; cello, strings)[8][31]
  • The Tyger (1987)[31]
  • Resurrection (1989)[5][8]
  • The Hidden Treasure (1989)[5][8]
  • The Repentant Thief (1990; clarinet, strings)[8]
  • Mary of Egypt (opera; 1991)[8][31]
  • The Last Sleep of the Virgin (1991)[8]
  • The Apocalypse (1993)[8]
  • Song for Athene (1993; SATB choir)[5]
  • Theophany (1993; orchestra)[8]
  • Diodia (1997; orchestra)[8]
  • A New Beginning (1999)[5]
  • Fall and Resurrection (2000)[5]
  • Lamentations and Praises (2001; 12 male voices, string quartet, flute, bass trombone, percussion)[25]
  • Mother and Child (2002)[31]
  • The Veil of the Temple (2003; soprano, SATB choir, boys' choir, ensemble)[5]
  • Schuon Lieder (2003; song cycle for soprano, ensemble)[5]
  • Laila (2004; music for dance; soprano, tenor, orchestra)[32]
  • Sollemnitas in Conceptione Immaculata Beatae Mariae Virginis (2006; mass)[5]
  • The Beautiful Names (2007)[5]
  • Requiem (2008; cello, soloists, chorus, orchestra)[5]
  • Towards Silence (2009; 4 string quartets, Tibetan temple bowl)[9]
  • The Death of Ivan Ilyich (2012; monodrama)[5]

Sound files[edit]

YearSong titleWorkInstrumentation
1968:"Section A"
About this sound Listen 
In AliumSoprano, Strings, Tape
1985:"The Lamb"
About this sound Listen 
The LambChorus
1993:"Song for Athene"
About this sound Listen 
Song for AtheneChorus
1996:"Innocence"
About this sound Listen 
InnocenceChorus, bell

Selected recordings[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://janusfilms.com/thegreatbeauty/
  2. ^ Boyden, Matthew. The rough guide to opera. Rough Guides, 2002. ISBN 1-85828-749-9
  3. ^ Meirion Bowen (13 June 1968; republished 12 November 2013). "Two Tavener Works at the Queen Elizabeth Hall". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 November 2013. 
  4. ^ Linn Records: "Carmina Celtica: Canty"
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Michael J Stewart (12 November 2013). "Sir John Tavener obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 November 2013. 
  6. ^ Sherwin, Adam (18 January 2010). "Not just a blip: Ivor Novello awards to recognise computer game music". Times Online. Retrieved 12 February 2010. 
  7. ^ David Mason. Greene's biographical encyclopedia of composers. Doubleday, 1995. 31. ISBN 0-385-14278-1
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar Ivan Moody. "Tavener, John", Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed 13 November 2013 (subscription required)
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Music Obituary: Sir John Tavener". The Daily Telegraph. 12 November 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c White, Michael. "A Time for Reflection". BBC Music Magazine, Vol. 22 No. 2 (December 2013): p. 29.
  11. ^ White, Michael. "A Time for Reflection". BBC Music Magazine, Vol. 22 No. 2 (December 2013), p. 28.
  12. ^ a b c d Anastasia Tsioulcas (12 November 2013). "Remembering 'Holy Minimalist' Composer John Tavener". NPR Music. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  13. ^ http://www.musicsalesclassical.com/composer/work/11167
  14. ^ Associated Press (12 November 2013). "John Tavener, composer and seeker, dies at 69". USA Today. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  15. ^ Morrison, Richard (November 2004). "99 Names for God: John Tavener Turns his Back on Orthodoxy". BBC Music. : p. 30. Tavener is quoted as saying, "It strikes me now that all religions are as senile as one another."
  16. ^ McCleery, David. "The Beautiful Names: John Tavener". BBC. Retrieved 22 June 2007. 
  17. ^ "Christian Composer, Inspired by Allah's 99 Names". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  18. ^ Sacred Music, series 2, episode 4, broadcast in the UK on BBC Four on 2 April 2010.
  19. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006r9xr
  20. ^ Liz Todd Prince Charles's favourite composer John Tavener in fight for life Daily Mail 9 March 2008
  21. ^ Michael White A rare meeting with Sir John Tavener, The Times 1 May 2009
  22. ^ "27 December 1999 – Music for a new millennium". BBC News. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  23. ^ "John Tavener: God be in my head". Independent.co.uk. 20 June 2004. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  24. ^ "BBC Radio 4 Appeal – Marfan Trust". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h BBC News (12 November 2013). "Sir John Tavener: Composer dies aged 69". Retrieved 12 November 2013.
  26. ^ a b The Daily Mail: Charles leads the tributes as Sir John Tavener, one of Britain's most celebrated composers, dies aged 69 (accessed 13 November 2013)
  27. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-25138013 "Sir John Tavener: Hundreds attend composer's funeral"
  28. ^ Amu Review The Independent, 19 September 2005. Retrieved 2010
  29. ^ http://www.classical.net/music/comp.lst/acc/tavener.php
  30. ^ http://janusfilms.com/thegreatbeauty
  31. ^ a b c d e The Telegraph: John Tavener: five top pieces (accessed 14 November 2013)
  32. ^ The Guardian: Pump it up John (accessed 14 November 2013)

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]