John Ashcroft

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

John Ashcroft
79th United States Attorney General
In office
February 2, 2001 – February 3, 2005
PresidentGeorge W. Bush
Preceded byJanet Reno
Succeeded byAlberto Gonzales
United States Senator
from Missouri
In office
January 3, 1995 – January 3, 2001
Preceded byJohn C. Danforth
Succeeded byJean Carnahan
50th Governor of Missouri
In office
January 14, 1985 – January 11, 1993
LieutenantHarriet Woods (1985–1989)
Mel Carnahan (1989–1993)
Preceded byKit Bond
Succeeded byMel Carnahan
38th Missouri Attorney General
In office
1977–1985
GovernorJoseph P. Teasdale
Kit Bond
Preceded byJohn Danforth
Succeeded byWilliam L. Webster
29th State Auditor of Missouri
In office
1973–1974
GovernorKit Bond
Preceded byKit Bond
Succeeded byGeorge W. Lehr
Personal details
BornJohn David Ashcroft
(1942-05-09) May 9, 1942 (age 70)
Chicago, Illinois
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Janet Ashcroft
Alma materYale University
University of Chicago Law School
ProfessionAttorney, Politician
ReligionAssemblies of God
 
Jump to: navigation, search
John Ashcroft
79th United States Attorney General
In office
February 2, 2001 – February 3, 2005
PresidentGeorge W. Bush
Preceded byJanet Reno
Succeeded byAlberto Gonzales
United States Senator
from Missouri
In office
January 3, 1995 – January 3, 2001
Preceded byJohn C. Danforth
Succeeded byJean Carnahan
50th Governor of Missouri
In office
January 14, 1985 – January 11, 1993
LieutenantHarriet Woods (1985–1989)
Mel Carnahan (1989–1993)
Preceded byKit Bond
Succeeded byMel Carnahan
38th Missouri Attorney General
In office
1977–1985
GovernorJoseph P. Teasdale
Kit Bond
Preceded byJohn Danforth
Succeeded byWilliam L. Webster
29th State Auditor of Missouri
In office
1973–1974
GovernorKit Bond
Preceded byKit Bond
Succeeded byGeorge W. Lehr
Personal details
BornJohn David Ashcroft
(1942-05-09) May 9, 1942 (age 70)
Chicago, Illinois
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Janet Ashcroft
Alma materYale University
University of Chicago Law School
ProfessionAttorney, Politician
ReligionAssemblies of God

John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 79th U.S. Attorney General (2001–05), in the George W. Bush Administration. Ashcroft previously served as the 50th Governor of Missouri (1985–93) and as a U.S. Senator from Missouri (1995–2001).

Contents

Early life and education

Ashcroft was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Grace P. (née Larsen) and James Robert Ashcroft. His father was a minister in an Assemblies of God congregation, served as president of Evangel University (1958–74), and jointly as President of Central Bible College (1958–63). He later served as president of Valley Forge Christian College. His mother was a housewife whose parents immigrated from Norway.[1]

Ashcroft went to school in Springfield, Missouri. He attended Yale University, where he was a member of Sigma Tau Gamma and the St. Elmo Society, graduating in 1964. He received a Juris Doctor degree from the University of Chicago School of Law (1967).[2]

After law school, Ashcroft briefly taught Business Law and worked as an administrator at Southwest Missouri State University.

During the Vietnam War, he received six student draft deferments and one occupational deferment because of his teaching work.[3]

Political career

In 1972, Ashcroft ran for a Congressional seat in southwest Missouri in the Republican primary election, narrowly losing to Gene Taylor. After the primary, Missouri Governor Kit Bond appointed Ashcroft to the office of State Auditor, which Bond had vacated when he became Governor.

In 1974, Ashcroft was narrowly defeated for election to that post by Jackson County County Executive George W. Lehr, who argued that Ashcroft, who is not an accountant, was not qualified to be the State Auditor. Missouri Attorney General John Danforth, who was then in his second term, hired Ashcroft as an Assistant Attorney General. During his tenure there, Ashcroft shared an office with future U.S. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas. (In 2001, Thomas administered Ashcroft's oath of office as U.S. Attorney General.)

In 1976, Danforth was elected to the U.S. Senate, and Ashcroft was elected to replace him as State Attorney General. In 1980, Ashcroft was re-elected with 64.5 percent of the vote and winning 96 of Missouri's 114 counties.[4]

Governor

Ashcroft was elected governor in 1984 and re-elected in 1988, becoming the first (and, to date, the only) Republican elected to two consecutive terms in Missouri history.

In 1984, his opponent was the Democratic Lt. Governor Ken Rothman. The campaign was so negative on both sides that a reporter described the contest as "two alley cats [scrapping] over truth in advertising". The campaign focused on the rural-based Ashcroft versus an urban-based opponent from St. Louis. Democrats did not close ranks on primary night. Defeated candidate Mel Carnahan endorsed Rothman. In the end, Ashcroft won 57 percent of the vote and carried 106 counties—then the largest Republican gubernatorial victory in Missouri history.[4]

In 1988, Ashcroft won an even bigger victory over his opponent Betty Cooper Hearnes, wife of former governor Warren Hearnes. Ashcroft received 64 percent of the vote in the general election—the largest landslide for governor in Missouri history since the U.S. Civil War.[5]

During his second term (1991-92), Ashcroft was the chairman of the National Governors Association.

As governor, Ashcroft helped enact tougher standards and sentencing for gun crimes, increased funding for local law enforcement, and tougher standards and punishment for people bringing guns into schools. While Ashcroft was in office:

US Senator

In 1994 Ashcroft was elected to the U.S. Senate from Missouri, again succeeding a retiring John Danforth. Ashcroft won 60% of the vote against Democratic Congressman Alan Wheat. As Senator:

In 1998, Ashcroft briefly considered running for U.S. President; but on January 5, 1999, he announced that he would not seek the presidency and would instead defend his Senate seat in the 2000 election.[7]

In the Republican primary, Ashcroft defeated Marc Perkel.[8] In the general election, Ashcroft faced a challenge from Governor Mel Carnahan. In the midst of a tight race, Carnahan died in an airplane crash two weeks prior to the election. Ashcroft suspended all campaigning after the plane crash in light of the tragedy. Carnahan's name remained on the ballot because of Missouri state election laws. Lieutenant Governor Roger Wilson became governor upon Carnahan's death. Wilson said that should Carnahan be elected, he would like to appoint his widow, Jean Carnahan, to serve in her husband's place; Mrs. Carnahan announced that, in accordance with what her husband would have wanted, she would serve in the Senate if he won the election. Following these developments, Ashcroft resumed campaigning.[9]

In spite of his being dead, Mel Carnahan won the election 51% to 49%. No one had ever posthumously won election to the Senate, though voters had on at least three occasions chosen deceased candidates for the House.[10]

US Attorney General

Tom Ridge and John Ashcroft (May 11, 2004, Washington, DC)

In December 2000, following his Senatorial defeat, Ashcroft was chosen for the position of US attorney general by president-elect George W. Bush who was impressed by Ashcroft. He was confirmed by the Senate by a vote of 58 to 42, with most Democratic senators voting against him, citing his prior opposition to using forced busing to achieve desegregation and opposition to Ashcroft's pro-life views.[11]

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, Ashcroft was a key supporter of passage of the USA PATRIOT Act. One of the provisions in that act was the controversial Section 215, which allows the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to make an application for an order from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court requiring production of "any tangible thing" for an investigation. Ashcroft referred to American Library Association opposition to Section 215 as "hysteria" in two separate speeches given in September 2003.[12][13] While Attorney General, Ashcroft consistently denied that the FBI or any other law enforcement agency had used the Patriot Act to obtain library circulation records or those of retail sales.

In March 2004, the Justice Department under Attorney General John Ashcroft ruled that the Stellar Wind[14] domestic intelligence program was illegal. The day after the ruling, Ashcroft became critically ill with acute pancreatitis. President Bush sent White House counsel Alberto Gonzales and Chief of Staff Andrew Card Jr. to Ashcroft's hospital bed, where Ashcroft lay semiconscious, to request that he sign a document reversing the Justice Department's ruling. However, Ashcroft refused to sign. Bush then reauthorized the operation, over formal Justice Department objections.

On November 9, 2004, following George W. Bush's re-election, Ashcroft announced his resignation,[15] which took effect on February 3, 2005 when the Senate confirmed White House Counsel Alberto Gonzales as the next attorney general.[16] His hand-written resignation letter, dated November 2, stated: "The objective of securing the safety of Americans from crime and terror has been achieved."[17]

Consultant and lobbyist

In May 2005, Ashcroft laid the groundwork for a strategic consulting firm that bears his name. The Ashcroft Group, LLC[18] officially opened its doors in the fall of 2005 and as of March 2006 had twenty-one clients, turning down two for every one accepted.[19]

In 2005 year-end filings, Ashcroft's firm reported collecting $269,000, including $220,000 from Oracle Corporation, which won Department of Justice approval of a multibillion-dollar acquisition less than a month after hiring Ashcroft. The year-end filing represented, in some cases, only initial payments.[citation needed]

According to government filings, Oracle is one of the Ashcroft Group’s five clients that seek his help in selling data or software with security applications. Another client, Israel Aircraft Industries International, is competing with Chicago's Boeing Company to sell the government of South Korea a billion-dollar airborne radar system.[20]

In March 2006, the New York Times reported that Ashcroft was setting himself up as something of an "anti-Abramoff", and that in an hour long interview, Ashcroft used the word integrity scores of times.[19] In May 2006, based on conversations with members of Congress, key aides and lobbyists, The Hill magazine listed Ashcroft as one of top 50 "hired guns" that K Street had to offer.[21] In August 2006, the Washington Post reported that Ashcroft's firm had 30 clients, many of which made products or technology aimed at homeland security, and about a third of which the firm has not disclosed, to protect client confidentiality. The firm also had equity stakes in eight client companies. It reported receiving $1.4 million in lobbying fees in the past six months, a small fraction of its total earnings.[22]

After the proposed merger of Sirius Satellite Radio Inc. and XM Satellite Radio Holdings Inc., Ashcroft offered the firm his consulting services, according to a spokesman for XM.[23] The spokesman said XM declined Ashcroft's offer to work as a lobbyist for the company. Ashcroft was subsequently hired by the National Association of Broadcasters, which is strongly opposed to the merger.

In May 2011, Xe Services (formerly Blackwater International) named Ted Wright as CEO.[24] Wright hired a new governance chief to oversee ethical and legal compliance and established a new board composed of former government officials, including former White House counsel Jack Quinn and Ashcroft.[25] In December, 2011, Xe (again) changed its name, to Academi.[26]

Books and music

Ashcroft, a member of the Assemblies of God church, authored the book Lessons From a Father to His Son.[27]

While attorney general of Missouri, Ashcroft and his wife co-wrote a textbook titled College Law for Business.

Ashcroft composed a paean called "Let the Eagle Soar" which he sang at the Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in February 2002, which was satirically featured in Michael Moore's 2004 movie Fahrenheit 9/11 and has been frequently mocked by comedians such as David Letterman, Stephen Colbert and David Cross, to name a few. The song was also sung at Bush's 2005 inauguration by Guy Hovis, former cast member of The Lawrence Welk Show. Ashcroft has penned and sung a number of other songs and created compilation tapes, including In the Spirit of Life and Liberty and Gospel (Music) According to John.

With fellow senators Trent Lott, Larry Craig, and James Jeffords, he formed a barbershop quartet called The Singing Senators.

Sometime in the 1970s, Ashcroft recorded a gospel record entitled TRUTH: Volume One, Edition One with Missouri legislator Max Bacon, a Democrat.[28]

Other books written by Ashcroft are On My Honor: The Beliefs that Shape My Life and Never Again: Securing America and Restoring Justice.

Political issues

John Ashcroft at CPAC in February 2010.

Ashcroft's policy positions on privacy and civil liberties issues generally pleased conservatives while some left-leaning political opponents engaged in criticisms. Some of his critics included the American Civil Liberties Union and pro-choice groups. Examples of criticisms of policies by political opponents included:

In July 2002, Ashcroft proposed the creation of Operation TIPS, a domestic program in which workers and government employees would inform law enforcement agencies about suspicious behavior they encounter while performing their duties. The program was criticized in the media as an encroachment upon the First and Fourth Amendments, and the United States Postal Service balked at the program, refusing outright to participate. Ashcroft defended the program as a necessary component of the ongoing War on Terrorism, but the proposal was eventually abandoned.[29]

Ashcroft was responsible for proposing a draft of the Domestic Security Enhancement Act of 2003, legislation which proposed to greatly expand the powers of the U.S. government to fight crime and terrorism, while simultaneously eliminating or curtailing judicial review of these powers for incidents involving domestic terrorism.[30] The bill was leaked and posted to the Internet on February 7, 2003.

On May 26, 2004, Ashcroft held a news conference at which he said that intelligence from multiple sources indicated that al Qaeda intended to attack the United States in the coming months.[31] Critics said this was an attempt to distract attention from a drop in the approval ratings of President Bush, who was campaigning for re-election.[32]

However, groups supporting the civil liberties protected by the Second Amendment lauded Ashcroft's Justice Department support for the Second Amendment. He said specifically, "the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to keep and bear arms," thus embracing the position that the second amendment expresses an individual, not collective, right.[33] At the time NRA president Sandra Froman said, "When these Bush Administration officials affirmed that the Second Amendment protects an individual right, the enemies of freedom were outraged because they fear the Second Amendment for what it really is– a shield against oppression."

In 2009 a federal court of appeals in San Francisco found that Ashcroft could be sued and held personally responsible for the wrongful detention of material witness Abdullah al-Kidd – an American citizen arrested in March 2003 and held for 13 months in maximum security to be used as a witness in the trial of Sami Omar Al-Hussayen (who himself was acquitted of all charges of supporting terrorism). The panels court called the government's assertions "repugnant of the Constitution". The Supreme Court agreed on October 18, 2010 to consider whether Ashcroft could be sued. In a detailed and at times passionate opinion, Judge Milan Smith likened Mr. al-Kidd's allegation to the repressive practices of the British crown that sparked the American Revolution. The government asserts it can detain American citizens "not because there is evidence that they have committed a crime, but merely because the government wishes to investigate them for possible wrongdoing," wrote Judge Smith, an appointee of former President George W. Bush. He called it "a painful reminder of some of the most ignominious chapters of our national history."[34] Abdullah Al-Kidd was held in especially harsh conditions during the first 16 days of his imprisonment. Mr. Al-Kidd was born on 1973 in Wichita, Kansas and converted to Islam. He asserts that Mr. Ashcroft violated his civil liberties as an American citizen. Mr. al-Kidd's lawyers say the then-attorney general encouraged authorities after 9/11 to arrest potential suspects as material witnesses when they lacked probable cause to believe the suspects had committed a crime.[35]

On May 31, 2011, the Supreme Court threw out the lawsuit against Ashcroft regarding Abdullah al-Kidd.[36][37]

In January 2002, the partially nude female statue of the Spirit of Justice, which stands in the Great Hall of the Justice Department, where Ashcroft held press conferences, was covered with blue curtains, along with its male counterpart, the Majesty of Law. Some speculated that Ashcroft felt reporters were photographing him with the female statue in the background to make fun of his church's opposition to pornography. A Justice Department spokeswoman said that Ashcroft knew nothing of the decision to spend $8,000 for the curtains; a spokesman said the decision for permanent curtains was intended to save on the $2,000 per use rental costs of temporary curtains used for formal events.[38]

Ashcroft has been a proponent of the War on Drugs.[39] In a 2001 interview on Larry King Live, Ashcroft announced his intent to escalate efforts in this area.[40] In 2003, Ashcroft and the acting DEA Administrator, John B. Brown, announced a series of indictments resulting from two nationwide investigations code-named Operation Pipe Dream and Operation Headhunter. The investigations targeted businesses selling drug paraphernalia, mostly marijuana pipes and bongs, under a little-used statute (Title 21, Section 863(a) of the U.S. Code).[41] Counterculture icon Tommy Chong was one of those charged, for his part in financing and promoting Chong Glass/Nice Dreams, a company started by his son Paris. Of the 55 individuals charged as a result of the operations, only Chong was given a prison sentence (nine months in a federal prison, plus forfeiting $103,000 and a year of probation). The other 54 individuals were given fines and home detentions. While the DOJ denied that Chong was treated any differently from the other defendants, many felt that he was made an example of by the government. Chong's experience as a target of Ashcroft's sting operation is the subject of Josh Gilbert's feature length documentary a/k/a Tommy Chong, which premiered at the 2005 Toronto International Film Festival.

When Karl Rove was being questioned by the FBI over the leak of a covert CIA agent's identity in the press, Ashcroft was allegedly briefed about the investigation. Democratic U.S. Representative John Conyers described this as a "stunning ethical breach that cries out for an immediate investigation."[42] Conyers, the ranking Democrat on the House Judiciary Committee, sent a letter asking for a formal investigation of the time between the start of Rove's investigation and John Ashcroft's recusal.[43]

Ashcroft has also fought strongly against physician-assisted suicide. When interviewed about it, he stated, “I certainly believe that people who are in pain should be helped and assisted in every way possible, that the drugs should be used to mitigate their pain but I believe the law of the United States of America which requires that drugs not be used except for legitimate health purposes.” [44]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Ancestry of John Ashcroft". Wargs.com. http://www.wargs.com/political/ashcroft.html. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  2. ^ "ASHCROFT, John David – Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=A000356. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  3. ^ Tom Robbins, "The Sunshine Patriots", Village Voice, August 17, 2004
  4. ^ a b Gubernatorial Transitions: The 1983 and 1984 Elections by Thad L.Beyle (Editor), Terry Sanford (Contributor)- Duke University Press (January 1989) ISBN 0-8223-0858-4
  5. ^ [Biographical directory of the governors of the United States, 1988–1994 by Marie Marmo Mullaney – Greenwood Press (February 28, 1994)] ISBN 0-313-28312-5
  6. ^ "Salon.com Politics | Can John Ashcroft be stopped?". Archive.salon.com. 2001-01-16. http://archive.salon.com/politics/feature/2001/01/16/hearings/print.html. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  7. ^ "Ashcroft decides not to jump into 2000 race". Cnn.com. 1999-01-05. http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1999/01/05/president.2000/ashcroft/. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  8. ^ "Ashcroft, Carnahan take sizable leads". Kansas City Star. NewsBank. August 9, 2000. "With more than 60 percent of the precincts reporting, Ashcroft, a Republican, had captured 90 percent of the vote, to 10 percent for Marc Perkel"
  9. ^ Lewis, Neil A. (October 31, 2000). "In Missouri, Campaign Flourishes After the Death of the Candidate". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/10/31/us/2000-campaign-missouri-senate-race-missouri-campaign-flourishes-after-death.html?ref=jeancarnahan. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
  10. ^ "Republican senator loses to dead rival in Missouri". CNN.com. 2000-08-30. http://archives.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/11/07/senate.missouri/. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
  11. ^ Ronnie white-Record on civil rights[dead link]
  12. ^ "Prepared Remarks of Attorney General Ashcroft "The Proven Tactics in the Fight against Crime" Washington, D.C". Usdoj.gov. 2003-09-15. http://www.usdoj.gov/archive/ag/speeches/2003/091503nationalrestaurant.htm. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  13. ^ "09–18–03: Protecting Life and Liberty". Usdoj.gov. 2003-09-18. http://www.usdoj.gov/archive/ag/speeches/2003/091803memphisremarks.htm. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  14. ^ Stellar wind (code name) Stellar Wind
  15. ^ CNN.com – Ashcroft, Evans resign from Cabinet – Nov 9, 2004[dead link]
  16. ^ "Senate Confirms Gonzales as Attorney General". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4485080. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  17. ^ "Ashcroft resignation letter". MSNBC. 2004-11-09. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6446686/. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  18. ^ Michael Sullivan. "The Ashcroft Group, LLC website". Ashcroftgroupllc.com. http://www.ashcroftgroupllc.com. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  19. ^ a b Wayne, Leslie (2006-03-17). "Same Washington, Different Office; John Ashcroft Sets Up Shop As Well-Connected Lobbyist – New York Times". Select.nytimes.com. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0712FC35550C748DDDAA0894DE404482. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  20. ^ United States Senate Office of Public Records
  21. ^ "The sharpest shooters on K Street",[dead link] The Hill, May 3, 2006
  22. ^ "Ashcroft Finds Private-Sector Niche," Page 2, Washington Post, August 12, 2006
  23. ^ Boles, Corey (March 3, 2007). "Ashcroft Offered His Services to XM Before Being Hired by NAB, XM Says". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB117297131783726186-search.html. Retrieved July 26, 2007.
  24. ^ "Company Once Known as Blackwater Names New CEO". ABC News. ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Business/wireStory?id=13734393. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
  25. ^ Hodge, Nathan (September 29, 2011). "Contractor Tries to Shed Blackwater Past". wsj.com (wsj.com). http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203405504576599123967308168.html. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  26. ^ "Former Blackwater firm renamed again". BBC News. 12 December 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-16149971. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  27. ^ Julian Borger in Washington (March 4, 2002). "Staff cry poetic injustice as singing Ashcroft introduces patriot games". London: Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/bush/story/0,7369,661458,00.html. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  28. ^ "John Ashcroft Sings: Ashcroft & Bacon Gospel Album: TRUTH Volume One, Edition One". Whitehouse.Org. http://www.whitehouse.org/media/ashcroft-bacon/. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  29. ^ Giroux HA (2003). The abandoned generation: democracy beyond the culture of fear. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 7. ISBN 1-4039-6138-7.
  30. ^ Robert P. Abele (2005). A user's guide to the USA Patriot Act and beyond. Washington, D.C: University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-3058-8.
  31. ^ "Ashcroft: Al Qaeda intends to attack U.S.", CNN.com, May 26, 2004. Retrieved March 14, 2008.
  32. ^ Mintz, John and Allen, Mike. "To Suspicious Candidates, the Threat of Attack Is No Longer Above the Fray." The Washington Post, June 27, 2004.
  33. ^ [1]"Letter to National Rifle Association, May 17, 2001"
  34. ^ "John Ashcroft can be sued for wrongful detention". Smh.com.au. September 5, 2009. http://www.smh.com.au/world/john-ashcroft-can-be-sued-for-wrongful-detention-20090905-fbzv.html. Retrieved March 16, 2010.
  35. ^ Bravin, Jess (October 18, 2010). "Justices to Hear Ashcroft Appeal". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304410504575560020403737414.html. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  36. ^ Savage, David G. " Supreme Court tosses out lawsuit accusing John Ashcroft of misusing his power", Chicago Tribune, May 31, 2011, accessed June 9, 2011.
  37. ^ Eipstein, Jennifer. "Supreme Court: Abdullah al-Kidd can't sue John Ashcroft over 9/11 arrest", Politico, May 31, 2011, accessed June 9, 2011.
  38. ^ "Curtains for semi-nude justice statue". BBC News. 2002-01-29. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1788845.stm. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  39. ^ "US: Violence, Teen Drug Use Are Ashcroft Priorities". Mapinc.org. 2001-02-08. http://www.mapinc.org/newscsdp/v01/n228/a04.html. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  40. ^ "CNN Transcript – Larry King Live: John Ashcroft Discusses His New Job as Attorney General – February 7, 2001". Transcripts.cnn.com. 2001-02-07. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0102/07/lkl.00.html. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  41. ^ "WAIS Document Retrieval". http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=browse_usc&docid=Cite:+21USC863. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  42. ^ "Conyers Calls For Investigation Into Ascroft's Role In CIA Leak Case". Pacifica.org. 2005-08-18. http://www.pacifica.org/programs/dn/050818.html. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
  43. ^ http://mediamatters.org/static/audio/podcast/trupianoshow_20050817.mp3
  44. ^ "Attorney General Ashcroft Asks Supreme Court To Ban Assisted Suicide – California Healthline." California Healthline. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. <http://www.californiahealthline.org/articles/2004/11/10/attorney-general-ashcroft-asks-supreme-court-to-ban-assisted-suicide.aspx


External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Kit Bond
State Auditor of Missouri
1973–1974
Succeeded by
George W. Lehr
Governor of Missouri
1985–1993
Succeeded by
Mel Carnahan
Preceded by
Booth Gardner
Washington
Chairman of the National Governors Association
1991–1992
Succeeded by
Roy Romer
Colorado
Legal offices
Preceded by
John C. Danforth
Missouri State Attorney General
1976–1985
Succeeded by
William L. Webster
Preceded by
Janet Reno
United States Attorney General
Served under: George W. Bush

2001–2005
Succeeded by
Alberto Gonzales
United States Senate
Preceded by
John Danforth
United States Senator (Class 1) from Missouri
1995–2001
Served alongside: Kit Bond
Succeeded by
Jean Carnahan
Party political offices
Preceded by
Kit Bond
Republican Party nominee for Governor of Missouri
1984, 1988
Succeeded by
William L. Webster
Preceded by
John Danforth
Republican Party nominee for United States Senator from Missouri (Class 1)
1994, 2000
Succeeded by
Jim Talent