John Basilone

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John Basilone
BasiloneUSMC.jpg A light blue neck ribbon with a gold star shaped medallion hanging from it. The ribbon is similar in shape to a bowtie with 13 white stars in the center of the ribbon
John Basilone in his Marine Corps uniform wearing his Medal of Honor
Nickname"Manila John"
Born(1916-11-04)November 4, 1916
Buffalo, New York
DiedFebruary 19, 1945(1945-02-19) (aged 28) 
Iwo Jima, Japan
Place of burialArlington National Cemetery
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branchFlag of the United States Marine Corps.svg United States Marine Corps
 United States Army
Years of service1940–1945 (U.S. Marine Corps)
1936–1939 (U.S. Army)
RankUSMC-E7.svg Gunnery Sergeant
UnitCharlie Company, 1st Battalion, 27th Marine Regiment, 5th Marine Division
Dog Company, 1st Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division
Company D, 31st Infantry
Company D, 16th Infantry
Battles/wars

World War II

AwardsMedal of Honor
Navy Cross
Purple Heart
Spouse(s)Lena Mae Riggi (1944–1945)
 
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John Basilone
BasiloneUSMC.jpg A light blue neck ribbon with a gold star shaped medallion hanging from it. The ribbon is similar in shape to a bowtie with 13 white stars in the center of the ribbon
John Basilone in his Marine Corps uniform wearing his Medal of Honor
Nickname"Manila John"
Born(1916-11-04)November 4, 1916
Buffalo, New York
DiedFebruary 19, 1945(1945-02-19) (aged 28) 
Iwo Jima, Japan
Place of burialArlington National Cemetery
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branchFlag of the United States Marine Corps.svg United States Marine Corps
 United States Army
Years of service1940–1945 (U.S. Marine Corps)
1936–1939 (U.S. Army)
RankUSMC-E7.svg Gunnery Sergeant
UnitCharlie Company, 1st Battalion, 27th Marine Regiment, 5th Marine Division
Dog Company, 1st Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division
Company D, 31st Infantry
Company D, 16th Infantry
Battles/wars

World War II

AwardsMedal of Honor
Navy Cross
Purple Heart
Spouse(s)Lena Mae Riggi (1944–1945)

John Basilone (November 4, 1916 – February 19, 1945) was a United States Marine Gunnery Sergeant who received the Medal of Honor for his actions at the Battle of Guadalcanal during World War II. He was the only enlisted Marine in World War II to receive both the Medal of Honor and the Navy Cross.

He served three years in the United States Army with duty in the Philippines before joining the Marine Corps in 1940. After attending training, Basilone deployed to Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, the Solomon Islands and eventually to Guadalcanal where he held off 3,000 Japanese troops after his 15-member unit was reduced to two other men. He was killed in action on the first day of the Battle of Iwo Jima, after which he was posthumously honored with the Navy Cross. He has received many honors including being the namesake for streets, military locations and a United States Navy destroyer.

Early life[edit]

Basilone was born in his parents' home on November 4, 1916 in Buffalo, New York, the sixth of 10 children. His father, Salvatore Basilone, emigrated from Naples in 1903 and settled in Raritan, New Jersey. His mother, Dora Bencivenga, was born in 1889 and grew up in Manville, but her parents, Carlo and Catrina, also came from Naples. His parents met at a church gathering and married three years later. Basilone grew up in the nearby Raritan Town (now Borough of Raritan) where he attended St. Bernard Parochial School. After completing middle school at the age of 15, he dropped out prior to attending high school.[1]

Military service[edit]

Basilone worked as a golf caddy for the local country club before joining the military. He enlisted in the United States Army[2] and completed his three-year enlistment with service in the Philippines, where he was a champion boxer.[3] In the Army, Basilone was initially assigned to the 16th Infantry at Fort Jay, before being discharged for a day and reenlisting and being assigned to the 31st Infantry.[4][5] Upon returning home, he worked as a truck driver in Reisterstown, Maryland.[6] After driving trucks for a few months, he wanted to go back to Manila and believed he could get there faster as a Marine than in the Army. He enlisted in the Marines in July 1940 from Baltimore, Maryland, and went to recruit training at Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island followed by training at Marine Corps Base Quantico and New River. The Corps sent him to Guantánamo Bay, Cuba for his next assignment and then to Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands as a member of Dog Company 1st Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment 1st Marine Division.[6]

Guadalcanal[edit]

During the Battle for Henderson Field, his unit came under attack by a regiment of approximately 3,000 soldiers from the Japanese Sendai Division. On October 24, 1942, Japanese forces began a frontal attack using machine guns, grenades, and mortars against the American heavy machine guns. Basilone commanded two sections of machine guns that fought for the next two days until only Basilone and two other Marines were left standing.[7][8] Basilone moved an extra gun into position and maintained continual fire against the incoming Japanese forces. He then repaired and manned another machine gun, holding the defensive line until replacements arrived. As the battle went on ammunition became critically low. Despite their supply lines having been cut off by enemies in the rear, Basilone fought through hostile ground to resupply his heavy machine gunners with urgently needed ammunition. When the last of it ran out shortly before dawn on the second day, Basilone held off the Japanese soldiers attacking his position using only a .45 pistol. By the end of the engagement Japanese forces opposite their section of the line were virtually annihilated. For his actions during the battle, he received the United States military's highest award for bravery, the Medal of Honor.[9]

Afterwards, Private First Class Nash W. Phillips, of Fayetteville, North Carolina, recalled from the battle for Guadalcanal:

Basilone had a machine gun on the go for three days and nights without sleep, rest, or food. He was in a good emplacement, and causing the Japanese lots of trouble, not only firing his machine gun, but also using his pistol.

[6]

War bonds tour and marriage[edit]

After receiving the Medal of Honor, he returned to the United States and participated in a war bond tour. His arrival was highly publicized and his hometown held a parade in his honor when he returned. The homecoming parade occurred on Sunday, September 19, 1943, and drew a huge crowd with thousands of people, including politicians, celebrities and the national press. The parade made national news in Life magazine and Fox Movietone News.[10] After the parade, he toured the country raising money for the war effort and achieved celebrity status. Although he appreciated the admiration, he felt out of place and requested to return to the operating forces fighting the war. The Marine Corps denied his request and told him he was needed more on the home front. He was offered a commission, which he turned down, and was later offered an assignment as an instructor, but refused this as well. He requested again to return to the war and this time the request was approved. He left for Camp Pendleton, California, for training on December 27, 1943. While stationed at Camp Pendleton, he met his future wife, Lena Mae Riggi, who was a Sergeant in the Marine Corps Women's Reserve.[11] They were married at St. Mary's Star of the Sea Church in Oceanside, on July 10, 1944, with a reception at the Carlsbad Hotel.[12] They honeymooned at her parents' onion farm near Portland.[13] He requested a return to the fighting in the Pacific theatre.[13]

Iwo Jima[edit]

John Basilone's headstone in Arlington National Cemetery

After his request to return to the fleet was approved, he was assigned to Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 27th Marine Regiment, 5th Marine Division during the invasion of Iwo Jima. On February 19, 1945, he was serving as a machine gun section leader in action against Japanese forces on Red Beach II. During the battle, the Japanese concentrated their fire at the incoming Americans from heavily fortified blockhouses staged throughout the island. With his unit pinned down, Basilone made his way around the side of the Japanese positions until he was directly on top of the blockhouse. He then attacked with grenades and demolitions, single-handedly destroying the entire strongpoint and its defending garrison. He then fought his way toward Airfield Number 1 and aided an American tank that was trapped in an enemy mine field under intense mortar and artillery barrages. He guided the heavy vehicle over the hazardous terrain to safety, despite heavy weapons fire from the Japanese. As he moved along the edge of the airfield, he was killed by Japanese mortar shrapnel.[14][15] His actions helped Marines penetrate the Japanese defense and get off the landing beach during the critical early stages of the invasion. For his valor during the battle of Iwo Jima, he was posthumously approved for the Marine Corps' second-highest decoration for bravery, the Navy Cross.[16]

Based on his research for the book and mini-series The Pacific, author Hugh Ambrose suggested that Basilone was not killed by a mortar, but by small arms fire that hit him in the right groin, the neck and nearly took off his left arm completely.[citation needed]

He was interred in Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia and his grave can be found in Section 12, Grave 384, grid Y/Z 23.5.[17] Lena M. Basilone died June 11, 1999, at the age of 86 and was buried at Riverside National Cemetery.[18] Lena's obituary notes that she never remarried, and she was buried still wearing her wedding ring.[19]

Military honors[edit]

A light blue ribbon with five white five pointed stars
Medal of HonorNavy CrossPurple Heart
Combat Action RibbonPresidential Unit CitationAmerican Defense Service Medal
American Campaign MedalAsiatic-Pacific Campaign MedalWorld War II Victory Medal

Medal of Honor citation[edit]

His Medal of Honor citation, signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, reads:

The President of the United States in the name of The Congress takes pride in presenting the MEDAL OF HONOR to

SERGEANT

JOHN BASILONE
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS

for service as set forth in the following CITATION:

Medal of Honour

For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous gallantry in action against enemy Japanese forces, above and beyond the call of duty, while serving with the 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division in the Lunga Area, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, on 24 and 25 October 1942. While the enemy was hammering at the Marines' defensive positions, Sgt. Basilone, in charge of 2 sections of heavy machine guns, fought valiantly to check the savage and determined assault. In a fierce frontal attack with the Japanese blasting his guns with grenades and mortar fire, one of Sgt. Basilone's sections, with its gun crews, was put out of action, leaving only 2 men able to carry on. Moving an extra gun into position, he placed it in action, then, under continual fire, repaired another and personally manned it, gallantly holding his line until replacements arrived. A little later, with ammunition critically low and the supply lines cut off, Sgt. Basilone, at great risk of his life and in the face of continued enemy attack, battled his way through hostile lines with urgently needed shells for his gunners, thereby contributing in large measure to the virtual annihilation of a Japanese regiment. His great personal valor and courageous initiative were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.[9]

Navy Cross citation[edit]

The President of the United States takes pride in presenting the NAVY CROSS posthumously to

GUNNERY SERGEANT

JOHN BASILONE
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS

for service as set forth in the following CITATION:

Navy Cross

For extraordinary heroism while serving as a Leader of a Machine-Gun Section, Company C, 1st Battalion, 27th Marines, 5th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands, 19 February 1945. Shrewdly gauging the tactical situation shortly after landing when his company's advance was held up by the concentrated fire of a heavily fortified Japanese blockhouse, Gunnery Sergeant Basilone boldly defied the smashing bombardment of heavy caliber fire to work his way around the flank and up to a position directly on top of the blockhouse and then, attacking with grenades and demolitions, single handedly destroyed the entire hostile strong point and its defending garrison. Consistently daring and aggressive as he fought his way over the battle-torn beach and up the sloping, gun-studded terraces toward Airfield Number 1, he repeatedly exposed himself to the blasting fury of exploding shells and later in the day coolly proceeded to the aid of a friendly tank which had been trapped in an enemy mine field under intense mortar and artillery barrages, skillfully guiding the heavy vehicle over the hazardous terrain to safety, despite the overwhelming volume of hostile fire. In the forefront of the assault at all times, he pushed forward with dauntless courage and iron determination until, moving upon the edge of the airfield, he fell, instantly killed by a bursting mortar shell. Stouthearted and indomitable, Gunnery Sergeant Basilone, by his intrepid initiative, outstanding skill, and valiant spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of the fanatic opposition, contributed materially to the advance of his company during the early critical period of the assault, and his unwavering devotion to duty throughout the bitter conflict was an inspiration to his comrades and reflects the highest credit upon Gunnery Sergeant Basilone and the United States Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.

For the President,
JAMES FORRESTAL
Secretary of the Navy

Other honors[edit]

Basilone has received numerous honors, including the namesake of a United States Navy destroyer, a postage stamp and several plaques, monuments, geographical landmarks, a bust in San Diego's Little Italy in a piazza named for him, Piazza Basilone, and a residential building at Montclair State University. In 2011, Basilone was inducted into the New Jersey Hall of Fame.[20]

USS Basilone[edit]

Sgt Lena Mae Basilone, USMC(WR), widow of John Basilone, prepares to christen the destroyer USS Basilone (December 21, 1945)

The United States Navy commissioned USS Basilone, a Gearing-class destroyer, in 1949. The ship's keel was laid down on July 7, 1945, in Orange, Texas, and launched on December 21, 1945. His widow, Sergeant Lena Mae Basilone, sponsored the ship.[21]

Marine Corps buildings and landmarks[edit]

The Marine Corps has named infrastructure after him on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, including an entry point onto the base from Interstate 5 called "Basilone Road";[22] a section of U.S. Interstate 5 running through the base called "Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone Memorial Highway";[23] and a parachute landing zone called "Basilone Drop Zone".[24]

Namesakes from outside the Marine Corps[edit]

Dedication sign for the Basilone Memorial Bridge

In addition to the honors bestowed from the Marine Corps, a wide variety of non military institutions have also chosen their name based on Basilone. Some of these include: the football field at Bridgewater-Raritan High School is called "Basilone Field", and on the wall of the fieldhouse next to the field is a mural honoring Basilone; the Knights of Columbus Council #13264 in his hometown is named in his honor;[25] an overpass at the Somerville Circle in Somerville, New Jersey on U.S. Highway 202 and 206 that goes under it; the New Jersey Turnpike bridge across the Raritan River is named the "Basilone Bridge";[26] the new Bridge that crosses the Raritan River in Raritan at First Avenue and Canal Street; a memorial statue featuring him holding a water-cooled Browning machine gun is located at the intersections of Old York Road and Canal Street in Raritan, New Jersey (childhood friend Phillip Orlando sculpted the statue); a plaque at the United States Navy Memorial in Washington, D.C.;[27] a bust in Little Italy San Diego at Fir and India Streets (the war memorial is dedicated to residents of Little Italy who served in World War II and Korea, and the area is called Piazza Basilone);[28] Order Sons of Italy In America Lodge #2442 is named in honor of Basilone in Bohemia, New York.[29] and the Raritan Public Library has the Basilone Room where memorabilia about him is kept.[30] In 1944, Army Barracks from Washington State were moved to a site in front of Hansen Dam in Pacoima, California and rebuilt as 1,500 apartments for returning GIs. This development was named the Basilone Homes and was used until about 1955. The site is now a golf course.

Parade[edit]

The memorial parade for Basilone along Somerset Street in his hometown of Raritan has been held since 1981 and became a celebration of the close-knit community.[31]

In media[edit]

On November 10, 2005, the U.S. Postal Service issued the "Distinguished Marines" stamps honoring four Marine Corps heroes including Basilone.[32][33]

The 1967 film First to Fight features Chad Everett as "Shanghai Jack" Connell, a character based on "Manila John" Basilone.

The Pacific (2010 miniseries)[edit]

Basilone along with two other Marines became the basis of a 10-part HBO miniseries The Pacific.[34] Actor Jon Seda stars as Basilone.

See also[edit]


References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps.
This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
  1. ^ Brady, 2010, pp. 79-80
  2. ^ Brady, 2010, p. 80
  3. ^ U.S. Senate. "Congressional Record", November 18, 2005, S13334-5. Accessed on September 02, 2010.
  4. ^ Tatum, Chuck (2012). Red Blood, Black Sand: Fighting Alongside John Basilone from Boot Camp to Iwo Jima. Penguin. p. 66. ISBN 9781101585061. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  5. ^ Alexander, Colonel Joseph H. (2010). "Real Marines Behind HBO's The Pacific". Naval History (United States Naval Institute) 24 (2): 26–27. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c "Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone, USMC". Who's Who in Marine Corps History. History Division, United States Marine Corps. Retrieved October 20, 2007. 
  7. ^ United States Government. Medal of Honor citation.
  8. ^ United States Postal Service. "Four Distinguished Marines Saluted on U.S. Postage Stamps", November 10, 2005. Accessed September 02, 2010.
  9. ^ a b "Medal of Honor recipients". World War II (A - F). United States Army Center of Military History. 2009-06-08. Archived from the original on June 16, 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  10. ^ "Life Goes to a Hero's Homecoming, Life Magazine, p. 126, Oct. 11, 1943.
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ a b "The Story of Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone Part 3". John Basilone Parade Website. Retrieved October 5, 2005. 
  14. ^ Tatum, Charles W. Searching for "Manila John" Basilone, November 10, 1994, p. 28.
  15. ^ Simpson, Ross W. "The Day My Hero Died", Semper Fi magazine, vol. 69, no. 4 (July - August 2013), p. 22.
  16. ^ "John Basilone". Hall of Valor. Military Times. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  17. ^ "John Basilone,Gunnery Sergeant, United States Marine Corps". Arlington National Cemetery Website. March 26, 2006. Retrieved November 23, 2005. 
  18. ^ "Lena M Basilone at Find a Grave". Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  19. ^ "Ex-Marine Lena Basilone Obituary". Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  20. ^ The Newark Star Ledger. 
  21. ^ "Basilone". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Naval History & Heritage Command, Department of the Navy. Retrieved 2007-10-21. 
  22. ^ "Camp Pendleton". GlobalSecurity.org. April 26, 2005. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  23. ^ "California State Senate Legislation". SCR 25 Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone Memorial Freeway. April 6, 1999. Retrieved February 25, 2010. [dead link]
  24. ^ Lance Corporal Stephen C. Benson (November 14, 2007). "Special Ops Marines conquer skies". United States Marine Corps. Archived from the original on March 13, 2008. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  25. ^ "Knights of Columbus councils". Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  26. ^ "John Basilone". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved October 21, 2007. 
  27. ^ MacGillis, Alec (May 29, 2006). "Honoring One Marine To Remember Them All: WWII Hero Gets Plaque at Navy Memorial". Washington Post. p. B01. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  28. ^ "Piazza Basilone". The Little Italy Association. Retrieved August 19, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Sgt. John Basilone Lodge 2442 - OSIA". Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  30. ^ Brady, 2010, p. 84
  31. ^ Eugene, Paik (Spetmber 25, 2011), "Annual John Basilone Parade stirs feelings of patriotism, Jersey pride", The Star-Ledger, retrieved 2011-09-25 
  32. ^ "Distinguished Marines". Postal Store. United States Postal Service. Archived from the original on December 20, 2005. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  33. ^ "John Basilone Stamp Campaign". Retrieved February 6, 2009. 
  34. ^ "The Pacific". Home Box Office (HBO). Retrieved February 25, 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]