John Day, Oregon

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John Day, Oregon
—  City  —
Location in Oregon
Coordinates: 44°25′5″N 118°57′18″W / 44.41806°N 118.955°W / 44.41806; -118.955Coordinates: 44°25′5″N 118°57′18″W / 44.41806°N 118.955°W / 44.41806; -118.955
CountryUnited States
StateOregon
CountyGrant
Incorporated1901
Government
 • MayorBob Quinton
Area
 • Total1.9 sq mi (4.9 km2)
 • Land1.9 sq mi (4.9 km2)
 • Water0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation3,120 ft (951.0 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total1,744
 • Density969.5/sq mi (374.0/km2)
Time zonePacific (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)Pacific (UTC-7)
ZIP code97845
Area code(s)458 and 541
FIPS code41-37550[1]
GNIS feature ID1144303[2]
Websitewww.cityofjohnday.com
 
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John Day, Oregon
—  City  —
Location in Oregon
Coordinates: 44°25′5″N 118°57′18″W / 44.41806°N 118.955°W / 44.41806; -118.955Coordinates: 44°25′5″N 118°57′18″W / 44.41806°N 118.955°W / 44.41806; -118.955
CountryUnited States
StateOregon
CountyGrant
Incorporated1901
Government
 • MayorBob Quinton
Area
 • Total1.9 sq mi (4.9 km2)
 • Land1.9 sq mi (4.9 km2)
 • Water0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation3,120 ft (951.0 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total1,744
 • Density969.5/sq mi (374.0/km2)
Time zonePacific (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)Pacific (UTC-7)
ZIP code97845
Area code(s)458 and 541
FIPS code41-37550[1]
GNIS feature ID1144303[2]
Websitewww.cityofjohnday.com

John Day is a city located about 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Canyon City in Grant County, Oregon, at the intersection of U.S. Routes 26 and 395. The city was named for the nearby John Day River, which had been named for a Virginian member of the 1811 Astor Expedition, John Day.[3] The city was incorporated in 1901.

As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 1,744, making it the largest city in the county.

Contents

History

The first homestead staked in Grant County (what was then Wasco County), in 1862 by B. C. Trowbridge, was within the limits of the present city of John Day. The Eastern Oregon community was not as quick to grow as neighboring Canyon City, which was the county seat and center of the bustling mining industry in the area. Incrementally, local merchants and residents began relocating to John Day—primarily each time after severe fires in Canyon City: the Grant County Courthouse burned in 1870, Chinatown burned in 1885, and fires in 1898 and 1937 devastated Canyon City's downtown.

The first Post Office at "John Day City" was established in 1865, but was discontinued in 1871. It was reestablished in 1879 with the name John Day. In April 1900, a local committee was elected, and the Oregon Legislature approved an Act incorporating the city of John Day on February 23, 1901.

The largest part of early John Day was composed of the Chinese community, commonly called Tiger Town. In 1882, the Advent Christian Church in John Day had 547 members, 382 of whom were Chinese (and a number of Chinese residents were interred in the Seventh Day Adventist Cemetery). By 1887, John Day was home to nearly 1000 Chinese immigrants, who had been attracted to the area by a gold rush twenty years earlier, many of whom were displaced by the 1885 fire in Canyon City.

A trading post built in the area in the 1860s along The Dalles Military Road was purchased in 1887 by two Chinese immigrants, Lung On and Ing Hay. They converted the trading post into a clinic, general store, and social center for the community, which continued to operate until the 1940s. In the 1970s the building, then the property of the city of John Day, was converted into a museum called the Kam Wah Chung & Co. Museum. It is now operated in conjunction with the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department and is one of the premier surviving examples of a nineteenth century Chinese apothecary shop. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2005.

Geography

John Day is located at an elevation of 3,083 feet (940 m).[4] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.9 square miles (4.9 km2), all land.[4]

John Day is surrounded by the Strawberry Mountains to the south and the Blue Mountains to the north.

Geology

The bedrock geology of the John Day area is a complex assemblage of Permian to Triassic age metamorphic and igneous rocks which were added to the western North American continental margin by tectonic activity in the Triassic and Jurassic Periods. Cenozoic age volcanic rocks related to the long-lived Columbia River Basalt emplacement were deposited above these bedrock units.

The area around John Day contains some of the most important paleontological resources known. From about the time the dinosaurs disappeared right up until the Pleistocene, the region was subjected to significant volcanism and other processes that preserved fossils. Because the matrix in which the fossils are entombed is datable, the fossils themselves can be dated with excellent precision. This gives paleontologists the ability to study how species changed over time and also how the relationship between ecosystems and climate changed.

Spanish explorers in the 17th Century reportedly explored the area for gold, but none was found.

Demographics

As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 1821 people, 734 households, and 472 families residing in the city. The population density was 969.5 people per square mile (374.0/km²). There were 846 housing units at an average density of 450.4 per square mile (173.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.92% White, 1.15% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 0% African American, 0.55% from other races, and 0.82% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.42% of the population.

There were 734 households out of which 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.6% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.01.

In the city the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 23.2% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, and 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 92.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,953, and the median income for a family was $34,327. Males had a median income of $31,908 versus $22,067 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,488. About 13.0% of families and 17.5% of the population were living below the poverty line, including 21.0% of those under the age of 18 and 22.4% of those 65 and older.

Economy

Historically, ranching and timber harvesting and milling have been the economic mainstays of the community. However, the decreasing availability of large ponderosa pine and high transportation costs have resulted in a significant decrease in importance of this economic sector. Recreation, retirement, and government (the headquarters of the Malheur National Forest is in John Day) now make up the primary economy.

Infrastructure

Transportation

References

External links