John Eaton (politician)

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John Henry Eaton
John Eaton.jpg
13th United States Secretary of War
In office
March 9, 1829 – June 18, 1831
PresidentAndrew Jackson
Preceded byPeter Buell Porter
Succeeded byLewis Cass
Personal details
Born(1790-06-18)June 18, 1790
Halifax County, North Carolina, U.S.
DiedNovember 17, 1856(1856-11-17) (aged 66)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Myra Lewis, Margaret O'Neill Eaton
Alma materUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
ProfessionLawyer, Politician
Military service
Service/branchUnited States Army
Battles/warsWar of 1812
 
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John Henry Eaton
John Eaton.jpg
13th United States Secretary of War
In office
March 9, 1829 – June 18, 1831
PresidentAndrew Jackson
Preceded byPeter Buell Porter
Succeeded byLewis Cass
Personal details
Born(1790-06-18)June 18, 1790
Halifax County, North Carolina, U.S.
DiedNovember 17, 1856(1856-11-17) (aged 66)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Myra Lewis, Margaret O'Neill Eaton
Alma materUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
ProfessionLawyer, Politician
Military service
Service/branchUnited States Army
Battles/warsWar of 1812

John Henry Eaton (June 18, 1790 – November 17, 1856) was an American politician and diplomat from Tennessee who served as U.S. Senator and as Secretary of War in the administration of Andrew Jackson. He was the youngest U.S. Senator in history, as he was 28 years old when he took his oath of office.

Biography[edit]

Eaton was born near Scotland Neck, Halifax County, North Carolina. His first wife was Myra Lewis, who died before 1818, when he was 28 years old.

In 1829, years after meeting her and her husband in Washington, DC, Eaton married his second wife Peggy O'Neill Timberlake, a longtime friend and newly bereaved widow.

Eaton was a lawyer and member of the Democratic Party. He served in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812. He was a member of Tennessee House of Representatives from 1815 to 1816.

In 1818 he was elected Senator from Tennessee and served until 1821. He served again from 1821 to 1829. His age of 28 at the time of his entry to the Senate was notable; it contradicted the US Constitution's requirement that all Senators be over the age of 30. At the time, many people did not know their actual birth records. It is not certain what occurred in this case. In any event, if challenged, Eaton could have referred to previous under-aged Senators Armistead Mason or Henry Clay.

Eaton was a close personal friend of Andrew Jackson. After Jackson became President, Eaton and Postmaster General Amos Kendall were members of Jackson's Cabinet, as well as part of his informal circle of advisors. Jackson detractors called them his "Kitchen Cabinet". (Apparently this group did, in fact, frequently meet in the White House kitchen.)

Eaton resigned his Senate seat in 1829 to take up appointment as Jackson's Secretary of War, a post in which he served from 1829 to 1831. Like other Cabinet members, he resigned over a social scandal concerning his marriage to his second wife Peggy. Some respectable women in Washington social circles led by Floride Calhoun, the wife of Vice President John C. Calhoun had snubbed her because she and Eaton married shortly after her first husband's death. In addition, there were rumors they had been having an affair prior to their marriage. The disruption penetrated the Cabinet, as wives became involved on opposite sides of the issue. Jackson was furious to have his friend's wife scorned. The controversy was known as the Petticoat affair and indirectly contributed to the political rise of Martin Van Buren, a member of Jackson's cabinet who supported the Eatons.

Eaton later served as Governor of Florida Territory from 1834 to 1836, and ambassador to Spain from 1836 to 1840.

Eaton, a Freemason, died in Washington, D.C. on November 17, 1856. He was buried at Oak Hill Cemetery, Washington, D.C.

Legacy[edit]

Eaton County, Michigan, is named in his honor.[1]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 113. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

United States Senate
Preceded by
George W. Campbell
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Tennessee
1818–1829
Served alongside: John Williams, Andrew Jackson, Hugh L. White
Succeeded by
Felix Grundy
Political offices
Preceded by
Peter Buell Porter
U.S. Secretary of War
Served under: Andrew Jackson

1829–1831
Succeeded by
Lewis Cass
Preceded by
William P. Duval
Territorial Governor of Florida
1834–1836
Succeeded by
Richard K. Call
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
William T. Barry
U.S. Minister to Spain
1836–1840
Succeeded by
Aaron Vail